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With  its  Red  for  love,  and  its  White  for  law, 
And  its  Blue  for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw 
Of  a  larger  liberty. 


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jFor  TUse  in  tbe  public  Schools 
of  tbe  State  of  Mew  Korft 

BOition  of  1904 


Cbarles  1R,  Skinner 

State   Superintendent   of   Public  Instruction,    Albany,    New    York,  1900 


394540 A 

:  and 
R  1928  L 

Copyright  1900 




Patriotism  is  more  than  a  sentiment;  it  is  a  conviction  based  upon 
a  comprehension  of  the  duties  of  a  citizen  and  a  determination  loyally 
to  perform  such  duties.  Patriotism  is  love  of  country,  born  of 
familiarity  with  its  history,  reverence  for  its  institutions  and  faith  in 
its  possibilities,  and  is  evidenced  by  obedience  to  its  laws  and  respect 

for  its  flag. 

American  citizenship,  safeguarded  by  the  public  schools,  stands 
for  the  best  that  our  institutions  can  offer  to  a  free  and  happy  people. 
Believing  that  our  schools  should  be  nurseries  of  patriotism,  it  has  for 
many  years  been  my  constant  purpose  to  encourage  the  study  of 
history  among  the  youth  of  our  commonwealth  as  the  strongest  inspi- 
ration to  patriotic  citizenship  and  all  that  it  implies.  This  book 
represents  the  fulfilment  of  such  purpose,  and  is  offered  to  the  teachers 
of  the  State  in  the  confident  hope  that  the  object  sought  to  be 
accomplished  may  find  ready  and  enthusiastic  supporters  among  all 
educators  who  are  striving  for  the  best  results  of  educational  effort. 

I  have  been  inspired  by  the  belief  that  to  preserve  our  free  insti- 
tutions in  all  their  old-time  vigor  and  prestige,  our  system  of  public 
education  must  more  and  more  lay  stress  on  those  civic  virtues  which 
develop  and  ennoble  true  and  patriotic  citizenship.  This  belief  has 
steadily  grown  under  the  encouraging  sympathy  of  thoughtful  citi- 
zens, experienced  educators,  and  patriotic  organizations.  The  legis- 
lature of  the  State  has  acknowledged  the  growth  of  patriotic  spirit 
by  providing  for  the  publication  of  a  patriotic  manual  for  use  in  the 
public  schools  of  our  State,  and  for  its  free  distribution  among  them. 
The  task  imposed  upon  the  State  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction  by  this  enactment  has  not  been  easy.  The  limitations  to 
the  broad  scope  of  material  that  could  legitimately  be  made  part  of 
such  a  work  were  by  no  means  easy  to  determine.  The  plan  finally 
adopted  and  followed  in  the  compilation  of  this  volume  was  to  present 




the  choicest  literature  bearing  upon  love  of  country,  and  upon  notable 
events  and  the  achievements  of  proud  names  in  American  history,  in 
the  belief  that  love  of  country  grows  best  when  the  youth  of  the  land 
have  a  lively  appreciation  of  what  our  free  institutions  have  cost  in 
individual  sacrifice,  in  suffering,  and  in  treasure. 

The  Manual  is  now  submitted  to  the  teachers  and  the  supervising 
officers  of  the  State,  and  to  them  is  intrusted  the  important  duty  of 
so  using  the  material  provided  as  to  make  at  least  some  of  its  noble 
utterances,  its  vivid  pictures  of  great  deeds  and  patriotic  sacrifices, 
and  its  quotations  from  the  sayings  of  men  honored  for  their  clear 
patriotic  vision,  a  part  of  the  very  souls  of  the  pupils  intrusted  to  their 
care.  In  this  way  shall  we  secure  the  very  result  intended  by 
the  legislature  in  enacting  the  law  which  authorized  the  publication 
of  this  volume.  This  can  be  done  successfully  only  by  much  repeti- 
tion and  constant  reiteration.  So  well  established  is  this  fact  that  I 
feel  warranted  in  recommending  that  a  few  minutes  of  the  opening 
exercises  of  every  public  school  each  day  be  devoted  to  observance 
based  upon  the  material  found  in  this  Manual,  or  suggested  thereby, 
and,  in  addition,  that  more  extended  exercises  be  provided  in  com- 
memoration of  the  great  days  and  the  great  names  in  our  Nation's 

I  would  be  glad  to  have  every  pupil  in  our  public  schools  commit 
to  memory  each  week  some  patriotic  selection  or  quotation,  no  matter 
how  brief  it  may  be.  Let  school  be  opened  by  a  patriotic  song  and 
a  salute  to  the  flag.  This  may  be  followed  by  a  short  recitation  or 
by  several  brief  patriotic  quotations  from  the  masterpieces  which  have 
been  arranged  in  this  work.  Let  pupils  choose  from  among  their 
number  one  or  more  classmates  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  see  that  the 
flag  is  properly  displayed  in  favorable  weather,  at  other  times  exhib- 
ited in  the  schoolroom,  and  all  times  sacredly  cared  for. 

The  task  of  editing  this  work  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  Professor 
William  K.  Wickes,  principal  of  the  high  school  of  Syracuse,  to  whom 
my  acknowledgments  are  due  for  his  loyal  and  painstaking  efforts.  I 
also  acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  Professor  Isaac  H.  Stout,  a 
veteran  of  the  civil  war  associated  with  me  in  the  educational  work  of 



the  State,  who  suggested  ancV  arranged  that  part  of  the  Manual  relat- 
ing to  important  dates  in  American  history.  I  desire  especially  to 
acknowledge  my  obligations  to  Past-Commanders  Albert  D.  Shaw, 
Anson  S.  Wood  and  Joseph  W.  Kay,  Col.  Joseph  A.  Goulden,  chair-' 
man  of  the  special  committee  on  instruction  in  civics  and  patriotism, 
and  their  comrades  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  Department 
of  New  York,  without  number,  for  their  constant  encouragement  and 
earnest  co-operation  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  patriotic  education, 
culminating  in  the  publication  of  this  volume. 

This  Manual  is  submitted  to  teachers,  school  officers,  the  people, 
and  the  legislature  in  the  confident  belief  that  it  will  be  so  well  used 
in  our  school  work  as  to  reflect  credit  on  the  teaching  force,  prove  the 
wisdom  of  the  legislature  in  authorizing  its  publication,  and  justify 
the  earnest  efforts  made  in  behalf  of  the  law  by  patriotic  citizens  and 

State  Superintendent. 

Albany,  N.  Y.,  May,  1900. 


This  Manual  is  made  up  from  many  contributing  sources.  To  all, 
so  far  as  possible,  the  editor  wishes  to  make  his  acknowledgments 
and  pay  his  meed  of  thanks.  To  Statesmen,  Orators,  Poets  —  the  dead 
and  the  living  —  whose  strong  and  stirring  utterances  give  fresh  life 
and  beauty  to  the  thought  of  Patriotism  and  its  noblest  symbol,  The 
Flag.  To  the  following  publishers  and  composers  for  the  crowning 
grace  of  music: — the  Oliver  Ditson  Company,  for  selections  from 
their  recent  book,  "  Patriotic  Songs  for  School  and  Home/'  filled 
with  gems  in  an  admirable  musical  setting, —  Ginn  &  Co.,  whose 
wide-ranging  and  inspiring  "Academy  Song  Book"  would  be  a 
constant  joy  in  any  schoolroom, —  Silver,  Burdett  &  Co.,  in  whose 
"  Songs  of  the  Nation "  may  be  found  a  fine  epitome  of  the  best 
in  present-day  patriotic  music, —  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.,  whose 
"  Riverside  Song  Book  "  contains  in  compact  form,  set  to  music,  the 
finest  patriotic  poems  of  the  noblest  American  poets,  and  into  whose 
"  Riverside  Literature  Series  "  have  been  put  illustrations  of  every 
possible  phase,  as  it  would  seem,  of  American  history  and  life, —  the 
John  Church  Company  for  use  of  the  song,  "Our  Flag," — Martha 
Moses  Peckham  (and  her  publishers,  Clayton  F.  Summy  Company, 
Chicago),  for  her  unique  and  rousing  song,  "  Dewey  at  Manila  Bay," 
—  Prof.  Hamlin  E.  Cogswell  for  his  spirit-caught  interpretation  of 
"  The  Liberty  Bell  "  and  "  The  Camp  Flag," —  Miss  Cornelia  A.  Moses 
for  the  music  of  the  brush  in  her  flag-drawing  and  initial  letters. 
Above  all,  to  Prof.  Ralph  W.  Thomas  for  the  music  of  human  speech 
as  shown  in  his  many  and  choice  selections  of  patriotic  prose  and  verse. 

The  Editor. 



It  is  well  to  put  in  the  very  forefront  of  this  book,  the  law  in 
accordance  with  which  this  "  Manual  of  Patriotism  "  has  been  prepared: 

LAWS  OF  NEW  YORK.—  By  Authority. 

CHAP.   481. 

AN  ACT  to  provide  for  the  display  of  the  United  States  flag  on  the 
schoolhouses  of  the  State,  in  connection  with  the  public  schools;  and 
to  encourage  patriotic  exercises  in  such  schools. 

Became  a  law  April  22,   1898,  with  the  approval  of  the  Governor.      Passed,  three- 
fifths  being  present. 

The  People  of  the  State  of  New  York,  represented  in  Senate  and 
Assembly,  do  enact  as  follows: 

Section  i.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  school  authorities  of  every 
public  school  in  the  several  cities  and  school  districts  of  the  State  to 
purchase  a  United  States  flag,  flagstaff  and  the  necessary  appliances 
therefor,  and  to  display  such  flag  upon  or  near  the  public  school  build- 
ing during  school  hours,  and  at  such  other  times  as  such  school  authori- 
ties may  direct. 

§  2.  The  said  school  authorities  shall  establish  rules  and  regula- 
tions for  the  proper  custody,  care  and  display  of  the  flag,  and  when  the 
weather  will  not  permit  it  to  be  otherwise  displayed,  it  shall  be  placed 
conspicuously  in  the  principal  room  in  the  schoolhouse. 

§  3.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  state  superintendent  of  public 
instruction  to  prepare,  for  the  use  of  the  public  schools  of  the  state,  a 
program  providing  for  a  salute  to  the  flag  at  the  opening  of  each  day 
of  school  and  such  other  patriotic  exercises  as  may  be  deemed  by  him 
to  be  expedient,  under  such  regulations  and  instructions  as  may  best 
meet  the  varied  requirements  of  the  different  grades  in  such  schools. 
It  shall  also  be  his  duty  to  make  special  provision  for  the  observance 
in  such  public  schools  of  Lincoln's  birthday,  Washington's  birthday, 
Memorial  day,  and  Flag  day,  and  such  other  legal  holidays  of  like 
character  as  may  be  hereafter  designated  by  law. 



§  4.  The  State  superintendent  of  public  instruction  is  hereby 
authorized  to  provide  for  the  necessary  expenses  incurred  in  developing 
and  encouraging  such  patriotic  exercises  in  the  public  school. 

§  5.  Nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  construed  to  authorize 
military  instruction  or  drill  in  the  public  schools  during  school  hours. 

§  6.  This  act  shall  take  effect  immediately. 

Reading  the  foregoing  carefully,  it  will  be  noted  that,  law-like,  not 
a  word  is  said  as  to  the  intent  of  the  law.  But  whoever  will  "  read 
between  the  lines  "  cannot  fail  to  see  its  gracious  purpose, —  nothing 
less  or  other  than  to  awaken  in  the  minds  and  hearts  of  the  young  a 
strong  and  abiding  regard  for  the  flag  and  intelligent  appreciation  of 
the  great  men  and  great  deeds  that  have  made  it  to  be,  to  all  American 
youth,  the  rallying-cry  of  patriotism.  In  other  words,  the  Empire 
State  seeks  for  its  countless  host  of  boys  and  girls  the  inculcation  of  a 
true  spirit  of  Patriotism  and  a  loving  regard  for  its  greatest  symbol, 
the  Flag. 

Note  also  in  the  law  the  constraint  that  is  put  upon  the  authori- 
ties of  every  public  school  in  the  State,  to  furnish,  display,  and  care 
for  a  flag.  That  means  that  the  State  is  interested  to  see  that  those 
into  whose  hands  are  put  all  the  great  interests  of  the  schools  —  with 
their  large  corps  of  teachers  and  immense  army  of  pupils  —  shall  make 
clear  the  will  and  mind  of  the  State  in  respect  to  the  patriotic  education 
of  its  children. 

This  good  law  was  put  upon  the  statute-book  through  efforts 
made  largely  by  the  Department  of  New  York,  Grand  Army  ot  the 
Republic.  Under  "  General  Orders,  No.  6,"  issued  August  9,  1897,  a 
special  Committee  was  appointed  "  to  examine  and  report  to  the 
Department  *  *  *  upon  the  best  practical  methods  of  teaching 
Patriotism  and  Civics  in  our  public  schools."  The  Committee,  having 
previously  been  divided  into  three  parts,  viz.:  on  Civics  and  History; 
Patriotic  Exercises;  Public  Celebrations, —  made  its  triple  report  in 
November,  1897.  This  report,  under  the  title,  "  To  Promote  Patriotic 
Study  in  the  Public  Schools,"  was  published  in  pamphlet  form  by  the 
State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  for  general  distribution 
throughout  the  State.  This  action  greatly  influenced  the  patriotic 
legislation  embodied  in  the  law  above  quoted.  In  "  General  Orders, 
No.    10,"   we  read:     "  The   comrades  feel  deeply  indebted   to   Supt. 


Skinner  for  his  most  helpful  and  valuable  co-operation  in  this  important 
patriotic  work,  which  lies  so  close  to  all  their  hearts."  "Which  lies  so 
close  to  their  hearts." — What  pathos  in  those  words!  The  brave  men 
who  fought  the  battles  of  the  Union  from  '61  to  '65  are  fast  passing 
away.  Not  many  years  hence  the  last  heart  will  have  ceased  to  beat. 
But  meantime,  how  active  and  strenuous  they  are  in  all  right  efforts  to 
vivify  and  strengthen  the  sentiment  of  true  patriotism  in  the  hearts  of 
the  young!  Everywhere  they  keep  Memorial  Day, —  a  constant  object 
lesson  to  the  present  generation.  But  besides  this,  in  some  cities,  they 
are  the  inspiration  to  a  ceremony  called  the  "  Transfer  of  Flags."  And 
a  special  word  of  praise  is  due  to  Col.  A.  D.  Shaw,  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  G.  A.  R.,  for  his  untiring  zeal  in  the  sacred  cause  of  patriotism, 
and  for  the  results  he  is  bringing  about  in  cementing  the  loyal  friend- 
ship of  Blue  and  Gray.  Indeed,  in  many  ways,  the  veterans  of  War 
are  showing  a  profound  interest  in  all  that  makes  for  lasting  and 
honorable  Peace. 

In  this  work  of  beneficent  patriotism  many  a  Women's  Relief 
Corps  is  having  a  large  and  honorable  share.  For  there  are  many 
matters  connected  with  the  care  of  the  sick  and  needy  that  can  be 
safely  and  sympathetically  entrusted  only  to  women.  And  thus, 
through  their  kind  and  most  unselfish  ministrations,  patriotism  is 
exalted  and  made  more  sacred  in  the  eyes  of  the  young. 

But  G.  A.  R.  and  Women's  Relief  Corps,  though  the  greatest, 
are  not  the  only  organizations  that  are  helping  (each  in  its  own  way 
and  sphere)  to  strengthen  the  cause  of  patriotism.  Here  are  a  few 
others:  Sons  of  Veterans,  U.  S.  A.,  Sons  of  the  Revolution,  Sons  of 
the  American  Revolution,  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution, 
Daughters  of  the  Revolution,  Colonial  Dames  of  America,  Association 
of  Spanish  War  Veterans.  Let  all  be  welcomed  to  a  part  in  the  work 
of  loyalty-building;  let  none  be  found  negligent  or  lukewarm  therein! 

To  no  individual,  scarcely  to  any  organization,  is  this  Manual  so 
greatly  indebted  as  to  Charles  R.  Skinner,  State  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction.  The  G.  A.  R.  Committee,  in  acknowledgment  of 
his  aid,  speaks  most  gratefully  of  his  "  fruitful  counsels  and  sugges- 
tions." And  the  editor  of  the  Manual  hereby  wishes  to  give  his  testi- 
mony to  the  untiring  interest  shown  by  the  Superintendent,  to  his 



unflagging  enthusiasm,  his  constant  wish  for  the  doing  of  anything, 
everything,  which  might  increase  in  youthful  hearts  the  love  of  the 
Flag  and  of  Native  Land.  Let  the  following  letter  attest  his  deep 
concern  for  the  patriotic  welfare  of  the  young: 

"Albany,  March  i,  1900. 
"  To  the  Boys  and  Girls  of  the  Empire  State: 

"  It  is  spring  by  the  calendar  to-day, —  but  outside  of  my  windows, 
the  wind  is  blowing  hard  and  cold  and  the  snow  is  piling  up  great  drifts 
in  the  streets.  At  such  a  time  how  pleasant  it  would  be  for  me  if  I 
could  gather  you  all  in  one  great  schoolroom  around  a  big,  roaring 
fire  and  talk  to  you  about  your  school.  But  I  cannot  do  that.  There 
is  no  room  or  building  on  earth  large  enough  to  hold  you  all.  So  I 
must  talk  to  you,  if  at  all,  with  my  pen. 

"  I  hope  you  will  all  study  hard,  be  obedient  to  your  teachers  and 
kind  to  your  schoolmates.  Do  not  shirk  any  lessons,  no  matter  how 
difficult  they  may  be,  for  if  you  master  your  lessons  now,  you  will  be 
better  able  to  conquer  many  difficulties  when  you  grow  to  be  men 
and  women. 

"When  you  play,  I  hope  you  will  play  as  hard  as  ever  you 
can.  It  will  help  you  to  get  strong  and  keep  strong  in  body,  just 
as  hard  study  will  strengthen  your  minds.  Then,  in  years  to  come, 
you  will  not  be  in  danger  of  '  breaking  down  '  when  you  have  much 
work  to  do  with  hands  or  brain. 

"  I  suppose  you  have  heard  it  said  that  '  all  work  and  no  play 
makes  Jack  a  dull  boy.'  And  I  believe  that  all  play  and  no  work  would 
be  just  as  bad.  Don't  you?  So  I  want  to  tell  you  how  to  do  something 
that  certainly  is  not  all  work  and  surely  is  not  all  play  —  indeed,  most 
of  it  is  neither  work  nor  play.  What  to  call  it  I  hardly  know, —  but  I 
am  sure  that  no  pupil  who  does  it  will  be  a  dull  boy  or  a  dull  girl. 

"  When  you  are  tired  of  work  and  lessons,  and  tired,  too,  of 
play,  just  stop  your  work  or  your  play  and  think  about  the  Flag  of 
your  country.  And  not  only  think  about  it,  but  read  about  it,  write 
about  it,  learn  what  others  have  said  about  it  —  sing  about  it.     You 


will  find  plenty  of  things  to  aid  you  in  your  thinking,  reading,  writing 
and  singing,  in  those  programs  which  your  good  friend,  the  editor 
of  the  Manual,  has  prepared  for  your  special  use.  Now  will  not  that 
be  a  pleasant  change  from  work,  and  far  more  useful  than  mere  play? 
I  am  sure  also  that  it  will  illumine  your  work  and  your  play  with  the 
'  fine  gold  '  of  Patriotism. 

"  Patriotism,  dear  children,  means  love  of  country.  It  is  some- 
thing that  lives  in  the  heart,  and  makes  one  willing  to  do  anything  that 
will  be  for  the  good  of  his  country.  So  you  see  you  cannot  learn  it 
from  your  books,  nor  get  it  from  your  play.  But  by  using  the  exer- 
cises of  this  book,  I  think  you  can  find  and  put  away  in  your  hearts 
that  spirit  which  will  make  of  you  all  good  citizens  —  true  patriots, 
loving  your  own  land  and  wishing  all  nations  of  the  earth  to  possess 
that  freedom  and  happiness  which  you  in  America  so  much  enjoy.  I 
hope  that  you  will  find  in  this  book  those  symbols  of  your  country 
which  stand  for  the  great  principles  upon  which  our  government  is 
founded;  that  you  will  have  your  imagination  aroused  so  that  you  can 
see,  as  '  with  your  eyes  shut,'  what  beautiful  lessons  in  patriotism  those 
symbols  teach,  lessons  that  will  prove  to  be  like  pictures  of  pleasant 
things  that  you  may  hang  on  the  walls  of  Memory,  never  to  fade;  that 
in  the  sweet  and  strong  music  of  the  book  you  may  feel  your  young 
spirits  strengthened  to  fight,  in  years  to  come,  in  peace  or  in  war,  the 
noble  battles  of  Patriotism  and  the  Flag. 

"  Sincerely  yours, 
"  [Signed.] 


Do  not  look  upon  this  Manual  as  a  text-book  in  American  history. 
There  are  many  good  books  that  give  the  facts,  and  some  that  attempt 
the  philosophy  of  the  subject.  But  this  does  not  pretend  to  do  either. 
I  am  of  the  mind  that  neither  facts  nor  philosophy  alone,  nor  both 
combined,  can  create  the  sentiment  of  patriotism,  much  less  foster 
and  strengthen  it  in  the  minds  and  hearts  of  children.  Be  yourselves 
well  grounded  in  the  facts,  and  teach  them  as  may  be  needful.  Seek 
the  philosophy  of  events,  and  teach  it  as  far  as  possible.  But  when  you 
take  this  book  in  your  hands,  let  the  light  of  sentiment  and  imagination 
play  over  facts  and  theories  —  tingeing  all  as  with  the  beautiful  Red, 
White  and  Blue  of  the  Flag.  Put  yourselves  in  the  place  of  the  child. 
"When  your  own  mind  is  thus  made  responsive  to  the  color-touch 
in  history,  try  to  make  your  pupils  see  and  feel  the  illuminating  power 
of  great  and  worthy  deeds.  Nor  of  deeds  alone.  Teach  them  the 
wonderful  power  that  abides  in  great  personalities.  Hold  before  their 
eyes  a  vision  of  the  commanding  figures  of  our  own  American  history. 
Inspire  them  with  a  sentiment  of  loyalty  and  devotion  to  native  land. 
If  so  profound  a  reasoner  so  wonderful  an  orator  as  Webster,  con- 
stantly wove  into  the  fabric  of  his  most  enduring  speeches  the  splendid 
colors  of  the  imagination,  surely  we  need  not  hesitate,  but  rather, 
should  be  eager  to  use  as  best  we  can,  though  in  faint  degree,  that 
power  which  he  so  magnificently  wielded.  Remember  that  the  imagina- 
tion is  the  very  heart  of  all  the  symbols  which  are  found  in  this  book 
and  are  here  used  to  set  forth  the  noblest  principles  of  government,  the 
great  underlying  truths  of  our  common  humanity. 

So,  it  was  with  intent  that  pictorial  themes  were  largely  chosen 
for  the  programs  that  follow.  At  the  same  time,  it  should  be  under- 
stood that  the  prefatory  matter  which  caps  each  program  is  meant  only 
as  a  hint  or  suggestion  to  be  amended  or  enlarged  as  any  teacher  may 

wish.     Keep  the  Flag  ever  before  the  mind's  eye.     Remember,  also, 



that  so  far  as  patriotism  finds  oral  expression  it  is  through  music, 
poetry  and  prose.  They  are  the  gateways  beautiful  into  the  mind  of 
the  child.  Teach  them  to  sing  the  songs,  let  them  learn  "  by  heart" 
the  poems  and  prose  selections, —  for  not  a  strain  of  music,  not  a 
stanza,  not  a  sentence,  conveys  an  unworthy  thought.  Do  not  be 
alarmed  at  any  sentiment  for  fear  it  is  too  profound  for  children  to 
comprehend.  If  they  learn  it  not  in  early  years,  they  will  never  learn  it. 
But  my  word  for  it,  the  day  of  a  complete  understanding  of  its  mean- 
ing will  come,  and  then  they  will  remember,  with  undying  thanks,  the 
faithful  one  who  taught  them.  Do  not  let  them  lose  sight  of  the  under- 
lying thought  of  each  program,  that  special  quality  in  pictorial  guise, 
which  it  is  intended  to  set  forth.  Perhaps  it  is  sympathy,  or  freedom 
or  protection — no  matter  what,  in  the  wide  range  of  patriotism.  If 
the  central,  rallying  word  is  not  given  in  the  preliminary  note,  let  the 
teacher  give  it,  or  better  still,  let  the  pupils  find  it.  Let  them  put  it 
in  as  clear  and  compact  a  "  composition  "  form  as  possible,  or  explain 
it  in  oral  form.  Have  class  exercises  frequently;  let  pupils  sing  or 
repeat  in  concert;  borrow  the  music  of  other  groups  or  individual 
programs,  if  time  permits;  the  selections,  poetry  or  prose,  of  different 
groups  or  single  programs,  choosing  selections  from  any  part  of  the 
book.  Put  in  a  quotation  exercise,  now  and  then,  permitting  pupils 
to  select  for  themselves. 

Mindful  that  in  school  as  elsewhere,  "  time  is  money,"  I  have 
made  the  great  majority  of  the  programs  so  brief  that  any  one  may 
be  compassed  in  ten  minutes  or  less,  at  the  opening  or  closing  of  the 
daily  session.  All  told,  the  programs  number  forty,  so  that  a  daily 
exercise  may  be  given  through  the  school  year  without  repeating  any 
one  program  more  than  four  or  five  times,  just  often  enough  to  keep 
the  memory  refreshed  on  the  various  songs  and  selections.  The  pro- 
grams for  Memorial  Day,  Washington's  birthday,  Lincoln's  birthday, 
Flag  Day,  have  been  made  longer  than  others,  as  befits  their  great 
importance.  Each  of  these  four  great  themes  makes  a  group  by 
itself.  The  other  programs  are  divided  into  groups  according  to  the 
relation  they  bear  to  the  Flag,  the  central  theme  of  all  the  programs. 
Near  the  opening  of  the  book   a  brief  history  of   the   flag  is   given, 


straightway  followed  by  exercises  pertaining  to  the  flag  and  by  the 
ceremony  of  "  Salutes  "  and  "  Pledges  of  Allegiance."  Thus  the  body 
of  the  book  has  been  divided  into  groups,  each  distinct  and  separate, 
and  similarly  into  programs  closely  related  to  "  The  Flag."  Even  the 
abstract  subjects,  with  their  wisely-chosen  selections,  all  find  their 
meaning  and  inspiration  in  the  flag. 

It  was  the  first  thought  of  the  editor  of  this  Manual  to  make 
an  extended  list  of  patriotic  books  for  the  use  of  pupils.  But  that 
does  not  fall  within  the  province  and  scope  of  the  law,  and  so  no 
such  bibliography  appears.  It  is  entirely  right  and  commendable, 
however,  for  any  teacher  to  point  out  to  his  pupils  the  sources  of  our 
history  and  to  give  them  the  knowledge  of  its  facts.  For  this,  any 
good  text  in  United  States  History  will  suffice.  Upon  the  sentiment 
and  romance  of  our  history,  the  books  are  almost  innumerable.  Here 
again,  the  teacher's  discretion  and  opportunity  must  be  his  guide. 

It  may  be  that  enthusiastic  and  progressive  teachers  will  welcome 
the  giving,  from  time  to  time,  01  what  may  be  called  a  composite  pro- 
gram. If  so,  take  any  program-subjects,  such  as  liberty  bell,  sword, 
dove,  shield,  flag,  let  a  pupil  or  pupils  tell  what  each  symbolizes,  and 
then  show  what  use  any  great  statesman  or  statesmen  made  of  these 
or  similar  symbols  and  what  the  symbols  meant  to  them.  Thus,  to 
Abraham  Lincoln,  and  through  him  to  the  people  of  this  great  nation, 
the  liberty  bell  meant  freedom;  the  sword,  union;  the  dove,  peace  with 
honor;  the  shield,  protection;  the  flag,  loyalty.  The  possible  combina- 
tions of  such  a  plan  are  many,  historically  interesting,   patriotically 


It  is  greatly  to  be  desired  that  the  ceremony  of  the  "  Transfer  of 
Flags  "  be  held  in  as  many  schools  of  the  State  as  possible.  Choose 
a  national  holiday  for  the  exercise.  In  cities,  let  each  school  be  repre- 
sented by  a  color-bearer  with  a  flag.  Range  the  delegates  in  semi- 
circle on  the  stage.  In  smaller  places,  put  all  the  pupils,  or  as  many 
as  possible,  upon  the  stage,  accompanied  by  the  flag  in  the  hands 
of  a  color-bearer.  Alike  in  cities  and  smaller  places,  let  the  flags  to  be 
transferred  be  those  donated  by  G.  A.  R.  Posts  rather  than  those 
purchased  by  the  city  or  district  authorities  under  mandate  of  the 
State.     Invite  veterans,  parents,  friends.     Arrange  whatever  patriotic 


exercises  seem  best,  and  near  the  close,  lei.  the  teacher,  or  an  old 
soldier,  or  some  adult  speaker,  give  a  brief  history  or  eulogy  of  the 
flag,  exhort  each  new  color-bearer  to  guard  it  sacredly,  to  do  nothing 
that  might  bring  dishonor  to  its  unsullied  colors.  Then,  at  the  word 
of  command,  "Transfer  flag!"  let  the  color-bearer  who  has  had  the 
care  of  the  flag  for  the  past  year  hand  it  over  to  another  who  is  to 
be  its  custodian  for  the  year  to  come.  It  is  an  inspiring  and  memorable 

For  several  months,  in  the  scant  leisure  of  a  busy  life,  I  have 
wrought  at  the  plan  and  making  of  this  book.  The  task  has  been,  to 
me,  very  pleasurable;  I  hope  it  may  be  to  others  most  profitable — to 
teachers,  by  strengthening  and  clarifying  their  appreciation  of  the  noble 
history  of  our  common  country;  to  the  Young  America  of  the  Empire 
State,  by  the  creation  and  exaltation  of  a  pure-minded  and  intelligent 

And  so  I  drop  my  pen,  with  a  silent  salute  and  renewed  pledge  of 

allegiance  to  The  Flag! 

W.  K.  W. 



Preface. . , lu 



Group  I.     The  Flag: 

Brief  History  of  the  Flag;  The  Stars;  The  Red,  White  and  Blue;  The 
Half-masted  Flag;  Saluting  the  Flag;  Patriotic  Pledges.  Interspersed 
Patriotic  Songs  

Group  II.     The  Flag  Protects 

The  Home;  School;  Capitol;  Restored  Union.     Songs 37 

Group  III.     The  Flag  Waves  Over 

The  Camp;   Hospital;  Exposition  Buildings;  Consulate;    Land    and    Sea. 

Songs -9 

Group  IV.     The  Flag  is  Symbolized  by 

The  Liberty  Cap;  Liberty  Bell;  Sword  and  Dove;  Eagle;  Shield.     Songs.  .         0,5 

Group  V.     The  Flag  Illumines  the  Tableaux 

Of  the  Minute  Man;  Departure  and  Return  of  States;  March   of  Flags; 

Army  and  Navy;  Homage  to  Columbia I4I 

"      —  Concluded— The  Flag  Glorifies  the  Patriotic  Utterances 

Of  Longfellow,  Whittier,  Holmes,  Lowell T52 

Group  VI.     The  Flag  Recalls 

Columbus  Day;  Landing  of  the  Pilgrims;  Lexington  and  Concord;  Fourth 

of  July;  Yorktown.     Songs x55 

The  Flag  Hallows  Memorial  Day: 

Prologue:  General  Grant  and  the  Civil  War;  Admiral  Dewey  and  the  Spanish- 
American  War;  Quotations.     Songs l85 

In  Memoriam  May  30th.     Selections  and  Songs 227 

The  Flag  Consecrates  the  Birthday  of  George  Washington  : 

Selections,  Quotations  and  Songs 241 



The  Flag  Blesses  the  Birthday  of  Abraham  Lincoln  :  Page. 

Selections,  Quotations  and  Songs 267 

Flag-Day  Makes  Sacred  June  14TH: 

Selections,  Quotations  and  Songs 299 

Selections  —  in  Prose  and  Poetry  —  on 

Patriotism 329 

Declaration  of  Independence 351 

Constitution  of  the  United  States 353 

Liberty 355 

Union 359 

Citizenship 366 

Our  Country: 

Quotations 373 

The  Nobility  of  Labor 3S3 

Important  Dates  in  American  History 389 



i.  Brief  History  of  the  Flag Song,  America. 

2.  The  Stars Song,  The  Star-Spangled  Banner. 

3.  The  Red,  White  and  Blue Song,  The  Red,  White  and  Blue. 

4.  The  Half-Masted  Flag. 

f  Saluting  the  Flag Song,  A  Song  of  the  Flag. 

5'    J  Patriotic  Pledges Song,  The  Waving  Flag. 



Words  by  Samuel  Francis  Smith,  D.D. 
i.  Moderato. 









i        i 


/■+         1           1 


1         r     i 

1                1 


'-TT          1             |             1 

m           m           9. 

•         '      ' 





C — 

•     ; 

-J-: 0 ^ 

-1 3           J 

1 — 54- 

— 9 — f— 

y- 4— 

— « ^~ 

-  &      5 




.    My 
.    My 
;.    Let 
\.  Our 


€         • Lf^~ 

coun  -  try  !  'tis 
na  -  tive  coun  - 
mu  -  sic    swell 
fa  -  ther's  God  ! 

0 • *"    0 • 

of  thee  Sweet  land  of 
try,  thee —  Land  of  the 
the  breeze,  And  ring  from 

to     Thee,    Au-thor     of 

-*      f            !                 ^ 



1         ' 

-  er  -  ty,        Of 

-  ble  free —  Thy 
the  trees,  Sweet 

-  er  -   ty,       To 

-f-     0          f 

9             •  ■        ■■<&)■■ 

thee  I  sing; 
name    I       love ; 

free-dom's  song ; 
Thee  we      sing  ; 

0           m            f3 

i    ? 



I      0 

*     s 

— L- 

— V 1 — 

— PZ— 

, — 


*— F — 

= * 


—f — r — 

i — r — p— 

— •"-=- 

— • — r — 


— •— — • — 

-^ — £ — 







1      ! 












"— r 







-rl — - 

-•— + 

tain      side 

ture  thrills 

lence  break,- 

Thy  might, 

-#-  •- 










T — 

King ! 




HERE  were  many  flags  of  many  kinds  in  our  country 
in  colonial  times  —  long,  long  ago.  The  most 
famous  one,  perhaps,  was  that  which  was  raised, 
for  the  first  time,  on  January  2,  1776,  over  the  camp 
of  the  Continental  forces  at  Cambridge.  In  mid- 
May  of  the  same  year,  a  flag  of  like  design  floated 
over  the  Capitol  at  Williamsburg.  Thus,  under 
similar  flags,  the  great  colony  of  Massachusetts  and 
that  of  Virginia  together  marched  towards  the  free- 
dom they  so  much  wished  to  see. 

There  is  good  reason  to  believe,  also,  that  the 
famous  naval  hero,  Paul  Jones,  was  the  first  man  in 
the  world  to  hoist  a  similar  flag  upon  a  regular  man-of-war.  Nor 
was  it  long  before  a  sixteen-gun  brig,  "  The  Reprisal,"  commanded  by 
Capt.  Lambert  Wickes,  sailing  from  home  soon  after  the  adoption  of 
the  Declaration  of  Independence,  carried  the  flag  across  the  seas  and 
unfurled  it  in  the  harbors  of  the  Old  World. 

So,  both  on  land  and  sea,  at  home  and  abroad,  waved  that  Con- 
tinental Banner  which  seemed  to  stretch  its  folds,  like  hands  of  wel- 
come, to  greet  a  new  nation. 

The  first  real  American  flag  had  its  origin  in  the  following  resolu- 
tion adopted  by  the  American  Congress,  June  14,  1777:  "Resolved, 
That  the  flag  of  the  thirteen  United  States  be  thirteen  stripes  alternate 
red  and  white;  that  the  union  be  thirteen  stars,  white  in  a  blue  field, 
representing  a  new  constellation." 

But  the  flag  thus  resolved  upon  could  not  make  itself.  So,  a 
committee  of  Congress,  accompanied  by  Washington,  sought  out  the 
home  and  services  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Ross  of  Philadelphia  —  better 
known  as  "  Betsy  Ross  " —  to  aid  them  in  the  flag-making.  Her  skill- 
ful hands  and  willing  heart  soon  worked  out  a  plan,  and  gave  to  this 



country  that  red,  white  and  blue  banner  which  is  the  admiration  of 
all  nations  and  the  unfailing  joy  of  every  true  American. 

What  a  pleasant  sight  it  must  have  been  to  see  Mistress  Betsy 
Ross,  that  good  dame  of  Revolutionary  days,  at  work  upon  that  new 
flag  which  nowadays  we  call  "  the  dear  old  flag."  Well  may  we 
believe  that  she  had  a  thoughtful  yet  serene  face;  that  she  loved  her 
country  with  a  deep  and  tender  love.  For,  indeed,  it  was  her  country, 
though  not  then  free  from  the  grasp  of  King  George.  Who  can  tell 
what  a  help  the  sight  of  the  new  flag  was  in  gaining  that  independence 
which  has  made  our  land  so  great  and  happy?  No  wonder  that  an 
association  has  been  formed  to  buy  and  keep,  for  patriotic  purposes, 
the  home  in  which  was  made,  by  the  hands  of  Betsy  Ross,  the  first  real 
American  flag. 

How  old,  then,  is  the  flag?  Less  than  a  century  and  a  quarter, 
you  see.  Yet,  curiously  enough,  it  is  older  than  the  present  banner 
of  Great  Britain,  adopted  in  1801;  or  Spain's,  1785;  or  the  French 
tricolor,  1794;  or  the  flag  of  the  Empire  of  Germany,  1870.  Thus  the 
flag  seems  as  old  as  though  it  had  lived  for  centuries. 

What  a  history  the  flag  has  had  since  those  early  days  when 
Washington  looked  upon  it  as  he  stood  under  the  old  Elm  at  Cam- 
bridge! The  thirteen  stars  and  thirteen  stripes  were  unfurled  at  the 
battle  of  Brandy  wine,  in  1777;  they  were  at  Germantown  in  October 
of  the  same  year;  in  the  same  red-leaved  month  they  sang  their  song 
of  triumph  over  defeated  Burgoyne  at  Saratoga;  they  helped  to  cheer 
the  hungry  and  half-clad  patriot  soldiers  at  Valley  Forge;  they  saw 
the  surrender  of  the  enemy  at  Yorktown;  they  fluttered  their  "  Good- 
bye "  to  the  British  evacuating  New  York;  they  made  glorious  with 
their  sky-born  colors  the  dreary  years  of  the  Revolution. 

In  the  War  of  181 2,  the  sea  breezes  blew  over  no  American  ship 
that  did  not  have  the  flag  of  the  stars  and  stripes  at  its  fore;  its  folds 
seemed  to  be  filled  with  voices  that  called  aloud  the  names  of  gallant 
seamen  —  Lawrence,  Perry,  Hull,  Decatur,  and  many  others  whose 
names  will  never  perish. 

In  the  Mexican  War,  fought  in  the  forties,  our  flag  was  carried 
into  foreign  territory,  and  waved  over  many  places  of  great  historic 
fame.     It  is  true  that  not  all  of  our  citizens  approved  of  that  war,  but 

THE  FLAG.  7 

the  flag  itself  was  not  allowed  to  suffer  harm;  on  the  contrary,  it  waved 
triumphant  in  the  very  "  halls  of  the  Montezumas." 

As  for  the  Civil  War,  what  veteran  soldier  cannot  tell  of  the  trials 
and  triumphs  of  the  four  memorable  years  from  1861  to  1865?  Then 
it  seemed,  again  and  again,  as  though  the  flag  would  be  rent  in  twain, 
and  the  States  be  severed,  never  to  reunite.  Yet  to-day  we  know  a 
grander  Union  than  ever  before. 

It  remained  for  the  Spanish-American  War,  however,  to  make 
this  reunion  clear  and  strong  —  beyond  a  doubt  or  shadow.  Men  of 
the  North  and  men  of  the  South  clasped  hands  and  marched  and  sailed 
away,  under  the  same  dear  flag,  to  fight  on  foreign  soil  for  freedom 
to  the  down-trodden  of  earth. 

But  we  must  not  think  that  it  is  only  in  time  of  war  that  the  flag 
has  a  history.  It  has  a  far  more  cheering  and  pleasant  history  in 
times  of  peace.  There  is  always  something  sad  about  war,  even  when 
the  flags  are  raised  to  celebrate  a  victory.  For  the  victory  has  cost 
a  great  many  brave  men  their  lives,  and  that  always  saddens  the 
Nation's  heart.  But  in  a  time  of  peace,  how  proudly  the  flag  floats 
over  our  homes  and  schools;  "  on  land  and  sea,  and  in  every  wind 
under  the  whole  heavens."  Then  the  people  are  happy,  because  there 
is  no  loss  of  life  among  them  by  means  of  war;  fathers  stay  at  home 
and  enjoy  peace  and  quiet;  their  sons  are  at  school  or  college,  in 
business  or  working  at  a  trade.  On  holidays  the  streets  are  thronged 
with  happy  people,  children  are  at  their  games  or  play,  or  perhaps  are 
in  school  celebrating  the  lives  and  deeds  of  men  and  women  who  have 
helped  to  make  our  country  so  strong  and  great  among  the  nations  of 
the  world.  And  this  is  the  peaceful  and  happy  way  in  which  our 
nation  has  spent  most  of  its  time  since  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary 
War.  During  more  than  a  hundred  years,  the  whole  time  occupied 
by  war  has  been  less  than  ten  years.  Those  ten  years  show  that  we 
can  fight  when  it  is  necessary  to  defend  our  country,  keep  our  free- 
dom unharmed,  our  flag  unstained;  but  they  also  show  that  we  do 
not  fight  unless  we  must  for  the  honor  of  the  flag.  They  show,  also, 
that  we  do  not  go  to  war  merely  for  the  sake  of  gaining  territory  from 
nations  that  are  weak,  nor  simply  to  humble  the  pride  of  nations  that 
are  saucy  and  strong. 


How  different  is  the  story  of  the  nations  of  the  Old  World,  and 
of  the  many  little  countries  or  republics  of  South  America  in  the  New 
World!  Their  citizens  seem  so  fond  of  killing  each  other  that  some  of 
them  keep  at  it  most  of  the  time,  until  their  war-offices  are  filled  with 
blood-stained  battle-flags  that  they  have  carried  with  them  into  war, 
or  have  taken  from  their  enemies, —  very  much  as  wild  Indians  might 
hang  up  in  their  wigwams,  or  fasten  at  their  belts,  the  scalps  they  have 
taken  from  their  victims. 

Oh,  let  us  not  do  anything  like  that  in  our  dear  country.  Let  us 
rather  set  the  flag  flying,  and  watch  it  as  it  waves  over  a  land  of  peace 
and  plenty, —  a  land  where  the  farmer  may  till  the  ground,  the  mechanic 
work  in  busy  shops,  the  merchant  buy  and  sell  in  his  store,  and  thou- 
sands of  merry  boys  and  girls  troop  to  school  —  everybody  at  work, 
and  all  in  quiet  and  security  because  the  Red,  White  and  Blue  waves 
triumphant  over  a  happy,  peaceful  land. 

Surely  it  is  well  for  Young  America  to  honor  a  flag  which  has 
such  resistless  Power  and  gives  such  adequate  Protection  in  time  of 
peace.  The  flag  stands  for  so  much  that  is  worth  having  and  saving; 
it  means  so  much  to  every  citizen,  young  or  old,  that  no  honor  paid  to 
it  can  be  too  great.  To  be  good  citizens  —  keeping  the  laws,  obedient 
to  all  rightful  authority,  merciful  in  the  treatment  of  animals,  kind- 
hearted  and  sympathetic  towards  the  unfortunate,  mindful  ever  of  the 
good  name  and  fame  of  our  country, —  all  these  things  are  quiet  yet 
potent  ways  of  doing  honor  to  the  flag.  Many  a  veteran,  reposing 
in  well-earned  quiet  after  marching  and  battling,  is  content  to  gaze 
till  his  eyes  brim  with  tears  at  the  flag  that  speaks  to  him  so  eloquently 
of  days  that  are  gone,  of  conflicts  that  are  over,  of  the  dearly-bought 
victories  of  Peace. 

But  the  eyes  of  children  dance  with  joy  when  they  see  the  flag, 
and  they  must  needs  speak  and  sing  and  act  that  joy.  And  so,  it  is 
wise  to  provide  some  way  by  which  they  may  use  their  young  voices 
and  their  ever-moving  feet  and  hands. 



Fling  it  from  mast  and  steeple, 

Symbol  o'er  land  and  sea 
Of  the  life  of  a  happy  people, 

Gallant  and  strong  and  free. 
Proudly  we  view  its  colors, 

Flag  of  the  brave  and  true, 
With  the  clustered  stars  and  the  steadfast  bars, 

The  red,  the  white,  and  the  blue. 

Flag  of  the  fearless  hearted, 

Flag  of  the  broken  chain, 
Flag  in  a  day-dawn  started, 

Never  to  pale  or  wane. 
Dearly  we  prize  its  colors, 

With  the  heaven-light  breaking  through, 
The  clustered  stars  and  the  steadfast  bars, 

The  red,  the  white,  and  the  blue. 

Flag  of  the  sturdy  fathers, 

Flag  of  the  loyal  sons, 
Beneath  its  folds  it  gathers 

Earth's  best  and  noblest  ones. 
Boldly  we  wave  its  colors, 

Our  veins  are  thrilled  anew; 
By  the  steadfast  bars,  the  clustered  stars, 

The  red,  the  white,  and  the  blue. 

—  Margaret  E.  Sangsicr. 



On  history's  crimson  pages,  high  up  on  the  roll  of  fame, 

The  story  of  Old  Glory  burns,  in  deathless  words  of  flame. 

'Twas  cradled  in  war's  blinding  smoke,  amid  the  roar  of  guns, 

Its  lullabies  were  battje-cries,  the  shouts  of  Freedom's  sons; 

It  is  the  old  red,  white,  and  blue,  proud  emblem  of  the  free, 

It  is  the  flag  that  floats  above  our  land  of  liberty. 

Then  greet  it,  when  you  meet  it,  boys,  the  flag  that  waves  on  high; 

And  hats  off,  all  along  the  line,  when  Freedom's  flag  goes  by. 

All  honor  to  the  Stars  and  Stripes,  our  glory  and  our  pride, 
All  honor  to  the  flag  for  which  our  fathers  fought  and  died; 
On  many  a  blood-stained  battle-field,  on  many  a  gory  sea, 
The  flag  has  triumphed;  evermore  triumphant  may  it  be. 
And  since  again,  'mid  shot  and  shell,  its  folds  must  be  unfurled, 
God  grant  that  we  may  keep  it  still  unstained  before  the  world. 
All  hail  the  flag  we  love,  may  it  victorious  ever  fly, 
And  hats  off,  all  along  the  line,  when  Freedom's  flag  goes  by. 

—  Charles  L.  Benjamin  and  George  D.  Sutton. 


She's  up  there, —  Old  Glory, —  where  lightnings  are  sped; 
She  dazzles  the  nations  with  ripples  of  red; 
And  she'll  wave  for  us  living,  or  droop  o'er  us  dead, — 
The  flag  of  our  country  forever! 

She's   up    there,— Old    Glory, —  how    bright    the    stars    stream! 
And  the  stripes  like  red  signals  of  liberty  gleam! 
And  we  dare  for  her,  living,  or  dream  the  last  dream, 
'Neath  the  flag  of  our  country  forever! 

She's  up  there, —  Old  Glory, —  no  tyrant-dealt  scars, 
No  blur  on  her  brightness,  no  stain  on  her  stars! 
The  brave  blood  of  heroes  hath  crimsoned  her  bars. 
She's  the  flag  of  our  country  forever! 

—  Frank  L.  Stanton. 


HIRTEEN,  and  only  thirteen  stripes,—"  alternate 
red  and  white,"  are  on  every  American  flag,  no 
matter  when  made.  These  stripes  tell  us  of  the 
thirteen  colonies  that  together  fought  the  battles 
of  the  Revolution,  and  afterward  entered  into  an 
enduring  Union  under  the  Constitution.  Let  us 
take  here  the  roll-call  of  that  noble  band  of  sister 



New  Jersey 




South  Carolina 
New  Hampshire 
New  York 
North  Carolina 

Rhode  Island. 

Yes,  the  stripes  that  run  their  bright  bands  of  color  along  the 
length  of  the  flag  never  number  more  nor  less  than  thirteen.  Not  so 
with  the  stars, —  for  each  new  State,  a  new  star.  As  the  evening  of 
a  clear  night  draws  on,  have  you  not  watched  the  stars  one  by  one 
"  peep  through  the  blanket  of  the  dark?  "  So  in  our  country's  sky, 
State  after  State,  like  star  after  star  in  the  heavens,  has  flashed  upon 
our  sight  until,  in  the  closing  year  of  the  century,  the  "  blue  field  "  is 
filled  with  the  radiant  splendor  of  a  "  constellation "  of  forty-five 

This  is  the  order  in  which  they  entered  the  Union:  Vermont 
(1791),  Kentucky  (1792),  Tennessee  (1796),  Ohio  (1802),  Louisiana 
(1812),  Indiana  (1816),  Mississippi  (1817),  Illinois  (1818),  Alabama 
(1819),  Maine  (1820),  Missouri  (1821),  Arkansas  (1836),  Michi- 
gan (1837),   Florida  (1845),  Texas   (iS45)»   Iowa  (1846),   Wisconsin 



(1848),  California  (1850),  Minnesota  (1858),  Oregon  (1859),  Kansas 
(1861),  West  Virginia  (1863),  Nevada  (1864),  Nebraska  (1867),  Colo- 
rado (1876),  North  Dakota  (1889),  South  Dakota  (1889),  Montana 
(1889),  Washington  (1889),  Idaho  (1890),  Wyoming  (1890),  Utah 

And  here  is  the  list  of  territories  which  may  yet  shine  as  States: 
New  Mexico,  Arizona,  Alaska,  Indian  Territory,  Oklahoma, —  though 
perhaps  not  as  States  of  the  first  magnitude. 


Solo  or  Quartet 

Francis  Scott  Key.    1814. 

J_  !S 


f    1     ■  ' 

)h,'     say,  can    you  see,     by  thedawn'sear  -  ly    light, What  so  proud -ly    we  hail'd    at    the 

On  the  shore  dim- ly    seen  thro' the  mists  of       the  deep,Where  the  foe's  haughty  host     in  dread 

And   where  is     that  band  who  so  vaunt-ing  -    ly  swore, That  the  hav  -  oc    of    war     and  the 

Oh,      thus    be      it      ev  -    er  when  free-men  shall  stand  Be    -    tween  their  loved  home  and  wild 

-p-       -p- 

twi-light's  last  gleaming,  Whose  broad  stripes  and  bright  stars, thro'  the  per  -  il  -    ous  fight,  O'er  the 

si  -  lence  re  -  po  -  ses,  What    is     that  which   the  breeze, o'er  the    tow  -  er  -    ing  steep,  As    it 

bat -tie's    con-fu  -  sion,     A  .  .  .     home  and      a      coun  -  try  should  leave  us      no  more?  Their 

war's  des  -  o  -  la  -   tion  ;  Blest  with  vie  -  try      and  peace,  may  the  heav'n-res  -  cued  land  Praise  the 

ram-parts  we  watch'd, were  so    gal  -  lant  -  lv  stream-ing?   And  the  rock  -  ets'     red  glare, the  bombs 
fit  -  ful  -  ly    blows,  half  con-ceals,  half    dis-clos-es?    Now  it    catch  -  es      the  gleam   of    the 
blood  has  wash'd  out  their  foul  foot  -  steps'pol  -  hi  -  tion.      No  ref  -   uge  could  save     the 

pow'r  that  hath  made  and  pre-serv'd    us       a      na  -  tion  !     Then      con  -  quer  we   must,  when  our 

burst-ing  in      air,     Gave    proof  thro'the  night  that  our  flag  was  still  there.       Oh,        say,does  that 

morn-ing's  first  beam,  In    full  glo  -  ry   re  -  fleet -ed,now  shines  on  the  stream: 'Tis  the  star-spangled 

hire-ling  and  slave  From  the  ter  -  ror  of  flight  or     the  gloom  of  the  grave  :  And  the   star-spangled 

cause  it      is    just,    And        this      be  our  mot  -  to  :  "In  God   is    our  trust  !"And  the   star-spangled 

J    -g-    -&-     .      o      -      .      .       ^  !\_    *ffl 

star  -span-gled  ban  -  ner    yet 
ban  -  ner :   oh,  long   may   it 
ban  -  ner      in      tri  -  umph  doth 
ban  -  ner      in     tri  -  umph  shall 


.g"  .f   -pygigygj 




wave  O'er  the  land  of 
wave  O'er  the  land  of 
wave  O'er  the  land  of 
wave  O'er  the  land   of 




and  the  home  of  the  brave? 

and  the  home  of  the  brave, 

and  the  home  of  the  brave, 

and  the  home  of  the  brave. 



=21     ^ 




It  is  the  flag  of  history.  Those  thirteen  stripes  tell  the  story  of 
our  colonial  struggle,  of  the  days  of  >6.  They  speak  of  the  savage 
wilderness,  of  old  Independence  Hall,  of  Valley  Forge  and  Yorktown. 
Those  stars  tell  the  story  of  our  nation's  growth,  how  it  has  come  from 
weakness  to  strength,  until  its  gleam,  in  the  sunrise  over  the  forests  of 
Maine,  crimsons  the  sunset's  dying  beams  on  the  golden  sands  of 
California. —  5.  L.  Waterbury. 

It  is  a  little  thing,  perchance,  to  put  the  stars  and  stripes  a  few 
miles  nearer  to  the  pole  than  has  been  put  the  flag  of  any  other  nation; 
but  yet,  somehow  or  other,  that  fact  appeals  to  us  as  Americans.— 
Adolphus  W.  Greeley. 

Two  years  ago,  I  saw  a  sight  that  has  ever  been  present  in  my 
memory.  As  we  were  going  out  of  the  harbor  of  Newport,  about  mid- 
night, on  a  dark  night,  some  of  the  officers  of  the  torpedo  station  had 
prepared  for  us  a  beautiful  surprise.  The  flag  at  the  depot  station 
was  unseen  in  the  darkness  of  the  night,  when  suddenly,  electric  search- 
lights were  turned  on  it,  bathing  it  in  a  flood  of  light.  All  below  the 
flag  was  hidden,  and  it  seemed  to  have  no  touch  with  earth,  but  to 
hang  from  the  battlements  of  heaven.  It  was  as  if  heaven  was  approv- 
ing the  human  liberty  and  human  equality,  typified  by  that  flag.— 
Benjamin  Harrison, 

Hurrah!  boys,  hurrah!     Fling  our  banner  to  the  breeze! 

Let  the  enemies  of  freedom  see  its  folds  again  unfurled, 
And  down  with  the  pirates  that  scorn  upon  the  seas 

Our  victorious  Yankee  banner,  sign  of  freedom  to  the  world! 

Chorus-     We'll  never  have  a  new  flag,  for  ours  is  the  true  flag, 
The  true  flag,  the  true  flag,  the  red,  white,  and  blue  flag. 
Hurrah!  boys,  hurrah!  we  will  carry  to  the  wars, 
The  old  flag,  the  free  flag,  the  banner  of  the  stars. 

And  what  though  its  white  shall  be  crimsoned  with  our  blood? 

And  what  though  its  stripes  shall  be  shredded  in  the  storms? 
To  the  torn  flag,  the  worn  flag,  we'll  keep  our  promise  good, 

And  we'll  bear  the  starry  blue  field,  with  gallant  hearts  and  arms. 

—  R.  IV.  Raymond. 



His  lonely  watch  a  sentinel  was  keeping, 

While  stars  were  shining  clear; 
Within  their  tents  the  wearied  hosts  were  sleeping, 

And  home  in  dreams  seemed  near. 

Near  by,  in  peace,  the  broad  Potomac  river 

Ran  fleetly  on  and  free, 
And  waves,  like  shafts  from  full  and  silver  quiver, 

Shot  onward  to  the  sea. 

Such  was  the  scene  of  rare  and  tranquil  beauty, 

That  met  the  soldier's  gaze, 
And  blended  with  his  thoughts  of  present  duty, 

The  light  of  other  days. 

'Neath  roof-tree  quiet,  far  remote,  were  sleeping 

Those  whom  he  loved  so  well  — 
Dreaming  perchance  of  him,  or  fondly  weeping 

At  thought  of  War's  dread  spell. 

Then  as  he  paced,  his  watchful  eyes  upturning, 

He  saw  the  arching  sky. 
Where  countless  stars  in  silence  clear  were  burning. 

Bespeaking  peace  on  high. 

And  gazing  thus,  he  straightway  fell  to  musing 

Upon  that  wondrous  dome, — 
And  in  his  wrapt  imaginings  was  losing, 

For  once,  the  thought  of  home. 

To  him,  that  mighty  dome  the  Union  seeming, 

The  stars  were  soldiers  true 
That  stood  in  ranks  with  watchful  eyes  a-gleaming, 

And  great  souls  flashing  through. 

"  No  hand,"  he  cried,  as  raptured  he  stood  gazing, 

"  Can  hurl  the  Union  down, 
Or  pluck  from  out  that  dome  of  might  amazing, 

The  stars  within  its  crown." 


But  as  he  spake  a  cloud  came  blackly  drifting 

Across  the  welkin  blue, 
And  spreading  ever,  threatening,  dense  and  shifting, 

Hid  every  star  from  view. 

"Alas,"  cried  he,  "is  this  the  war's  dread  token? 

The  stars  all  swept  away. 
The  dome  of  Union,  lost  to  man,  and  broken, 

Forever  and  for  aye?  " 

Slow  grew  his  step  as  on  he  paced, —  and  musing, 

Sad  grew  his  heart, — 
The  portent  seemed  so  direful,  so  confusing, 

The  tears  began  to  start! 

But  lo!  once  more,  through  tears,  his  eyes  up-glancing, 

The  clouds  are  passing  by! 
He  sees  the  dome,  and  stars  with  light  entrancing, 

Still  watching  in  the  sky! 

Gone  are  his  fears.     Exultant  hear  him  crying, 

"  The  clouds  of  War  will  flee. 
And  stars  of   Peace  yet  chant  in  chorus  vying, 

'  Union  and  Liberty.'  " 

Ah,  lonely  sentinel,  let  not  thy  vision, 

Though  now  fulfilled,  e'er  cease; 
Still  point  the  Nation  to  the  fields  Elysian, — 

Thy  chosen  watchword  —  Peace. 

—  W.  K.  W. 




The  stars  of  our  morn  on  our  banner  borne, 

With  the  iris  of  heaven  are  blended, 
The  hands  of  our  sires  first  mingled  those  fires 

And  by  us  they  shall  now  be  defended! 
Then  hail  the  true  —  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue, 

The  flag  of  the  Constellation; 
It  sails  as  it  sailed,  by  our  forefathers  hailed, 

O'er  battles  that  made  us  a  nation. 

What  hand  so  bold  to  strike  from  its  fold, 

One  star  or  stripe  of  its  bright'ning; 
To  him  be  each  star  a  fiery  Mars, 

Each   stripe   a   terrible   lightning. 
Then   hail   the   true, —  etc. 

Its  meteor  form  shall  ride  the  storm 

Till  the  fiercest  of  foes  surrender; 
The  storm  gone  by,  it  shall  gild  the  sky, 

As  a  rainbow  of  peace  and  splendor. 
Then   hail   the    true, —  etc. 

Peace,  peace  to  the  world  —  is  our  motto  unfurled, 

Tho'  we  shun  not  a  field  that  is  gory; 
At  home  or  abroad,  fearing  none  but  our  God, 

We  will  carve  out  our  pathway  to  glory! 
Then   hail   the   true, —  etc. 

—  T.  Buchanan  Read. 


HEN  children  pick  a  flower  to  pieces,  just  to  see  how  it  is 
made,  casting  its  petals  to  the  ground  —  that  destroys  both 
its  bright  colors  and  its  fragrance.  Not  so  when  they  first 
look  at  the  flag,  see  that  it  is  made  up  of  three  colors,  and 
then  try  to  find  out  with  the  "  mind's  eye  "  what  each  color 
stands  for.  That  is  a  very  pleasant  and  a  very  profitable  exercise. 
Now,  while  it  would  be  a  good  thing  for  the  boys  and  girls  in  a  school 
to  think  out  the  meaning  of  the  tricolor  for  themselves,  it  will  do  no 
harm  to  give  them  a  hint  upon  which  they  may  work. 

Take  then  the  red.  Did  you  ever  think  how  the  red  tide  which 
we  call  "  blood  "  courses  through  the  body,  and  how  it  supplies  the 
very  life-power  of  the  body?  So,  the  red  in  the  flag  is  the  symbol  of  the 
life  of  the  nation.  And  again:  When  you  read  how  the  life-blood 
of  men  is  poured  out  upon  the  battle-field,  how  can  you  help  thinking 
of  the  bravery  of  those  men!  So,  the  red  of  the  flag  speaks  of  Courage. 
That  for  which  white  stands,  the  world  over,  is  purity.  So,  the 
white  in  the  flag  proclaims  that  sense  of  Honor  which  is  the  safeguard 
and  strength  of  the  nation  —  that  feeling  and  conscience  which  keep 
the  citizen  from  doing  anything  which  will  offend  against  the  law  or 
weaken  the  moral  power  of  the  nation. 

Who  does  not  know  that  blue  stands  for  loyalty?  Who  has  not 
heard  the  expression  "  true  blue?  "  So,  the  blue  in  the  flag  means 
Patriotism  —  that  steadfastness  of  purpose,  that  devotion  to  native  land, 
which  makes  the  citizen  proud  of  every  noble  deed  of  his  countrymen, 
and  willing  to  undergo  any  trials  for  her  dear  sake. 




THE    RIGHT    OF    THE    LINE. 

When  man  with  things  mortal  is  through, 

When  time  shall  its  sceptre  resign, 
When  follows  the  final  review, 

Who  shall  hold  the  right  of  the  line? 
The  Captain  shall  make  the  award, 

Fit  place  unto  each  shall  assign. 
Who,  who  in  Thine  army,  O  Lord, 

Shall  be  given  the  right  of  the  line? 

The  nation  which  gains  the  award, 

Which  wins  by  the  right  that's  divine, 
Which  holds  by  the  will  of  the  Lord, 

Unchallenged,  the  right  of  the  line; 
Shall  blazon  her  banner  with  stars, 

Stars  brighter  the  sky  never  knew  — 
Shall  deck  it  with  rainbow-hued  bars, 

The  Red  and  the  White  and  the  Bluel 

Our  country!  to  Liberty  true, 

Which  ne'er  in  her  service  shall  fail, 
Resisting  the  rule  of  the  few 

That  thus  may  the  many  prevail. 
Our  country!  which  fights  the  good  fight 

For  manhood  where'er  it  may  be, 
Which  stands  for  the  right  'gainst  the  might, 

Inspiring  all  lands  to  be  free. 

'Tis  she  who  shall  be  of  best  cheer 

When  summoned  to  final  review; 
She'll  answer  with  never  a  fear  — 

No  trembling  for  those  that  are  true; 
All  hail  her!  'neath  Heaven's  blue  arch 

No  flag  can  the  Union's  outshine, 
And  they  who  beneath  it  shall  march 

Will  be  found  at  the  right  of  the  line. 

THE  FLAG.  21 

O  goddess  of  learning,  whene'er 

A  temple  is  reared  unto  thee, 
Raised  high  let  our  banner  appear, 

The  beautiful  flag  of  the  free; 
For  know  that  whene'er  'tis  unfurled, 

Thou  best  canst  thy  mission  pursue, 
Thy  torch  shall  illumine  the  world, 

Beaming  bright  'neath  the  red,  white  and  blue. 

O    goddess   of  learning,   whene'er 

A  temple  is  reared  unto  thee, 
Raised  high  let  our  banner  appear, 

The  beautiful  flag  of  the  free. 
Thus  they  who  its  splendors  behold, 

Shall  learn  as  its  fame  they  recall, 
A  lesson  more  precious  than  gold  — 

The  duty  of  each  unto  all. 

As  they  gaze  their  souls  shall  expand, 

Till  in  ecstacy  rises  their  cry, 
"  We  also  at  Freedom's  command, 
Shall  count  it  all  honor  to  die. 
To  our  sires  we  swear  to  be  true, 
Whose  memory  ever  shall  shine, 
And  march  in  the  final  review, 

With  them  at  the  right  of  the  line." 

—  Wm.  H.  McElroy. 
[Read  before  the  Albany  High  School  on  the  occasion  of  presentation  of  flags  by 
the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic] 

At  Oriskany  five  British  standards  were  captured,  and  upon  return- 
ing to  Fort  Stanwix  they  were  hoisted  and  above  them  an  uncouth 
flag,  intended  tO'  represent  the  American  stars  and  stripes. 

This  rude  banner,  hastily  extemporized  out  of  a  white  shirt,  an 
old  blue  coat,  and  some  stripes  of  red  flannel,  was  the  first  American 
flag  with  stars  and  stripes  ever  hoisted  in  victory. 

It  was  flung  to  the  breeze  on  the  memorable  day  of  Oriskany, 
August  6,  1777. 

The  following  explanation  of  the  colors  and  symbolic  meaning 
of  the  "  Stars  and  Stripes,"  was  written  by  a  member  of  the  old  Con- 
tinental Congress,  to  whom,  with  others,  was  committed  the  duty  of 
selecting  a  flag  for  the  infant  confederacy: 



"  The  stars  of  the  new  flag  represent  the  constellation  of  States  ris- 
ing in  the  West.  The  idea  was  taken  from  the  constellation  Lyra, 
which  in  the  hand  of  Orpheus  signifies  harmony.  The  blue  in  the  field 
was  taken  from  the  edges  of  the  Covenanter's  banner  in  Scotland, 
significant  of  the  league  covenant  of  the  United  Colonies  against  op- 
pression, involving  the  virtues  of  vigilance,  perseverance  and  justice. 
The  stars  were  in  a  circle,  symbolizing  the  perpetuity  of  the  Union; 
the  ring,  like  the  circling  serpent  of  the  Egyptians,  signifying  eternity. 
The  thirteen  stripes  showed  with  the  stars,  the  number  of  the  United 
Colonies,  and  denoted  the  subordination  of  the  States  to  the  Union, 
as  well  as  equality  among  themselves.  The  whole  was  the  blending  of 
the  various  flags  previous  to  the  Union  flag,  viz.:  The  red  flag  of  the 
armies  and  the  white  of  floating  batteries.  The  red  color,  which  in 
the  Roman  day  was  the  signal  of  defiance,  denotes  daring,  the  blue 
fidelity,  and  the  white  purity." 

There  is  the  national  flag!  He  must  be  cold,  indeed,  who  can 
look  upon  its  folds  rippling  in  the  breeze  without  pride  of  country.  If 
he  be  in  a  foreign  land,  the  flag  is  companionship,  and  country  itself, 
with  all  its  endearments.  Who,  as  he  sees  it,  can  think  of  a  State 
merely?  Whose  eye,  once  fastened  upon  its  radiant  trophies,  can  fail 
to  recognize  the  image  of  the  whole  nation? 

It  has  been  called  a  "  floating  piece  of  poetry;  "  and  yet,  I  know 
not  if  it  have  any  intrinsic  beauty  beyond  other  ensigns.  Its  highest 
beauty  is  in  what  it  symbolizes.  It  is  because  it  represents  all,  that 
all  gaze  at  it  with  delight  and  reverence.  It  is  a  piece  of  bunting,  lifted 
in  the  air;  but  it  speaks  sublimely,  and  every  part  has  a  voice.  Its 
stripes  of  alternate  red  and  white  proclaim  the  original  union  of  thirteen 
States  to  maintain  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Its  stars,  white 
on  a  field  of  blue,  proclaim  that  union  of  States  constituting  our 
national  constellation,  which  receives  a  new  star  with  every  new  State. 
The  two,  together,  signify  union,  past  and  present.  The  very  colors 
have  a  language  which  was  officially  recognized  by  our  fathers.  White 
is  for  purity,  red  for  valor,  blue  for  justice;  and  all  together,  bunting, 
stripes,  stars,  and  colors,  blazing  in  the  sky,  make  the  flag  of  our 
country,  to  be  cherished  by  all  our  hearts,  to  be  upheld  by  all  our 
hands. —  Charles  Sumner. 

THE    RED,    WHITE,    AND    BLUE. 

D.  T.  Shaw. 

i.  Oh,  Co-lum-bia,  the  gem  of     the     o  -  cean, 

2.  When  war  wing'dits  widedes  -  o  -  la  -  tion, 

3.  The     star-spangled  ban-ner  bring  hith-er, 

The  home    of    the  brave  and  the    free,       The 

And  threaten'dthe     land  to    de  -  form,       The 

O'er  Colum-bia's  true  sons  let    it      wave;  May  the 

shrine   of  each    pa  -  triot'sde  -  vo  -tion, 
ark    then  of    free-dom'sfoun-da  -  tion, 
wreaths  they  have  won   nev  •  er    with-er, 

Co    - 

Nor  its 

world  of  -  fers  hom-age  to     thee  ; 

lum  -  bia,  rode  safe  thro'  the  storm :  With  the 

stars  cease  to     shine  on    the  brave  ;    May  the 

man-dates  make  he 
gar -lands  of  vie 
ser  -  vice     u 

roes     as-sem  -  ble, 
fry      a -round  her, 
nit  -  ed  ne'er  sev-  er, 

When    Lib-er 

When  so  proudly 

But       hold  to 





ty's  form  stands  in  view; 
she  bore  her  brave  crew, 
their  col  -  ors    so    true  ; 

•-  -9- 


*— *— *- 




v—  -j 



With  her 














ban-ners  make  tyr  -  an  -  ny  trem-ble, 
flag  proud-ly  float-ing  be -fore  her, 
ar  -  my     and    na  -  vy    for  -  ev  -  er, 

When  borne  by   the  red,  white  and  blue,  When 

The     boast  of    the  red,  white  and  blue,  The 

Three  cheers  for  the  red,  white  and  blue,  Three 

-#-  -•-       »-      -9- 

r  r  r — * — *-,9 *- 

borne  by  the  red,  white  and  blue, 
boast  of  the  red,  white  and  blue, 
cheers  for   the  red,  white  and  blue, 

When  borne  by  the  red,  white  and  blue, 
The  boast  of  the  red,  white  and  blue, 
Three  cheers  for   the  red,  white  and  blue, 

^r — r  r  ~ 


With  her 


THE    RED,    WHITE,    AND    BLUE. 

ban-ners  make  tyr  -  an  -  ny  trem-ble, 
flag  proud -ly  float -ing  be- fore  her, 
ar  -  my     and    na   -    vy     for  -  ev  -  er, 

Hi — • — • w    ■  » • — » — r* — P— 


When  borne  by  the  red,  white  and  blue. 
The  boast  of  the  red,  white  and  blue. 
Three  cheers  for  the  red,  white  and  blue. 

r  r  p 






T  is  well  for  us  to  keep  in  mind  not  only  the  birthdays  of  the 
jU  men  who  have  done  great  deeds  for  their  country,  but  on 
liill  certain  occasions  also  their  deathdays.  Thus,  the  one 
flif  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  death  of  George  Washington 
was  observed  on  December  14,  1899,  in  many  places,  by 
many  people.  At  such  a  time,  the  flag  is  not  raised  clear  to 
the  top  of  the  pole  or  "mast,"  but  about  half-way,— and  so  we 
get  the  words,  "  the  flag  at  half-mast,"  as  a  symbol  of  the  sorrow 
of  the  true  patriots  for  a  great  soldier  and  statesman  dying  long 
ago  (like  Washington),  or  perhaps  for  one  just  fallen  out  from  the 
ranks  of  the  living,  like  that  brave  sailor,  Lieut.  Brumby  (died  Decem- 
ber 17,  1899),  the  flag  lieutenant  of  Admiral  Dewey.  This  heroic 
officer  and  faithful  friend  of  the  Admiral  stood  by  him  in  the  great 
naval  fight  at  Manila.  Daring  and  devoted  as  he  was,  why  should  not 
the  flags  throughout  his  native  State  of  Georgia  be  placed  at  half- 
mast,  and  his  fellow-citizens  recall  and  record  his  bravery  and 

So  it  is  by  keeping  in  remembrance  the  brave  deeds  of  those 
patriots  who  have  died  — by  telling  over  again  and  again  the  story 
of  their  loyalty  —  by  visiting  the  places  made  famous  by  them,—  by 
all  these  things  and  in  many  other  ways,  that  children  even  may  learn 
many  a  lesson  in  true  patriotism;  and  the  half-masted  flag  teaches  the 




How  sleep  the  brave,  who  sink  to  rest, 
With  all  their  country's  wishes  blest! 
When  Spring,  with  dewy  fingers  cold, 
Returns  to  deck  their  hallowed  mould, 
She  there  shall  dress  a  sweeter  sod 
Than  Fancy's  feet  have  ever  trod. 


By  fairy  hands  their  knell  is  rung; 
By  forms  unseen  their  dirge  is  sung; 
There  Honor  comes,  a  pilgrim  gray 
To  bless  the  turf  that  wraps  their  clay; 
And  Freedom  shall  awhile  repair, 
To  dwell  a  weeping  hermit  there. 

—  William  Collins. 

The  past  rises  before  me  like  a  dream.     Again  we  are  in  the  great 
struggle  for  national  life.     We  hear  the  sounds  of  preparation,   the 
music  of  the  boisterous  drums,  the  silvery  voices  of  heroic  bugles. 
We  see  thousands  of  assemblages,  and  hear   the  appeals  of  orators; 
we  see  the  pale  cheeks  of  women,  and  the  flushed  faces  of  men,  and 
in  those  assemblages   we  see  all  the  dead  whose  dust  we  have  covered 
with  flowers.     We  lose  sight  of  them  no  more.     *     *     *     We   see 
them  all  as  they  march  proudly  away  under  the  flaunting  flags,  keeping 
time  to  the  wild,  grand  music  of  war,  marching  down  the  streets  of 
the  great  cities,  through  the  towns  and  across  the  prairies  down  to 
the  fields  of  glory,  to  do  and  to  die  for  the  eternal  right.     We  go  with 
them  one  and  all.     We  are  by  their  side  on  all  the  gory  fields,  in  all 
the  hospitals  of  pain,  on  all  the  weary  marches.     We  stand  guard  with 
them  in  the  wild  storm  and  under  the  quiet  stars.     We  are  with  them 
in  ravines  running  with  blood,  in  the  furrows  of  old  fields.     We  are 
with  them  between  contending  hosts,  unable  to  move,  wild  with  thirst, 
the  life  ebbing  slowly  away  among  the  withered  leaves.     We  see  them 
pierced  by  balls  and  torn  with  shells  in  the  trenches  by  forts,  and  in 
the  whirlwind  of  the  charge,  where  men  become  iron,  with  nerves  of 
steel.     We  are  at  home  when  the  news  comes  that  they  are  dead.     We 
see  the  maiden  in  the  shadow  of  her  first  sorrow.     We  see  the  silvered 
head  of  the  old  man  bowed  with  the  last  grief.     These  heroes  are 
dead.     They  died  for  liberty.     They  died  for  us.     They  are  at  rest. 
They  sleep  in  the  land  they  made  free,  under  the  flag  they  rendered 
stainless,  under  the  solemn  pines,  the  sad  hemlocks,  the  tearful  wil- 
lows, and  the  embracing  vines.     They  sleep  beneath  the  shadows  of 
the  clouds,  careless  alike  of  sunshine  or  of  storm,  each  in  the  window- 
less  palace  of  rest.     Earth  may  run  red  with  other  wars;  they  are  at 
peace.     In  the  midst  of  battle,  in  the  roar  of  conflict,  they  found  the 
serenity  of  death.     I  have  one  sentiment  for  the  soldiers  living  and 
dead:    Cheers  for  the  living,  and  tears  for  the  dead. —  Robert  G.  Ingersoll. 


And  I  saw  a  phantom  army  come, 
With  never  a  sound  of  fife  or  drum, 
But  keeping  step  to  a  muffled  hum 

Of  wailing  lamentation; 
The  martyred  heroes  of  Malvern  Hill, 
Of  Gettysburg  and  Chancellorsville, 
The  men  whose  wasted  bodies  fill 

The  patriot  graves  of  the  nation. 

And  there  came  the  unknown  dead,  the  men 
Who  died  in  fever-swamp  and  fen, 
The  slowly  starved  of  prison  pen; 

And  marching  beside  the  others, 
Came  the  dusky  martyrs  of  Pillow's  fight, 
With  limbs  enfranchised  and  hearing  bright, 
I  thought  —  'twas  the  pale  moonlight  — 

They  looked  as  white  as  their  brothers. 

And  so  all  night  marched  the  nation's  dead. 
With  never  a  banner  above  them  spread, 
No  sign,  save  the  bare,  uncovered  head 

Of  the  silent,  grim  Reviewer; 
With  never  an  arch  but  the  vaulted  sky, 
With  not  a  flower  save  those  which  lie 
On  distant  graves,  for  love  could  buy 

No  gift  that  was  purer  or  truer. 

So  all  night  long  moved  the  strange  array, 
So  all  night  long  till  the  break  of  day 
I  watched  for  one  who  had  passed  away 

With  a  reverent  awe  and  wonder; 
Till  a  blue  cap  waved  in  the  lengthening  line, 
And  I  knew  that  one  who  was  kin  of  mine 
Had  come,  and  I  spoke  —  and  lo!  that  sign 

Wakened  me  from  my  slumber. 

—  Bret  Harte. 




The  muffled  drum's  sad  roll  has  beat 

The  soldier's  last  tattoo; 
No  more  on  Life's  parade  shall  meet 

That  brave  and  fallen  few. 
On   Fame's  eternal  camping  ground 

Their  silent  tents  are  spread, 
And  Glory  guards  with  solemn  round, 

The  bivouac  of  the  dead. 

Thus  'neath  their  parent  turf,  they  rest, 

Far  from  the  gory  field, 
Borne  to  a   Spartan   mother's  breast 

On  many  a  bloody  shield. 
The  sunshine  of  their  native  sky 

Smiles  sadly  on  them  here, 
And  kindred  eyes  and  hearts  watch  by 

The  heroes'  sepulchre. 

Rest  on,  embalmed  and  sainted  dead; 

Dear  is  the  blood  you  gave. 
No  impious  footsteps  here  shall  tread 

The  herbage  of  your  grave. 
Nor  shall  your  glory  be  forgot 

While  Fame  her  record  keeps, 
Or  Honor  points  the  hallowed  spot 

Where   Valor   proudly    sleeps. 

[It  was  a  Southern  soldier,  Theodore  O'Hara,  of  Kentucky,  who  wrote  the 
immortal  lines  above  since  cast  in  bronze,  and  placed  in  the  national  cemeteries  where 
lie  the  soldiers  who  fell  for  the  Union.     This  refers  to  last  stanza  only.] 


Close  his  eyes;  his  work  is  done! 

What  to  him  is  friend  or  foeman, 
Rise  of  moon  or  set  of  sun, 

Hand  of  man  or  kiss  of  woman? 

Laj  him  low,  lay  him  low, 
In  the  clover  or  the  snow! 
What  cares  he?    He  cannot  know; 
Lay  him  low. 


Fold  him  in  his  country's  stars, 
Roll  the  drum  and  fire  the  volley! 

What  to  him  are  all  our  wars? 
What  but  death-bemocking  folly? 

Leave  him  to  God's  watching  eye; 

Trust  him  to  the  'Hand  that  made  him. 
Mortal  love  weeps  idly  by, 

God  alone  has  power  to  aid  him. 

—  George  Henry  Boker. 


Let  them  rest  where  nodding  clover 
Covers  husband,  friend  and  lover, 
Where  the  long  cool  grass  leans  over, 

And  the  stars  their  watches  keep; 
Where  with  drowsy  murmurings 
Haunts  the  bees  with  tireless  wings; 
Where  all  night  the  cricket  sings, 

Let  them  sleep. 

Under  the  guns  of  the  fort  on  the  hill, 
Daisies  are  blossoming,  buttercups  fill; 
Up  the  grey  ramparts  the  scaling  vine  flings 
High  its  green  ladders,  and  falters  and  clings, 

Under  the  guns, 
Under  the  guns  of  the  fort  on  the  hill. 

Under  the  guns  of  the  fort  on  the  hill, 
Once  shook  the  earth  with  the  cannonade's  thrill; 
Once  trod  those  buttercups  feet  that,  now  still, 
Lie  all  at  rest,  in  the  trench  by  the  mill, 

Under  the  guns, 
Under  the  guns  of  the  fort  on  the  hill. 

How  they  went  forth  to  die! 
Pale,  earnest  thousands,  from  the  busy  mills, 
And  sun-browned  thousands  from  the  harvest  hills, 
Quick,  eager  thousands  from  the  busy  streets. 
And  storm-tossed  thousands  from  the  fishers'  fleets, 

How  they  went  forth  to  die! 


A   SONG   OF   THE   FLAG. 
(Air:     Yankee  Doodle  —  each  stanza  sung  to  first  half  of  solo.) 

Roll  a  river  wide  and  strong, 

Like  the  tides  a-swinging; 
Lift  the  joyful  floods  of  song, 

Set  the  mountains  ringing. 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner  high! 
Morning's  crimson  glory, 
Field  as  blue  as  God's  own  sky, 
And  every  star  a  story. 

Drown  the  guns,  outsound  the  bells, 

In  the  rocking  steeple, 
While  the  chorus  throbs  and  swells 

Of  a  happy  people. 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner,  etc. 

For  our  darling  flag  we  sing, 

Pride  of  all  the  nation, 
Flag  that  never  knew  a  king, 

Freedom's  constellation. 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner,  etc. 

Blest  be  God,  fraternal  wars 

Once  for  all  are  ended, 
And  the  gashes  and  the  scars 

Peace  and  time  have  mended. 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner,  etc. 

Massachusetts,  Maryland, 

Tennessee,  Nebraska, 
One,  Columbia's  daughters  stand 

From  Georgia  to  Alaska. 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner,  etc. 

Staff  and  masthead  swing  it  forth  — 

Liberty  unblighted, 
West  and  East  and  South  and  North 

Evermore  united! 

Chorus:     Run  the  lovely  banner,  etc. 

—  M.  Woolsey  Stryker. 


T  is  well  for  each  boy  and  girl  to  own  a  flag  —  small  and 
inexpensive, —  or  for  each  district  to  furnish  a  sufficient 
number.  The  flags  can  be  lightly  fastened  upon  the  wall, 
transforming  bare  and  cheerless  spots  into  a  bright  glow 
of  colors;  or,  if  patriotic  pictures  are  on  the  walls,  the  flags 
may  be  draped  about  them  with  excellent  effect.  Another 
plan  is  to  "  stack  "  the  flags  on  the  platform  or  stage,  or  place  them  in 
a  rack  provided  for  the  purpose. 

Now,  let  us  suppose  that  the  day  is  so  fair,  the  weather  so  fine, 
that  the  flags  can  be  displayed  out-of-doors.  Good!  give  the  chil- 
dren the  blessed  tonic  of  the  fresh  air.  At  a  given  signal,  let  each 
pupil  take  a  flag  from  wall  or  stack  or  rack.  Marshalling  them  into 
line,  preceded,  if  convenient,  by  a  standard-bearer  carrying  a  good- 
sized  flag  or  the  school  banner,  let  them  march  —  singing  a  patriotic 
verse  or  two  —  till  they  come  to  the  flagstaff  on  the  school  green,  or 
to  a  spot  whence  they  may  see  the  flag  at  the  roof-peak.  Then,  at  a 
proper  signal  from  the  teacher,  let  them  salute  the  flag  and  repeat  in 
unison  any  one  of  the  five  pledge-forms  printed  below  —  then  march 
back,  "  stack  arms  "  and  resume  seats  —  ready,  if  time  permits,  for 
any  one  of  the  many  programs  of  this  book.  If  the  weather  is  so  bad 
that  the  flag  and  the  children  must  both  stay  in-doors,  let  the  salute 
and  pledge  be  given  as  before,  and  any  ten-minute  program  be  taken 
up, —  the  only  difference  between  this  and  the  out-door  exercise  being, 

that  in  this  the  flags  are  left  in  their  places  on  platform  or  walls. 





Uncover  to  the  flag;  bare  head 

Sorts    well    with    heart    as,    humbly    bowed, 
We  stand  in  presence  of  the  dead 

Who  make  the  flag  their  shroud. 

Uncover  to  the  flag,  for  those 

Of  Concord  and  of  Bunker  Hill, 
The  first  to  fire  on  Freedom's  foes, 

With  shouts  that  echo  still. 

Uncover  to  the  flag,  for  him 

Who  sang  the  song,  the  gallant  Key, 
When  in  the  dawn  hour,  gray  and  dim, 

He  strained,  its  stars  to  see. 

Uncover    to    the    flag,    for    one 

Who   scorned  to   have  his  colors  dip, 
And  fighting  all  but  flying  none, 

Cried,  "  Don't  give  up  the  ship." 

Uncover  to  the  flag,  for  him 

Who  stoutly  nailed  it  to  the  mast, 
And  dauntlessly,  or  sink  or  swim, 

Stood  by  it  to  the  last. 

Uncover  to  the  flag;  the  land 

It  floats  above  is  one  anew, — 
The  North  and  South,  now  hand  in  hand, 

See  God's  skies,  gray  and  blue. 

Uncover  to  the  flag;  it  flew 

Above  the  men  who  manned  the  Maine, 
The  pledge  that  we  will  mete  the  due 

Of  vengeance   out    to    Spain! 

Uncover  to  the  flag;   it   stands 

For  all   of  bravest,   all   of  best, 
In  us  with  flower-laden  hands, 

In  those  who  lie  at  rest. 

—  E.  C.  Chevcrton. 


W.  K.  W. 

O.  R.  Barrows. 




i.  When  the   sun      is  shin  -  ing,  Hearts  to    joy      in-clin-  ing,    Then    we  hail    the    ban  -  ner, 
2.  When  the  storm   is    rag  -  ing,      All     our  thot's  en  -  gag  -  ing,    Then    we  hail    the    ban  -  ner, 









Float  -   ing        in     air;       And       we  pledge    old  Glo    -    ry,      Dear      in  song  and  sto    -     ry, 
Light  -  ing      our  room ;    And      we  pledge    old  Glo    -    ry,      Dear      in  song   and  sto    -     ry, 






=j=*— i— i 



V    *    ' 




Si    4     r 

Wav-ing  o'er  the  land  ev-'ry-where.  Wav-ing,  wav-ing,  wav- ing,  wav- ing,  Dancing  in  thesun -light, 
Ban-ish-ing    a- far    all  thegloom.  Light-ing,light-ing,light-ing,light-ing,Chas-ingev-'ry  shad-ow, 

p    p-    p     p      P     P 



~P,    P  •  p   P     P    r 


V — ^ — J- — \- 


-V — 






Rippling  far  on  high, — Wav-ing,  wav-  ing,   wav-  ing,wav  -  ing, Waving  'neath  the  clear,  arching  sky. 
Bringing  joy  to    all, — Light-ing,  light-ing,  light-ing,  light- ing,  Making  bright  the  storm-shadowed  wall. 


1        I       I 




THE  FLAG.  35 


No.  i. 

Flag  of  Freedom!  true  to  thee, 

All  our  Thoughts,  Words,  Deeds  shall  be,— 

Pledging  steadfast  Loyalty! 

No.  2. 

The  toil  of  our  Hands, 
The  thoughts  of  our  Heads, 
The  love  of  our  Hearts, 
We  pledge  to  our  Flag! 

No.  3- 
By  the  Memories  of  the  Past, 
By  the  Present,  flying  fast, 
By  the  Future,  long  to  last, 
Let  the  dear  Flag  wave! 

No.  4- 
I  pledge  myself  to  stand  by  the  Flag  that  stands  for  Loyalty,  Liberty  and  Law! 

No.  5- 
The  Youth's  Companion  "  Pledge  of  Allegiance."  (Right  hand  lifted,  palm  down- 
ward to  a  line  with  the  forehead  and  close  to  it,  standing  thus,  all  repeat  together 
slowly:)  "  I  pledge  allegiance  to  my  Flag  and  to  the  Republic  for  which  it  stands; 
One  Nation  indivisible,  with  Liberty  and  Justice  for  All."  (At  the  words  "  to  my 
Flag,"  the  right  hand  is  extended  gracefully,  palm  upward,  towards  the  Flag  and 
remains  in  this  gesture  to  the  end  of  the  affirmation;  whereupon  all  hands  imme- 
diately drop  to  the  side.) 

No.  6. 
God  hath  made  one  blood  all  nations  of  men,  and  we  are  His  children,  brothers 
and  sisters  all.  We  are  citizens  of  these  United  States  and  we  believe  our  flag 
stands  for  self-sacrifice  for  the  good  of  all  the  people.  We  want,  therefore,  to  be 
true  citizens  of  our  great  country  and  will  show  our  love  for  her  by  our  works.  Our 
country  does  not  ask  us  to  die  for  her  welfare  only,—  she  asks  us  to  live  for  her,  and 
so  to  live  and  so  to  act  that  her  government  may  be  pure,  her  officers  honest,  and 
every  corner  of  her  territory  a  place  fit  to  grow  the  best  men  and  women,  who  shall 
rule  over  her. 




Color-bearers  of  the  public  schools:  When  on  the  17th  of  May  last,  the  flags 
which  you  now  bear  were  presented  by  the  two  posts  of  the  G.  A.  R.  of  this  city, 
you  were  chosen  to  represent  your  schools,  because  you  were  thought  worthy. 

The  veterans  of  the  Civil  War  from  whose  hands  you  received  them  were 
men  who  had  shown  their  loyalty  upon  bloody  battle  fields.  They  felt  that  they 
were  honored  in  intrusting  to  you  these  banners.  Young  hearts  that  should  beat 
loyally  through  the  years  to  come.  Young  hands  that  should  ever  be  ready  to 
strike  in  defense  should  the  time  ever  demand  it. 

After  carefully  guarding  these  banners  for  the  time  they  have  been  in  your 
custody,  you  are  about  to  surrender  them  to  other  hands.  They  who  follow  you 
will  in  turn  be  as  proud  as  you.  In  the  years  to  come  all  of  you  will  look  back 
to  your  school  days,  and  feel  that  the  greatest  honor  bestowed  upon  you  by  your 
school  was  your  selection  as  color-bearers. 

My  children,  you  who  are  delegates  from  the  various  schools,  this  day  and  cere- 
mony mean  much  to  you.  It  is  not  the  flag,  with  its  stripes  and  stars  of  red  and 
white,  its  field  of  blue,  that  of  itself  means  anything.  The  language  it  speaks  is 
what  you  should  heed,  is  that  which  makes  it  the  flag  of  freedom.  Read  lessons 
from  its  beautiful  folds  as  unfolding  in  the  fresh  breezes  of  the  morning  they  are 
kissed  by  the  bright  sunlight.  It  tells  us  that  it  is  not  the  flag  of  war,  but  the 
flag  of  peace  and  good  will.      Its  mission  is  the  friendship  of  the  nations. 

But  it  also  tells  us  that  should  it  ever  be  necessary  to  strike  against  wrong  that 
the  blow  will  be  heavy.  If  ever  it  is  necessary  to  draw  the  sword  in  behalf  of 
wronged  or  oppressed  humanity  that  that  sword  will  not  be  sheathed  until  the 
wrong  is  righted,  and  the  hand  of  the  oppressor  raised. 

Learn  that  it  teaches  us  to  be  good  citizens,  that  in  all  civic  affairs  we  should  be 
upright  and  not  seek  office  for  the  sake  of  pelf.  It  teaches  us  that  public  duty  is  a 
trust  which  should  be  faithfully  performed  for  the  good  of  our  country  and  not  for 
personal  aggrandizement. 

Go  from  here  to-day  impressed  with  the  thought  of  being  better  men  and  women 
because  you  are  to  be  citizens  of  this  great  country,  and  that  you  will  do  your  best 
to  make  it  better  because  you  are  citizens;  then  my  children  you  shall  best  honor 
the  flags,  which  we  intrust  to  your  color-bearers  to-day. —  W.  H.  Scott,  G.  A.  R. 



i.  Home Song,  Home,  Sweet  Home. 

2.  School Song,  The  Schoolhouse  and  the  Flag. 

3.  Capitol Song,  The  Star  of  Freedom. 

4.  Restored  Union Song,  0,  Starry  Flag  of  Union,  Hail! 



John  Howard  Payne. 
ist  and  2D  Soprano. 

Sicilian  Air. 


x  7~r 

j   J  1  *  :  I  £ 

1.  'Mid  pleas-ures  and   pal  -  a-  ces,  tho'    we  may  roam,  Be  it    ev   -   er    so  hum -ble, there's 

2.  I         gaze  on     the  moon    as      I  tread  the  drear  wild,   And      feel  that  my  moth-er    now 

3.  An      ex  -   ile  fromhome.splendor  daz-zles    in     vain;  Oh,      give    me  my  low  -  lythatch'd 
Tenor  and  Bass. 









-p — *- 



•H«— t 


JgXF         -ft 

-*— t- 

>~ H 



• — '| 'V — — -=— ' • --*-  T.       *      '        I 




no  .  .    place  like     home ;        A  charm    from  the     skies   seems  to        hal    -     low     us 

thinks      of    her    child,         As  she    looks       on    that    moon  from  our       own         cot  -  tage 
cot    -     tage     a  -    gain,  The        birds      sing-ing      gai    -    ly,   that      came         at      my 













1 |    |-.E=|=i 



there,  Which,  seek  thro'  the  world,  is  ne'er  met  with  else -where.  Home,  home, 
door,  'Mid  the  wood  -  bine  whose  fra  -  grance  shall  cheer  me  no  more.  Home,  home, 
call;    Give  me     them,  and    that   peace     of    mind,   dear  -  er  than    all.       Home,    home, 


z     X-X- 

f— f~r 

T f 


7^  r^ 


A— K 













sweet,  sweet  home,      Be    it     ev     -      er     so     hum  -  ble,  there's  no         place  like   home. 



r  r  ,  t~ — t 



E— C-E^rf-T  l  fl   „  II 
|       |     |    \^        f    f  i  j uJ 















O  need  to  ask  you,  my  young  friends,  whether  you 
love  your  home.  It  is,  indeed,  as  the  good  old  song 
says,  "  the  dearest  spot  of  earth." 

And  yet,  I  wonder  whether  you  ever  think  that 
it  is  only  because  of  the  shelter  which  the  flag  gives 
you  that  you  have  and  enjoy  your  homes!  If  that 
flag-shelter  were  taken  away,  with  it  would  pass  at 
once  the  security  of  home.  The  flag,  like  a  guardian  angel,  spreads  its 
folds,  like  wings,  above  your  dwellings,  and  guards  them  with  unceas- 
ing care,  and  with  all  the  mighty  power  of  the  government.  Let  the 
flag,  then,  fly  over  your  homes.  Place  it  upon  the  walls  of  your  room, 
so  that  when  morning  carries  the  flaming  torch  of  Day  before  your 
window,  touching  the  red,  white  and  blue  with  a  fresh  splendor,  you 
may  cry,  as  once  did  a  famous  knight  of  old,  "  There's  sunshine  on  the 



Home's  not  merely  four  square  walls, 

Though  with  pictures  hung  and  gilded, — 
Home  is  where  affection  calls, 

Filled  with  shrines  the  heart  hath  builded. 
Home!     Go  watch  the  faithful  dove 

Sailing  'neath  the  heaven  above  us. 
Home  is  where  there's  one  to  love; 

Home  is  where  there's  one  to  love  us. 

Home's  not  merely  roof  and  room. 

It  needs  something  to  endear  it. 
Home  is  where  the  heart  can  bloom, 

Where  there's  some  kind  lip  to  cheer  it. 
What  is  home  with  none  to  meet, 

None  to  welcome,  none  to  greet  us? 
Home  is  sweet  and  only  sweet, 

When  there's  one  we  love  to  meet  us. 

(41)  — Charles  Swain. 



A  few  Sundays  ago,  I  stood  on  a  hill  in  Washington.     My  heart 
thrilled  as  I  looked  on  the  towering  marble  of  my  country's  Capitol. 

A  few  days  later  I  visited  a  country  home.  A  modest,  quiet 
house,  sheltered  by  great  trees  and  set  in  a  circle  of  field  and  meadow, 
gracious  with  the  promise  of  harvest  barns  and  cribs  well  filled  and 
the  old  smokehouse  odorous  with  treasure  —  the  fragrance  of  pink 
and  hollyhock  mingling  with  the  aroma  of  garden  and  orchard,  and 
resonant  with  the  hum  of  bees  and  poultry's  busy  clucking  —  inside 
the  house,  thrift,  comfort,  and  that  cleanliness  that  is  next  to  godli- 
ness, and  the  old  clock  that  had  held  its  steadfast  pace  amid  the  frolic 
of  weddings,  and  kept  company  with  the  watchers  of  the  sick  bed, 
and  had  ticked  the  solemn  requiem  for  the  dead;  and  the  well-worn 
Bible  that,  thumbed  by  fingers  long  since  stilled,  and  blurred  with 
tears  of  eyes  long  since  closed,  held  the  simple  annals  of  the  family, 
and  the  heart  and  conscience  of  the  home.  Outside  stood  the  master, 
strong  and  wholesome  and  upright;  wearing  no  man's  collar;  with 
no  mortgage  on  his  roof,  and  no  lien  on  his  ripening  harvest;  pitching 
his  crops  in  his  own  wisdom,  and  selling  them  in  his  own  time  in  his 
chosen  market;  master  of  his  lands  and  master  of  himself.  Near  by 
stood  his  aged  father,  happy  in  the  heart  and  home  of  his  son.  And 
as  they  started  to  the  house  the  old  man's  hands  rested  on  the  young 
man's  shoulder,  touching  it  with  the  knighthood  of  the  fourth  com- 
mandment, and  laying  there  the  unspeakable  blessing  of  an  honored 
and  grateful  father.  As  they  drew  near  the  door  the  old  mother 
appeared;  the  sunset  falling  on  her  face,  softening  its  wrinkles  and  its 
tenderness,  lighting  up  her  patient  eyes,  and  the  rich  music  of  her  heart 
trembling  on  her  lips  as  in  simple  phrase  she  welcomed  her  husband 
and  son  to  their  home.  Beyond  was  the  good  wife,  happy  amid  her 
household  cares.  And  the  children,  strong  and  sturdy,  trooping  down 
the  lane  with  the  lowing  herd,  or  weary  of  simple  sport,  seeking,  as 
truant  birds  do,  the  quiet  of  the  old  home  nest.  And  I  saw  the  night 
descend  on  that  home.  And  the  stars  swarmed  in  the  bending  skies, 
and  the  father,  a  simple  man  of  God,  gathered  the  family  about  him, 



read  from  the  Bible  the  old,  old  story  of  love  and  faith,  and  then  closed 
the  record  of  that  simple  day  by  calling  down  the  benediction  of  God 
on  the  family  and  the  home! 

And  as  I  gazed,  the  memory  of  the  great  Capitol  faded  from  my 
brain.  Forgotten  its  treasure  and  its  splendor.  And  I  said,  "  Surely 
here  —  here  in  the  homes  of  the  people  —  is  lodged  the  ark  of  the  cove- 
nant of  my  country.  Here  is  its  majesty  and  its  strength.  Here  the 
beginning  of  its  power  and  the  end  of  its  responsibility." 

The  home  is  the  source  of  our  national  life.  Back  of  the  national 
Capitol  and  above  it  stands  the  home.  Back  of  the  President  and 
above  him  stands  the  citizen.  What  the  home  is,  this  and  nothing 
else  will  the  Capitol  be.  What  the  citizen  wills,  this  and  nothing  else 
will  the  President  be. —  Henry  W.  Grady. 


I  love  my  country's  pine-clad  hills, 
Her  thousand  bright  and  gushing  rills, 

Her  sunshine  and  her  storms; 
Her  rough  and  rugged  rocks  that  rear 
Their  hoary  heads  high  in  the  air 

In   wild,   fantastic   forms. 

I  love  her  rivers,  deep  and  wide, 
Those  mighty  streams  that  seaward  glide 

To  seek  the  ocean's  breast; 
Her  smiling  fields,  her  pleasant  vales, 
Her  shady  dells,   her   flowery  dales, 

The  haunts  of  peaceful  rest. 

I  love  her  forests,  dark  and  lone. 
For  there  the  wild  bird's  merry  tone 

Is  heard  from  morn  till  night. 
And  there  are  lovelier  flowers,  I  ween, 
Than  e'er  in  Eastern  lands  were  seen, 

In  varied  colors  bright. 

Her  forests  and  her  valleys  fair, 

Her  flowers  that  scent  the  morning  air, 

Have  all  their  charms  for  me; 
But  more   I   love  my  country's  name, 
Those  words  that  echo  deathless  fame, — 

"  The  land  of  liberty." 



Oh,  give  me  back  my  native  hills, 
My  daisied  meads,  and  trouted  rills, 

And  groves  of  pine! 
Oh,  give  me,  too,  the  mountain  air, — 
My   youthful   days   without   a   care, 
When  rose  for  me  a  mother's  prayer, 

In  tones  divine! 

Long  years  have  passed, —  and   I   behold 
My  father's  elms  and  mansion  old, — 

The  brook's  bright  wave; 
But,  ah!  the  scenes  which  fancy  drew 
Deceived  my  heart, —  the  friends  I  knew 
Are  sleeping  now,  beneath  the  yew, — 

Low   in   the   grave! 

The  sunny  spots  I  loved  so  well, 
When  but  a  child,  seem  like  a  spell 

Flung  round  the  bier! 
The  ancient  wood,  the  cliff,  the  glade, 
Whose  charms,  methought,  could  never  fade, 
Again  I  view, —  yet  shed,  unstayed, 

The  silent  tear! 

Here  let  me  kneel,  and  linger  long, 
And  pour,  unheard,  my  native  song, 

And  seek  relief! 
Like  ocean's  wave,  that  restless  heaves, 
My  days  roll  on,  yet  memory  weaves 
Her  twilight  o'er  the  past,  and  leaves 

A  balm  for  grief! 

Oh,  that  I  could  again  recajl 
My  early  joys,   companions,  all, 

That  cheered   my  youth! 
But,  ah,  'tis  vain, —  how  changed  am  I!      * 
My  heart  hath  learned  the  bitter  sigh! 
The  pure  shall  meet  beyond  the  sky, — 

How   sweet   the    truth! 

—  Hesperian. 



Con  spirito. 

Frank  Treat  Southwick. 


4       [N    J" 




-J— 4-= 




i.  Ye  who  love  the    Re -pub -lie,     re -mem-ber    the   claim    Ye    owe     to      her     for-tunes,  ye 
2.  The         blue  arch   a  -  bove  us        is     Lib  -  er  -  ty's    dome,The  green  fields  be  -  neath  us      E    - 

/  -•"">- 












-<© • — •- 


<&.           Harmony. 
I     „1     ,     J N-fV,    ' 


-& j.*-s   t — * 1 1 — 

'.  * ~,r  '!«>•£  |  r  f  f  f~r  r  f 

owe    to     her  name,  To  her  years  of    pros-per  -  i  -   ty    past  and   in     store,—  A  hun-dred    be- 

qual  -  i  -    ty's  home;  But  the  schoolroom  to-day    is    Hu-man  -  i  -  ty's  friend,— Let  the  peo- pie    the 

cres    -        -        cen        -      ,  -     .  do. 
\,„a    .      .      ,         l  I      J  iiJ       _£_  f 

rj  ♦    ></>  k    *_!      I     J     J    J    J    J    -J-  U-     4-  A,—~  ..    ,L 

I  i       4= V — U^H 1-        i         '         I         '       ~— i         '-         \- \t**k — m ! 



Refrain.  Semi-Chorus. 








hind  you,    a      thou  -  sand    be  -  fore ! 

flag    and    the  school-room  de  -  fend  ! 














i  i 

the  school-house  that  stands  by     the    flag  ; 

o  * 














the      na 

tion    stand      by     the   school ! 

'Tis    .     .      the  school-bell  that 

jis    A  J.        1. 

—. — r 

^1       i^  ts 



•  w 






rings  for  our  Lib  -  er  -  ty    old, 

-2* * * * * 0 « 

'Tis      the      school- boy  whose  bal 
_cj~         4>iu  lento. 

ffi\ri  i.  j  j?  i. 

— * 6>-T 

lot    shall  rule. 


ji— H—  fr~ fr: 

« ..g 






f — r 


Small  notes  for  instrument  only. 

From  Levermorh's  "Academy  Song  Book,"  Ginn  and  Co.,  Publishers,  by  permission. 


ET  us  all  praise  and  thank  the  Legislature  of  our  great 
Empire  State  for  that  law  which  compels  every 
schoolhouse  to  keep  the  flag  flying  during  school 
time.  For  if  home  is  "  the  dearest  spot,"  hardly  less 
pleasant  should  the  schoolhouse  be.  And  what  can 
help  so  much  to  make  it  pleasant  as  the  sight  of  the 
flag?  Faces  of  the  sunniest  teachers  will  sometimes  be  overcast  with 
clouds;  pleasantest  voices  sometimes  be  edged  with  sharpness;  sweetest 
tempers  sometimes  grow  sour,  like  the  richest  cream  after  a  thunder- 
storm; but  the  flag,  ah,  the  flag!  As  it  floats  over  the  proudest  or 
poorest  schoolhouse  in  the  State,  it  always  greets  you  in  the  morning 
with  a  smile  of  welcome  on  its  pleasant  face,  and  when  you  start  for 
home,  waves  its  benediction  over  you,  and  shakes  out  from  its  folds  this 
cheery  voice:    "  Come  again!     I'll  be  here  to  greet  you." 



Our  glorious  Land  to-day, 
'Neath  Education's  sway, 

Soars  upward  still. 
Its  halls  of  learning  fair, 
Whose  bounties  all  may  share, 
Behold  them  everywhere 

On  vale  and  hill! 

Thy  safeguard,  Liberty, 
The  school  shall  ever  be, — 

Our  Nation's  pride! 
No  tyrant's  hand  shall  smite, 
While  with  encircling  might 
All  here  are  taught  the  Right 

With  Truth  allied. 


Beneath  Heaven's  gracious  will 
The  star  of  Progress  still 

Our  course  doth  sway; 
In  unity  sublime 
To  broader  heights  we  climb, 
Triumphant  over  Time, 

God  speeds  our  way! 

Grand  birthright  of  our  sires, 
Our  altars  and  our  fires 

Keep  we  still  pure! 
Our  starry  flag  unfurled, 
The  hope  of  all  the  world, 
In  peace  and  light  impearled, 

God  hold  secure. 

—  Samuel  Francis  Smith. 


The  sheet-anchor  of  the  Ship  of  State  is  the  common  school. 
Teach,  first  and  last,  Americanism.  Let  no  youth  leave  the  school 
without  being  thoroughly  grounded  in  the  history,  the  principles,  and 
the  incalculable  blessings  of  American  liberty.  Let  the  boys  be  the 
trained  soldiers  of  constitutional  freedom,  the  girls  the  intelligent 
mothers  of  freemen.  American  liberty  must  be  protected. —  Hon. 
Chauncey  M.  Depew. 


The  "  fine,  old  conservative  policy,"  as  it  was  called  two  centuries 
ago,  of  "  keeping  subjects  ignorant  in  order  to  make  them  submissive," 
has  happily  given  place  to  one  which  seeks  to  educate  all  the  people 
in  order  to  preserve  liberty,  to  enforce  law,  to  develop  manhood  and 
womanhood,  and  to  perpetuate  the  blessings  of  good  government. 
Free  common  schools  are  open  to-day  all  over  our  broad  land.  Col- 
leges and  universities,  high  schools,  and  schools  of  professional  and 
technical  training  offer  their  privileges  to  all  who  seek  them.  Two 
glorious  centuries  of  educational  growth,  unmatched  in  the  history 
of  the  world!     What  wondrous  changes!     What  stupendous  strides! 



Philosophers  and  statesmen  have  ever  recognized  the  truth  that 
universal  education  is  the  basis  of  true  national  prosperity  and  real 
greatness.  "  The  fair  fabric  of  Justice  raised  by  Numa,"  says  Plutarch, 
"  passed  rapidly  away  because  it  was  not  founded  upon  education." 
No  truer  reason  can  be  given  for  the  decay  of  everything  good  in  a 
State.  No  nation  will  ever  realize  its  full  possibilities  which  does  not 
build  upon  the  education  of  the  whole  people,  upon  the  enlightenment 
of  the  masses.  Every  consideration  of  public  safety  points  to  the 
wisdom  of  emancipating  the  people  from  the  slavery  of  ignorance. 
Might  alone  has  made  the  struggle  for  greatness  and  has  failed.  War, 
with  all  its  horrors,  has  proved  powerless  to  make  nations  great. 
Rome,  great  as  she  was,  and  leader  of  the  world,  fell,  not  because  she 
lacked  brave  generals  and  great  rulers,  but  because  her  plan  of  educa- 
tion did  not  reach  to  the  foundations  of  her  national  life  and  character. 
In  a  republic  like  ours,  the  system  of  education,  to  realize  its  highest 
aim,  must  reach  the  common  people,  the  "  plain  people,"  as  Lincoln 
loved  to  call  them.  It  is  the  highest  province  of  the  State  to  deter- 
mine the  character  and  the  quality  of  the  education  which  will  best 
prepare  them  for  their  life  work  as  individuals,  and  as  citizens  of  the 
republic. —  Charles  R.  Skinner,  from  the  President's  Address,  delivered 
before  the  National  Educational  Association  of  the  United  States,  at 
Milwaukee,  Wis.,  July  6,  1897. 

Our  fathers,  in  their  wisdom,  knew  that  the  foundations  of  liberty, 
fraternity  and  equality  must  be  universal  education.  The  free  school, 
therefore,  was  conceived  the  corner-stone  of  the  Republic.  Washing- 
ton and  Jefferson  recognized  that  while  religious  training  belongs  to 
the  church,  and  while  technical  and  higher  culture  may  be  given  by 
private  institutions,  the  training  of  citizens  in  the  common  knowledge 
and  in  the  common  duties  of  citizenship  belongs  irrevocably  to  the 
State.  We,  therefore,  uplift  the  system  of  free  and  universal  educa- 
tion as  the  master  force  which,  under  God,  has  been  informing  each 
of  our  generations  with  the  peculiar  truths  of  Americanism. —  Charles 
R.  Skinner,  from  address  before  New  York  State  Teachers'  Associa- 
tion, 1897. 



(From  the  last  interview  of  General  Horry  with  General  Marion  in  1795.) 

Israel  of  old,  you  know,  was  destroyed  for  lack  of  knowledge;  and 
all  nations,  all  individuals,  have  come  to  naught  from  the  same  cause; 
what  signifies  then  even  this  government,  divine  as  it  is,  if  it  be  not 
known  and  prized  as  it  deserves?    This  is  best  done  by  free  schools. 

Men  will  always  fight  for  their  government  according  to  their 
sense  of  its  value.  To  value  it  aright,  they  must  understand  it.  This 
they  cannot  do,  without  education,  and,  as  a  large  portion  of  the 
citizens  are  poor,  and  can  never  attain  that  inestimable  blessing  with- 
out the  aid  of  government,  it  is  plainly  the  first  duty  of  government  to 
bestow  it  freely  upon  them.  The  more  perfect  the  government,  the 
greater  the  duty  to  make  it  well  known.    *    *    * 

God  knows,  a  good  government  can  hardly  be  half  anxious  enough 
to  give  its  citizens  a  thorough  knowledge  of  its  own  excellencies.  For 
as  some  of  the  most  valuable  truths,  for  lack  of  careful  promulgation, 
have  been  lost,  so  the  best  government  on  earth,  if  not  duly  known  and 
prized,  may  be  subverted.  Ambitious  demagogues  will  rise,  and  the 
people,  through  ignorance  and  love  of  change,  will  follow  them. 

Look  at  the  people  of  New  England.  From  Britain  their  fathers 
had  fled  to  America  for  religion's  sake.  Religion  had  taught  them  that 
God  created  men  to  be  happy;  that  to  be  happy  they  must  have  virtue; 
that  virtue  is  not  to  be  attained  without  knowledge,  nor  knowledge 
without  instruction,  nor  public  instruction  without  free  schools,  nor 
free  schools  without  legislative  order.  Among  a  free  people  who  fear 
God,  the  knowledge  of  duty  is  the  same  as  doing  it.  With  minds  well 
informed  of  their  rights,  and  hearts  glowing  with  love  for  themselves 
and  posterity,  when  the  war  broke  out  they  rose  up  against  the  enemy, 
firm  and  united,  and  gave  glorious  proof  how  men  will  fight  when  they 
know  that  their  all  is  at  stake. — Francis  Marion. 


AVE  you  ever  been  in  the  city  of  Washington,  the 
capital  of  your  country?  If  you  have,  I  am  sure 
you  never  can  forget  the  noble  "  Capitol  "  building, 
at  one  end  of  Pennsylvania  avenue,  while  at  the 
other  end  stands  the  famous  "  White  House,"  the 
home  of  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

To  the  Capitol  the  approach  is  very  beautiful 
and  the  first  sight  of  the  great  building  very  inspiring.  Within  its 
walls  the  laws  which  govern  our  country  are  made  by  United  States 
Senators  —  two  from  each  state  in  the  Union  —  and  Representatives 
from  all  the  states, —  the  number  from  each  state  being  based  upon 
population.  Here  indeed,  from  the  loftiest  peak  of  the  "  Capitol," 
should  our  dear  flag  fly.  For  the  flag  is  the  emblem  of  that  justice 
which  the  laws  of  this  country  must  grant  to  every  citizen,  no  matter 
how  poor  or  humble  he  may  be.  In  this  building  also  sit  the  Justices 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States.  It  is  their  duty  to  see  that 
the  laws  are  right,  that  justice  is  done  between  man  and  man,  and  that 
respect  and  obedience  are  shown  to  these  just  laws. 

Washington  is  without  doubt  one  of  the  most  beautiful  cities  in  the 
world.  It  is  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  so-called.  This  district  is 
really  a  territory  of  the  United  States,  and  as  such  is  under  the  exclusive 
care  and  government  of  Congress.  No  finer  historical  program  for  the 
Capitol  could  be  devised  than  to  have  pupils  read  about  the  men  and 
the  events  that  have  made  Washington,  the  Capitol,  and  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia,  the  home  of  the  Capitol — so  famous.  Then  let  them 
mould  their  reading  into  short  essays,  to  be  read,  compared  and  con- 
trasted as  to  knowledge  of  historical  perspective  shown  and  real  a  com- 
posing "  power. 




A  few  Sundays  ago  I  stood  on  a  hill  in  Washington.  My  heart 
thrilled  as  I  looked  on  the  towering  marble  of  my  country's  Capitol, 
and  a  mist  gathered  in  my  eyes  as,  standing  there,  I  thought  of  its 
tremendous  significance  and  the  powers  there  assembled,  and  the  re- 
sponsibilities there  centered  —  its  president,  its  congress,  its  courts, 
its  gathered  treasure,  its  army,  its  navy,  and  its  60,000,000  of  citizens. 
It  seemed  to  me  the  best  and  mightiest  sight  that  the  sun  could  find 
in  its  wheeling  course  —  this  majestic  home  of  a  Republic  that  has 
taught  the  world  its  best  lessons  of  liberty  —  and  I  felt  that  if  wisdom, 
and  justice,  and  honor  abided  therein,  the  world  would  stand  indebted 
to  this  temple  on  which  my  eyes  rested,  and  in  which  the  ark  of  my 
covenant  was  lodged  for  its  final  uplifting  and  regeneration. — 
Henry  W.  Grady. 

With  each  succeeding  year,  new  interest  is  added  to  this  spot.  It 
becomes  connected  with  all  the  historical  associations  of  our  country, 
with  her  statesmen  and  her  orators;  and  alas!  its  cemetery  is  annually 
enriched  with  the  ashes  of  her  chosen  sons.  Before  is  the  broad  and 
beautiful  river,  separating  two  of  the  original  thirteen  states,  and  which 
a  late  President,  a  man  of  determined  purpose  and  inflexible  will,  but 
patriotic  heart,  desired  to  span  with  arches  of  ever-enduring  granite, 
symbolical  of  the  firmly  cemented  union  of  the  North  and  South.  On 
its  banks  repose  the  ashes  of  the  Father  of  His  Country;  and  at  our 
side,  by  a  singular  felicity  of  position,  overlooking  the  city  which  he 
designed,  and  which  bears  his  name,  rises  to  his  memory  the  marble 
column,  sublime  in  its  simple  grandeur,  and  fitly  intended  to  reach  a 
loftier  height  than  any  similar  structure  on  the  surface  of  the  whole 
earth.  Let  the  votive  offering  of  his  grateful  countrymen  be  freely 
contributed  to  carry  higher  and  still  higher  this  monument.  May  I 
say,  as  on  another  occasion:  Let  it  rise!  Let  it  rise,  till  it  shall  meet 
the  sun  in  his  coming.  Let  the  earliest  light  of  the  morning  gild  it, 
and  parting  day  linger  and  play  on  its  summit. —  Daniel  Webster. 






i — ir-Jr-* 




-eF — s~ 

i.  Bright  -  ly      the  star       of      Free  -  dom  shines,   Beam  -  ing  with  light    and     glad   -    ness  ; 
2.      O       dear     Co-lum-  bia,      glo  -riousland!      Ev    -    er      we   lave     and    bless       thee; 

#77-? t^t-J=t=f=t=t=t 











-»-    -•-    -&- 

Wak-ing    to    life     new  scenes    of       joy,    Driv-ing     a-way    all    sad  -  ness.  Hail  to    our  coun-  try, 
Thy  rights  we'll  ev  -  er  brave     de  -  fend  From  those  who  dare  oppress  thee.  Thy  laws  are  just,  thy 

^-fr-l        !,       K^H — — i 1 h 





-s) u- 

stout    and  brave,  Land    of    our  deep     de    -    vo  -  tion  ;    In       ev-'ry  clime   her     flag  doth  wave, 
sons    are  brave,    Sa  -  cred  each  loy  -  al        feel  -  ing;  Round  our  loved  flag  we     firm      u  -  nite, 





1      I      't 





-N— •- 






On    ev  - 'ry  swell- ing        o-cean. 
Round  Freedom's  al- tar     kneel-ing. 

Bright-ly   the  star   of  free-dom  shines,Beaming  with 
Bright-ly  the   star   of  free-dom  shines,Beaming  with 




I — rr— v 



-5> — ■ 








ight    and 


* . ;    #- 


glad  -  ness,  Beam -ing  with  light  and  glad-  ness,    Co-lum- bia,  brave  and    free! 


HE  Boys  in  Blue!  "    When  can  their  glory  fade?    Have  you 
not  heard  your  fathers  tell  of  the  great  Civil  War  —  the 
days  from  1861  to  1865?    How  the  flag,  so  dear  to  us  all 
in  the  Northland,  was  lowered  at  Fort  Sumter  on  a  sor- 
rowful April  day?    How  for  four  years  the  conflict  raged 
between  the  North  and  the  South,  with  untold  loss  of  life  and  treasure? 
Many  of  you  know  the  story  in  a  far  more  touching  and  sacred  way 
than  text-books  could  ever  tell  it  to  you. 

"The  Boys  in  Gray!"  When  can  their  valor  fade?  Fewer  in 
number  than  the  Northern  soldiers,  with  scantier  resources,  with  the 
war  raging  about  their  very  hearthstones  and  the  beautiful  Southland 
filled  with  lamentation  and  weeping  everywhere,  how  courageously 
they  fought  for  the  things  they  held  dear!  And  to-day,  thank  Heaven, 
the  flag  that  was  lowered  at  Sumter  floats  over  an  undivided  land,  a 
united  people,  a  Union  restored! 


A  little  while  after  I  came  home  from  the  last  scene  of  all  [the 
funeral  of  Grant],  I  found  that  a  woman's  hand  had  collected  the 
insignia  I  had  worn  in  the  magnificent,  melancholy  pageant — the 
orders  assigning  me  to  duty  and  the  funeral  scarfs  and  badges  —  and 
had  grouped  and  framed  them;  unbidden,  silently,  tenderly;  and  when 
I  reflected  that  the  hands  that  did  this  were  those  of  a  loving  Southern 
woman,  whose  father  had  fallen  on  the  Confederate  side  in  the  battle,  I 
said:  "The  war  indeed  is  over;  let  us  have  peace!"  Gentlemen, 
soldiers,  comrades,  the  silken  folds  that  twine  about  us  here,  for  all 
their  soft  and  careless  grace,  are  yet  as  strong  as  hooks  of  steel!  They 
hold  together  a  united  people  and  a  great  nation;  for  realizing  the 
truth  at  last  —  with  no  wounds  to  be  healed  and  no  stings  of  defeat 
to  remember  —  the  South  says  to  the  North,  as  simply  and  as  truly  as 
was  said  three  thousand  years  ago  in  that  far  away  meadow  upon  the 
margin  of  the  mystic  sea:  "  Whether  thou  goes't,  I  will  go;  and  where 
thou  lodgest,  I  will  lodge;  thy  people  shall  be  my  people,  and  thy  God, 
my  God." — Henry  Watterson,  at  banquet  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee 
in  Chicago.  ^55) 



There  grows  a  fair  palmetto  in  the  sunny  Southern  lands; 
Upon  the  stern  New  England  hills  a  somber  pine  tree  stands, 
And  each  towers  like  a  monument  above  the  perished  brave; 
A  grave  'neath  the  palmetto  —  beneath  the  pine  a  grave. 

The  Carolina  widow  comes  this  bright  May  day  to  spread 
Magnolia  and  jessamine  above  her  soldier  dead. 
And  the  Northern  mother  violets  strews  upon  her  son  below, — 
Her  only  son,  who  fell  so  many  weary  years  ago. 

Tears  for  the  gallant  Yankee  boy  —  one  of  Grant's  heroes  he. 

Tears  for  the  stalwart  Southern  man  —  the  man  who  marched  with  Lee. 

But  love,  and  only  love,  between  the  lonely  ones  who  twine 

Their  wreaths  'neath  the  palmetto  —  their  chaplets  'neath  the  pine. 

Oh,  tried  tree  of  the  Southland!  from  out  whose  trunks  were  wrought 
The  ramparts  of  that  glorious  fort  where  Sergeant  Jasper  fought; 
Oh,  true  tree  of  the  Northland!  whose  pictured  form  supplied 
The  emblem  for  our  earliest  flag,  that  waved  where  Warren  died  — 

Still  watch  the  dead  you've  watched  so  long,  the  dead  who  died  so  well; 
And  matrons  mourn,  as  mourn  you  must,  your  lost  dear  ones  who  fell; 
But  joy  and  peace  and  hope  to  all,  now  North  and  South  combine 
In  one  grand  whole,  as  one  soil  bears  the  palmetto  and  the  pine! 

—  Manley  H.  Pike. 

Sectional  lines  no  longer  mar  the  map  of  the  United  States.  Sec- 
tional feeling  no  longer  holds  back  the  love  we  bear  each  other.  Frater- 
nity is  the  national  anthem,  sung  by  a  chorus  of  forty-five  states,  and 
our  territories  at  home  and  beyond  the  seas.  The  Union  is  once  more 
the  common  atlas  of  our  love  and  loyalty,  our  devotion  and  sacrifice. 
The  old  flag  again  waves  over  us  in  peace,  with  new  glories  which  your 
sons  and  ours  have  this  day  added  to  its  sacred  folds.  *  *  *  What 
a  glorious  future  awaits  us  if  unitedly,  wisely  aricl  bravely  we  face  the 
new  problems  now  pressing  upon  us,  determined  to  solve  them  for 
right  and  humanity!  *  *  *  Re-united!  one  country  again  and  one 
country  forever!  Proclaim  it  from  the  press  and  pulpit!  Teach  it  in 
the  schools !  Write  it  across  the  skies !  —  William  McKinley,  on  his 
Southern  tour,  in  1898. 


Words  and  music  by  Charles  W.  Johnson. 





WP     d- 


i.    O       star-    ry    flag       of     Un  -  ion,    hail !  Now  wave    thy  silk-  en    folds    on    high,   The 

2.  Who  dares  haul  down  from  mast  or    tow'r,  Yon     em  -  blem  of      Co  -  lum  -  bia's  pride,  His 

3.  We   raise     no  hand     for  strife  or     war,    We    plead   for  peace  for      ev  -    'ry   land ;   But 

~.*J>.        1 






1 H * 




3      J    =^j— 4-frh j 


^ — *- 


-* — Jr 

gen  -  tie  breeze  that  stirs  each  sail  Pro  -  claims  a  -  broad  dear  Free  -  dom  nigh, 
life  holds  light  in  that  dread  hour,  Since  brave  men  for  that  flag  have  died, 
love     we        al  -  way    each  bright  star,    Each     col     -     or,      stripe,  and     rain  -  bow    strand. 




\ — r 


1 — r 







Blue  -  field,    thy     stars    for       ev  -  'ry  State  ;    Thy    crim  -  son  stripes,  thy     peer  -  less  white, 

r*  f- • —  r-f —  — f — r— • 2 • • r4 





J 1. 




Wave     now  o'er     us,     while    our    cho  -    rus    .Swells     our  watch  -  word,  God      and  Right ! 

gy-r    r  r— h 

1    •    i' 

By  permission  Silver,  Burdhtt  &  Co.     From  "Songs  of  the  Nation." 



i.  The  Camp Songj  The  Camp  Fhg 

2.  The  Hospital Song,  The  Good  Comrade. 

3.  The  Exposition  Buildings Song,  The  Centennial  Hymn. 

4.  The  Consulate Song,  Many  Flags  in  Many  Lands. 

(  The  Land Song,  Our  Own  Dear  Land. 

I  The  Sea Song,  Ocean-Guarded  Flag. 



HEN  your  fathers  or  your  brothers  enlist  to  fight  for  their 
country,  they  do  not  always  march  for  the  battle-field. 
They  are  sent  at  first  "  into  camp,"  as  we  say.  Some  of 
you  have  seen  these  camps, —  long  rows  of  white  tents, 
with  streets  stretching  between  the  rows  on  either  side. 
Here,  the  brave  men  stay  for  a  long  time,  spending  their  time  in 
drilling,  in  doing  guard  duty,  and  in  getting  ready  for  the  hardships  of 
a  soldier's  life.  Then,  perhaps  after  months  of  waiting,  the  Secretary 
of  War,  at  Washington,  sends  word  to  them  to  "  break  camp  "  and 
hurry  away  to  the  scene  of  conflict. 

Again,  a  camp  is  often  placed  at  the  very  edge  of  a  battle-field, 
and  there  the  soldiers,  in  their  tents,  try  to  get  a  little  sleep,  not  know- 
ing but  that  the  bugle  may  call  them  "to  arms"  at  any  minute. 
What  a  joy  it  is  to  a  soldier,  whether  in  drill-camp  or  battle-camp,  to 
see  floating  from  the  tall  staff  the  banner  of  the  stars  and  stripes,  in 
whose  folds  he  finds  courage  for  the  day  of  battle! 



You  know,  we  French  stormed  Ratisbon; 

A  mile  or  so  away, 
On  a  little  mound,  Napoleon 

Stood  on  our  storming  day; 
With  neck  out-thrust,  you  fancy  how, 

Legs  wide,  arms  locked  behind, 
As  if  to  balance  the  prone  brow, 

Oppressive  with  its  mind. 

Just  as  perhaps,  he  mused,  "  My  plans, 

That  soar,  to  earth,  may  fall, 
Let  once  my  army  leader,  Lannes, 

Waver  at  yonder  wall," 


Out  'twixt  the  battery-smoke,  there  flew 

A  rider,  bound  on  bound 
Full-gallcping;  nor  bridle  drew 

Until  he  reached  the  mound. 

Then  off  there  flung  in  smiling  joy, 

And  held  himself  erect 
By  just  his  horse's  mane,  a  boy; 

You  hardly  could  suspect  — 
(So  tight  he  kept  his  lips  compressed 

Scarce  any  blood  came  through) 
You  looked  twice  ere  you  saw  his  breast 

Was  all  but  shot  in  two. 

"  Well,"  cried  he,  "  Emperor,  by  God's  grace 

We've  got  you  Ratisbon ! 
The  Marshal's  in  the  market  place, 

And  you'll  be  there  anon 
To  see  your  flag-bird  flap  his  vans 

Where  I,  to  heart's  desire, 
Perched  him!"     The  chief's  eye  flashed;  his  plans 

Soared  up  again  like  fire. 

The  chiefs  eye  flashed;  but  presently 

Softened  itself,  as  sheathes 
A  film  the  mother-eagle's  eye 

When  her  bruised  eaglet  breathes: 
"You're  wounded!"     "Nay,"  the  soldier's  pride 

Touched  to  the  quick,  he  said: 
"I'm  killed,  Sire!"     And  his  chief  beside, 

Smiling,  the  boy  fell  dead. 

—  Robert  Broivning. 

On  the  morning  of  July  ist,  1862,  five  thousand  Confederate 
cavalry  advanced  upon  Booneville,  Mo.,  then  held  by  Col.  Philip 
Sheridan  with  less  than  a  thousand  troopers.  The  Federal  line,  being 
strongly  entrenched,  was  able  to  hold  its  ground  against  this  greatly 
superior  force.  But  Sheridan,  fearful  of  being  outflanked,  directed  a 
young  captain  to  take  a  portion  of  two  companies,  make  a  rapid  detour, 
charge  the  enemy  in  the  rear  and  throw  its  line  into  confusion,  thus 
making  possible  a  simultaneous  and  successful  attack  in  front.  Sheri- 
dan said  to  him:  "  I  expect  of  your  command  the  quick  and  desperate 
work  usually  imposed  upon  a  forlorn  hope,"  at  the  same  time  bidding 


him  what  promised  to  be  an  eternal  farewell.  Ninety-two  men  rode 
calmly  out  knowing  the  supreme  moment  of  their  lives  had  come. 
What  was  in  their  hearts  during  that  silent  ride?  What  lights  and 
shadows  flashed  across  the  cameras  of  their  souls?  To  one  pale  boy, 
there  came  the  vision  of  a  quaint  old  house,  a  white-haired  woman  on 
her  knees  in  prayer,  an  open  Bible  by  her  side,  God's  peace  upon  her 
face.  Another  memory  held  a  cottage,  all  imbedded  in  the  shade  of 
sheltering  trees  and  clinging  vines;  stray  bits  of  sunshine  around  the 
open  door;  within,  a  fair  young  mother,  crooning  lullabies  above  a 
baby's  crib.  And  one  old  grizzled  hero  seems  to  see,  in  mists  of  un- 
shed tears,  a  bush-grown  corner  of  the  barnyard  fence,  and  through 
the  rails  a  blended  picture  of  faded  calico,  and  golden  curls,  and  laugh- 
ing eyes.  And  then  the  little  column  halted  on  a  bit  of  rising  ground 
and  faced  —  destiny. 

Before  them  was  a  brigade  of  cavalry  three  thousand  strong. 
That  way  lay  death.  Behind  them  were  the  open  fields,  the  sheltering 
woods,  safety,  and  dishonor.  Just  for  a  moment  every  cheek  was 
blanched.  A  robin  sang  unheeded  in  a  neighboring  limb;  clusters  of 
purple  daisies  bloomed  unseen  upon  the  grassy  slope;  the  sweet  fresh 
breath  of  early  summer  filled  the  air,  unfelt  by  all.  They  only  saw 
the  dear  old  flag  of  Union  overhead;  they  only  knew  that  foes  of 
country  blocked  the  road  in  front;  they  only  heard  the  ringing  voice 
of  their  gallant  leader  ordering  the  charge,  and  with  a  yell,  the  little 

troop  swept  on. 

Flashed  every  sabre  bare, 
Flashed  as  they  turned  in  air, 
Charging  an  army, 
While  all  the  world  wondered. 

So  sudden  and  unexpected  was  the  attack,  so  desperate  and  irresistible 
the  charge  that  this  handful  of  men  cut  their  way  through  the  heart  of 
the  whole  brigade.  Then,  in  prompt  obedience  to  the  calm  command 
of  their  captain  they  wheeled,  re-formed,  and  charged  again.  At  this 
opportune  moment,  while  the  Confederates  were  in  confusion,  Sheri- 
dan's whole  line  dashed  forward  with  mighty  cheers,  and  the  day  was 
Avon.  That  night,  forty  of  the  ninety-two  kept  their  eternal  bivouac 
on  the  field  of  battle,  their  white  faces  kissed  by  the  silent  stars. —  John 
M.  Thurston. 



"  Give  us  a  song!  "  the  soldiers  cried, 
The  outer  trenches  guarding, 

When  the  heated  guns  of  the  camps  allied 
Grew  weary  of  bombarding. 

The  dark   Redan,  in  silent  scoff, 
Lay  grim  and  threatening,  under; 

And  the  tawny  mound  of  the  Malakoff 
No  longer  belched  its  thunder. 

There  was  a  pause.     A  guardsman  said: 
"We  storm  the  forts  to-morrow; 

Sing  while  we  may,  another  day 
Will  bring  enough  of  sorrow." 

They  lay  along  the  battery's  side, 
Below  the  smoking  cannon: 

Brave  hearts  from  Severn  and  from  Clyde, 
And  from  the  banks  of  Shannon. 

They  sang  of  love,  and  not  of  fame; 

Forgot  was  Britain's  glory; 
Each  heart  recalled  a  different  name, 

But  all  sang  "  Annie  Laurie." 

Voice  after  voice  caught  up  the  song, 

Until  its  tender  passion 
Rose  like  an  anthem,  rich  and  strong, — 

Their  battle-eve  confession. 

Beyond  the  darkening  ocean  burned 
The  bloody  sunset's  embers, 

While  the  Crimean  valleys  learned 
How  English  love  remembers. 

And  once  again,  a  fiery  hell 

Rained  on  the  Russian  quarters, 

With  scream  of  shot,  and  burst  of  shell, 
And  bellowing  of  the  mortars. 


And  Irish  Nora's  eyes  are  dim 

For  a  singer,  dumb  and  gory; 
And  English  Mary  mourns  for  him 

Who  sang  of  "Annie  Laurie." 

Sleep,  soldiers!  still  in  honored  rest 

Your  youth  and  valor  wearing.: 
The  bravest  are  the  tenderest, — 

The  loving  are  the  daring. 

—  Bayard  Taylor. 


The  flag  of  Freedom  floats  in  pride 
Above  the  hills  our  fathers  saved; 

It  floats  as,  in  the  battle  tide, 
Above  the  brave  and  good  it  waved. 

It  wakes  the  thought  of  other  days, 
When  they,  who  sleep  beneath  its  shade, 

Stood  foremost  in  the  battle  blaze 
And  bared  for  us  the  patriot  blade. 

High  o'er  its  stars  our  spirits  leap 
To  gratulate  their  deathless  fame, 

With  them  the  jubilee  to  keep, 

And  hail  our  country's  honor'd  named. 

Above  the  plains,  above  the  rocks, 
Above   our   fathers'   honor'd   graves, 

Free  from  a  thousand  battle  shocks, 
Our  striped  and  starry  banner  waves. 

What  was  the  price  which  bade  it  ride 
Above  our  loved  and  native  plains? 

And  are  there  men  would  curb  its  pride, 
And  bind  our  eagle  fast  in  chains? 




Spirit  of  Washington,  awake! 

And  watch  o'er  Freedom's  chartered  land; 
The  battle  peal  again  may  break, 

Again  in  arms  thy  children  stand! 

—  Alonzo  Lewis. 


The  morning  is  cheery,  my  boys,  arouse! 
The  dew  shines  bright  on  the  chestnut  boughs, 
And  the  sleepy  mist  on  the  river  lies, 
Though  the  east  is  flushing  with  crimson  dyes. 

Awake!  awake!  awake! 

O'er  field  and  wood  and  brake, 

With   glories   newly  born, 

Comes  on  the  blushing  morn. 
Azvake!  awake! 

You  have  dreamed  of  your  homes  and  your  friends  all  night; 
You  have  basked  in  your  sweethearts'  smiles  so  bright; 
Come,  part  with  them  all  for  awhile  again,— 
Be  lovers  in  dreams;  when  awake,  be  men. 
Turn   out!   turn  out!  turn   out! 
You  have  dreamed  full  long,   I  know, 

Turn  out!  turn  out!  turn  out! 
The  east  is  all  aglow. 

Turn  out!  turn  out! 

From  every  valley  and  hill  there  come 
The  clamoring  voices  of  fife  and  drum; 
And  out  on  the  fresh,  cool  morning  air 
The  soldiers  are  swarming  everywhere. 
Fall  in!  fall  in!  fall  in! 
Every  man  in  his  place. 

Fall  in!  fall  in!  fall  in! 
Each  with  a  cheerful  face. 
Fall  in!  fall  in! 

—  Michael  O'Connor. 


W.  K.  w. 


r L^« *-. a — L." 

Hamlin  E.  Cogswell. 



i.  When   the     morn  -  ing 
2.  When   the      eve  -  ning 


the      east    -    ern 
the     west   -   ern 

skies,    And 
skies,    And 

its       col    -    ors 
the      dy    -     ing 


name      a 
day       is 






O'er     the   low  -  roofed  tents  there    the  dear     flag     flies,       And 
O'er     the   low  -  roofed  tents  there    the  dear     flag      flies,     And    it 






mir  -  rors      each  fleet    -    ing 
drives  a  -  way        all 



Now       it      catch  -  es         the     red        of  a 

Let       the     dark  -   ness  fall       o'er       the 

— »- 


■*•       ■*      ^       |t         ■*'-         •*'-•      S*      T         ^         i  in- 

folds  when     the  winds     are       loud,  And        its     sky    -  blue     breaks    on        the         sight! 
smiles     on         his   drear   -  y       round,   For       he  thinks     of         the     Flag's    deal       face! 


/AR  is  a  very  cruel  thing,  never  to  be  begun  unless 
the  honor  or  safety  of  the  nation  demands  it; 
never  to  be  continued  for  a  single  hour  beyond 
that  which  is  needful.  For  in  every  war,  many 
brave  men  are  killed  and  many  more  are  wounded. 
Now,  it  is  for  these  poor  wounded  fellows,  as  well  as  for  those  who 
are  taken  sick,  that  hospitals  are  needed.  Many  of  them  are  only 
large  tents,  put  up  outside  the  line  of  battle.  In  these  hospital- 
tents,  surgeons  and  nurses  (noble-hearted  women)  do  all  they  can 
to  relieve  the  sick  and  wounded.  If  they  get  better,  they  are  often 
sent  to  a  permanent  hospital,  or  better  still  to  the  dear  home  from 
which  they  started  for  the  war. 

Nowadays,  over  every  battle-field  hospital  in  all  civilized  countries 
is  seen  the  flaming  "  Red  Cross  "  of  the  society  of  that  name.  That  is 
the  pledge  that  the  sick  and  hurt  soldiers  will  not  be  attacked  by  the 
enemy.  And  yet,  even  with  that  cross  of  mercy,  how  dear  to  the 
wounded  patriot  is  the  sight  of  that  flag  for  which  he  is  willing  to 
give  his  life  —  "  the  last  full  measure  of  devotion." 

In  hospitals,  women  are  the  "  ministering  angels."  What  a  fine, 
patriotic  exercise  children  could  make  up  from  the  services  of  such 
immortal  names  as  Florence  Nightingale,  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe,  and 
Clara  Barton.  Theirs  is  a  heroism  and  patriotism  no  less  grand  and 
self-sacrificing  than  that  of  the  bravest  soldier  they  ever  nursed  back 

to  life  and  health. 





Whene'er  a  noble  deed  is  wrought, 
Whene'er  is  spoken  a  noble  thought, 

Our  hearts  in  glad  surprise, 

To  higher  levels  rise. 

The  tidal  wave  of  deeper  souls 
Into  our  inmost  being  rolls, 

And  lifts  us  unawares 

Out  of  all  meaner  cares. 

Honor  to  those  whose  words  or  deeds    - 
Thus  help  us  in  our  daily  needs, 

And  by  their  overflow 

Raise  us  from  what  is  low! 

Thus  thought  I.  as  by  night  I  read 

Of  the  great  army  of  the  dead. 
The  trenches  cold  and  damp, 
The  starved  and  frozen  camp  — 

The  wounded  from  the  battle-plain, 
In  dreary  hospitals  of  pain, 

The  cheerless  corridors, 

The  cold  and  stony  floors. 

Lo!  in  that  house  of  misery 
A  lady  with  a  lamp  I  see 

Pass   through  the  glimmering  gloom,. 

And  flit  from  room  to  room. 

And  slow,  as  in  a  dream  of  bliss, 
The  speechless  sufferer  turns  to  kiss 

Her  shadow,  as  it  falls 

Upon  the  darkening  walls. 

As  if  a  door  in  heaven  should  be 
Opened  and  then  closed  suddenly, 
The  vision  came  and  went, 
The  light  shone  and  was  spent. 

On  England's  annals  through  the  long 
Hereafter  of  her  speech  and  song, 

That  light  its  rays  shall  cast 

From  portals  of  the  past. 

A  Lady  with  a  Lamp  shall  stand 
In  the  great  history  of  the  land, 

A  noble  type  of  good, 

Heroic  womanhood. 


Nor  even  shall  be  wanting  here 
The  palm,  the  lily,  and  the  spear, 

The  symbols  that  of  yore 

Saint  Filomena  bore. 

—  H.  JV.  Longfellow. 


Do  you  remember,  in  that  disastrous  siege  in  India,  when  the  little 
Scotch  girl  raised  her  head  from  her  pallet  in  the  hospital,  and  said  to 
the  sickening  hearts  of  the  English:  "  I  hear  the  bagpipes;  the  Camp- 
bells are  coming!  "  And  they  said,  "  No,  Jessie;  it  is  delirium."  "  No, 
I  know  it;  I  heard  it  far  off."  And  in  an  hour,  the  pibroch  burst  upon 
their  glad  ears,  and  the  banner  of  St.  George  floated  in  triumph  over 
their  heads. —  George  William  Curtis. 

(An  anonymous  poem  composed  during  the  Civil  War.) 

The  dim  light  of  the  hospital 

Shone  on  the  beds  of  pain, 
And  the  long  night  seemed  endless, 

When  in  walked  "  Betsy  Jane." 
"  My  God!  is  this  a  woman?  " 

Said  one  poor  soldier  boy, 
And  tears  rolled  down  his  manly  cheeks, 

But  they  were  tears  of  joy. 

And  chaos  turned  to  order, 

As  Betsy  Jane  stepped  in, 
And  cleanliness  which,  we  are  told, 

"  To  godliness  is  kin." 
Hard  tack  and  salted  bacon 

To  chicken  broth  gave  way, 
And  sanitary  stores  came  in, 

And  beef  tea  won  the  day. 
"  Oh,  see  my  soft  white  pillow! 

My  bed  is  clean  once  more." 
And  "  some  one's  darling  "  smiled  upon 

This  Woman  of  the  War. 



I  know  not  if  our  "  Betsy  Jane  " 

Was  fair  to  other  eyes, 
But  to  her  "  Boys  in  Blue  "  she  seemed 

An  angel  from  the  skies. 
Her  apron  and  her  gown  of  serge 

Each  soldier  loved  to  see, 
And  blessed  her  footsteps  as  she  brought 

Such  "heavenly  toast  and  tea." 
All  the  sweet  charities  of  home 

In  plenty  there  she  poured, 
And  each  day's  work  now  brought  its  own 

"  Exceeding  great  reward!" 

It  was  not  in  the  earthquake, 

Or  in  the  fiery  flame, 
But  in  the  soothing  gentle  voice 

That  then  God's  angel  came. 
And  when  He  comes  whose  right  it  is 

Within  our  hearts  to  reign, 
And  reads  from  out  the  Book  of  Life 

The  name  of  "  Betsy  Jane  "— 

Oh,  in  that  great  Muster  Roll 

Before  the  Judge  of  all, 
When  faithful  servants  of  the  Lord 

Shall  answer  to  His  call, 
Perhaps  He'll  say  to  some  of  them: 

"  For  inasmuch  as  ye 
Have  done  it  to  the  least  of  these, 

Ye've  done  it  unto  Me." 
And  then  with  psalms  and  tossing  palms, 

Like  banners  waving  o'er, 
The  pearly  gates  will  open  wide 

To  "  Women  of  the  War." 


Alia  ?narcia 


i.     I     once     had     a    broth  -  er     sol     -    dier, 

2.  So  swift      a  ball   comes  speed  -   ing, 

3.  No  more      we'll    march,     O    com    -    rade, 

A        com  -  rade      true      and  tried  ; 
Is  it  for        me         or   thee? 

To      bat    -    tie        side      by    side ; 










0 F===-H (~ 


marched  at         sig    -    nal       giv     -    en, 
at        my        feet      he's      ly     -      ing, 
hand    shall     clasp     thee     nev   -    er, 

I             I             I  ,  1. — -  JS  J 

— e 0 0 J— — <a-? — «- 



t — r 




thou      re 




r — ' — h *\ . — 

so      blithe 
I        watch      him 
main    -    est 













bat  -  tie 
seems  a 
com    -    rade 


— 0 — 



I 1 L— r*— 







side —      To       bat    -    tie 

me —        He    seems       a 

tried —      My     com  -   rade 




















By  permission  Silver,  Burdett  &  Co. 


N  the  year  1876  there  was  a  great  exposition,  or  exhibition,  at 
Philadelphia,  to  celebrate  the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of 
our  independence  as  a  nation.  To  that  Quaker  city  gathered 
people  from  every  part  o£  the  globe  —  many  bringing  with 
them  strange  wares  or  costly  merchandise  from  across  the 
seas.  It  was  a  sight  never  to  be  forgotten;  it  made  Americans  better 
acquainted  with  all  the  nations  of  Christendom. 

In  the  year  1893,  another  and  greater  exposition  was  held  at  Chi- 
cago, to  celebrate  the  four  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  landing  of 
Columbus  upon  our  shores.  So  many  were  the  buildings,  so  beautiful 
even  by  day,  so  fairy-like  by  night  when  lighted  by  thousands  of  dazzling 
lights,  that  the  millions  who  saw  the  sight  called  it  the  finest  the  world 
had  ever  known. 

But  the  fairest  vision,  after  all,  both  at  the  "  Centennial  "  and  the 
"  Columbian  Exposition  "  were  the  countless  flags  of  red,  white  and 
blue  that  flamed  out  by  night  and  day  —  telling  of  the  peace  and  pros- 
perity of  our  nation,  and  inviting  the  people  of  every  nation  to  a  share 
in  our  happiness. 


A  travelled  Frenchman  was  asked  the  other  day  how  the  buildings 
of  the  Columbian  World's  Fair  compared  with  those  of  the  last  ex- 
position in  the  French  capital.  After  reflecting  a  moment,  he  replied: 
"  The  buildings  at  Chicago  are  what  you  might  have  expected  at  Paris; 
the  buildings  in  Paris  were  what  you  might  have  expected  in  Chicago." 

No  world's  exhibition  was  ever  better  housed,  or  more  conveni- 
ently arranged.  As  it  stood  on  the  day  of  its  formal  dedication  in  Octo- 
ber (1892),  incomplete,  its  decoration  in  progress,  with  the  scaffolding 
and  building  stages  still  marring  the  architectural  effect,  in  the  midst  of 
the  debris  of  ten  thousand  working-men,  driving  on  the  work,  night 

and  dav,  it  was  already  a  sufficient  answer  to  the  doubt  whether  the 



American  genius  is  equal  to  the  creation  of  any  works  except  those  of 
mechanical  ingenuity.  The  distinction  of  the  Columbian  Exhibition 
is  not  in  its  magnitude;  it  is  not  that  it  contains  the  largest  building 
ever  erected  in  the  world;  it  is  in  its  beauty,  its  harmonious  grouping, 
its  splendid  landscape  and  architectural  effects.  This  is  best  compre- 
hended as  a  whole  in  the  approach  from  the  lake.  The  view  there, 
especially  at  the  coming  of  evening,  when  the  long  rows  of  classic 
columns,  the  pillars  and  domes,  are  in  relief  against  a  glowing  sunset 
sky,  is  a  vision  of  beauty  that  will  surprise  most  and  will  appeal  most 
to  those  familiar  with  the  triumphs  of  man's  genius  elsewhere.  The 
little  city  of  the  lagoon,  reflected  in  the  water  as  distinctly  as  it  stands 
out  against  the  sky,  seems  like  some  fairy  exhalation  on  the  shore,  sug- 
gesting the  long  perspective  of  columns  on  the  desert  of  Palmyra,  the 
approach  by  the  sea  of  Marmora  to  Constantinople,  and  the  canals  and 
palaces  of  Venice  as  seen  from  Lido.  In  its  light  and  airy  grace  it  is 
like  a  city  of  the  imagination. —  Charles  Dudley  Warner,  in  Harper's 


Due  honor  to  the  lands 
From  which  we  sprung:  all  hail  the  ancient  fame 

Of  kindred  hearts  and  hands! 
But  we  began  with  all  that  they  had  won, 

A  counsel  of  protection  calls  us  on; 
To  do  no  more  than  they  have  done  were  shame. 

'Twere  better  far,  I  hold, 
To  see  the  Iroquois  supreme  once  more 

Among  the  forests  old 
From  hill-girt  Hudson's  current,  broad  and  slow, 

To  where  'twixt  Erie  and  Ontario, 
Leaps  green  Niagara  with  a  giant's  roar; 

To  see  the  paths  pursued 
By  commerce  with  her  flying  charioteers 

Tangled  with   solitude. 
The  Indian  trail  uncoil  among  the  trees: 

The  council-runner's  torch  against  the  breeze 
Its  signal  fling  —  "The  smoke  that  disappears." 


To  have  the  wigwams  rise 
By  summer-haunted  Horicon  so  fair; 

Fruit  blooms  and  grain-gold  dyes 
Fade  from  the  shadows  in  Cayuga's  tide, 

The  vineyards  fail  on  Keuka's  sun-beat  side, 
The  mill-crowned  cliffs  of  Genesee,  made  bare; 

'Twere  more  to  my  desire 
To  see  Manhattan's  self  laid  desolate. 

But  out  on  dreams  of  dread! 
In  him  I  put  my  waking  faith  and  trust, 

A  king  in  heart  and  head 
Who  masters  forces,  shapes  material  things, 

Who  loves  his  kind,  whose  common  sense  has  wings, 
The  true  American,  the  kindly  just, 

Full  prompt  in  word  and  deed, 
And  ready  to  make  good  some  human  hope 

In  time  of  utter  need; 
To  cross  at  Delaware  the  ice's  gorge, 

Or  tread  blood-bolted  snow  at  Valley  Forge, 

Or  keep  at  Gettysburg  the  gun-shook  slope! 


—  Joseph  O'Connor. 
[From  poem  read  at  World's  Columbian   Exposition   on  New  York  State   Day.] 

Jackson  Park,  the  pride  to-day  of  Chicago,  upon  whose  buildings, 
vast  and  stately,  the  majesty  of  the  nation  descended  this  morning  in 
dedicatory  services,  tells  of  the  resolve  to  redeem  all  promises,  to  realize 
all  hopes.  Hither  shall  be  brought  the  products  of  labor  and  art,  the 
treasures  of  earth  and  sea,  the  inventions  of  this  wondrously  inventive 
century,  the  fruits  of  learning  and  genius.  The  entire  globe  is  astir 
in  preparation  to  fill  to  repletion  the  palaces  we  have  erected.  The 
invitation  has  gone  out  to  the  world  in  all  the  fullness  and  warmth  of 
the  heart  of  this  republic,  and  the  nations  of  the  world  have  harkened 
to  it  as  they  never  did  before  to  a  voice  calling  men  to  an  exposition. 
The  best  that  America  can  bring,  the  best  the  world  owns,  shall  soon 
be  in  Jackson  Park. 

What  may  be  added?  I  will  give  reply.  What  is  there  more  im- 
portant, more  precious  than  matter  and  all  the  forms  in  which  matter 


may  be  invested?  Is  there  not  mind?  What  is  there  greater  than  all 
the  results  of  the  thought  —  the  labor  of  man?  Is  there  not  man 
himself,  the  designer,  the  maker  of  his  works?  Bring  hither,  then, 
mind.  Bring  men  —  not  merely  the  millions,  anxious  to  see  and  to 
learn.  These  do  we  need;  they  do  not  suffice.  Bring  the  men  whom 
the  millions  desire  to  contemplate,  and  from  whom  they  may  receive 
valued  lessons.  Bring  the  thinkers,  the  workers,  the  scholars,  the 
apostles  of  action,  who  have  rendered  possible  or  have  produced  the 
marvels  which  will  be  housed  in  Jackson  Park,  whose  dreams  make 
toward  the  building  up  of  humanity,  whose  arms  reach  out  to  the 
improvement  of  men  along  all  the  lines  of  human  progress.  Let 
us  have  the  Columbuses  of  our  time.  Let  us  have  Parliaments  of  the 
leaders  of  men  convoked  from  all  lands  under  the  sun.  In  this  manner 
is  your  exposition  complete  in  all  its  parts,  truly  representative  of  the 
age  and  truly  great.  You  have  matter  and  men;  you  have  the  works 
and  the  workers.  In  men  far  more  than  in  matter  you  have  the  highest 
products  of  progress.  There  is  progress  only  when  men  grow.  In 
men  you  have  the  potent  means  to  determine  the  progress  of  the  future. 
God  has  made  men  the  agents  of  progress. —  Right  Rev.  John  Ireland, 
D.  D.,  at  dedication  of  World's  Columbian  Exposition. 


John  Greenleaf  Whittier 

John  Knowles  Paine. 

i.  Our  fa  -   thers'   God,  from 

2.  Here,  where    of      old        by 

3.  For  art       and     la    -    bor 

4.  Oh,  make  Thou  us,      thro' 

out  whose   hand  The 

Thy  de     -     sign,  The 

met  in         truce,  For 

cen     -  turies   long,  In 






1  I 


cen  -  tunes 
fa  -   thers 
beau  -  ty 
peace    se 

_(2 «,_ 





Words  hy  special  arrangement  with  Koughton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 
Music  used  by  permission  of  Oliver  Di  rsoN  Company,  owners  of  copyright. 


New  York  has  built  two  houses  at  the  Fair.  One  is  the  palatial 
structure  before  us,  a  fitting  representation  of  the  dignity  and  opulence 
of  the  Empire  State.  The  other  is  an  humble  structure  at  the  opposite 
end  of  the  park  destined  to  show  how  a  workingman  and  his  family 
may  be  enabled  to  live  with  due  regard  to  the  requirements  of  sanitation 
and  healthful  nutriment.  The  house  in  which  we  stand  has  been  one 
of  the  sights  of  the  fair.  It  has  been  a  matter  of  pride  to  every  New 
Yorker  visiting  Jackson  Park  that  the  headquarters  of  his  state  were 
so  beautiful,  so  commodious,  and  so  popular.  He'  has  found  here  the 
conveniences  of  a  club,  the  educating  influence  of  a  museum,  and  the 
rest  and  refreshment  of  a  summer  villa.  The  true  attitude  of  the  people 
of  New  York  toward  this  Exposition  has  nowhere  been  more  fitly  rep- 
resented than  in  the  superb  proportions  and  princely  magnificence  of 
this  their  State  house  of  call.  But  if  this  be  New  York's  idea  of  the 
regal  attire  which  befits  her  as  a  guest  at  the  table  of  nations,  the  other 
edifice  —  the  model  workingman's  home  —  is  no  less  typical  of  her 
care  for  the  welfare  of  the  lowly,  and  her  sense  that  the  qualities  that 
go  to  make  her  great  are  those  which  are  nourished  in  the  homes  of  the 
toilers. —  Roswell  P.  Flower,  at  World's  Columbian  Exposition,  New 
York  State  Day. 


O   Progress,  with  thy  restless  eyes, 

Sleepless  as  fate  and  tireless  as  the  sun, 
The  mighty  mother  of  the  world's  emprise  — 

Here,  where  we  bring  the  treasures  thou  hast  won, 
Bend  thou  thine  ear  and  list  to  our  acclaim. 

Stay  thy  imperial  march  by  land  and  sea, 
While  we  this  temple,  vocal  with  thy  name, 

We  dedicate  to  thee! 

Whatever  here  shall  show  mankind 

That,  spite  of  history's  lying  page, 
Not  buried  in  the  years  behind, 

But  forward  lies  the  golden  age; 
Whatever  here  shall  worthiest  stand, 

The  boon  of  ages  yet  to  be, 
Best  fruitage  of  the  brain  or  hand, 

We  dedicate  to  thee. 


Whatever  here  shall  truest  teach 

How  round  the  world  may  wiser  grow 
The  clearer  eye,  the  wider  reach, 

The  rule  of  heaven  here  below; 
Whate'er  makes  Learning's  torch  more  bright, 

Or  wides  the  boundaries  of  the  free, 

The  jewels  of  our  empire's  might, 

We  dedicate  to  thee! 

—  William  H.  McElroy. 

[At  dedication  of  New  York  State  Building,  World's  Columbian  Exposition.] 


y     v    i 

N         P1 













e         * 















-     y 




-    y 







where   the 

pret    ■ 

ti    - 



-     ors 












eve    - 













-    y 







al     - 







'  And 








if        I 
from    a 


to     be       ev 





hue  ; 



bright ; 


But    there      is 
How     to        get 
And  use 

And  put 

To      this      land 

them     to 



how    - 
I     could 
as      it 
and     the 


dear        old 







side,         For        my       stripes 

flag,        The      "Red, 



















stripes     and  white        stars,      too ; 

There     is 


Jt  : 





own         "Red,         White 





*HE  word  "  consulate "  is  taken  from  the  Latin  and,  with 
Americans,  refers  to  the  building  in  which  any  man  ap- 
pointed by  our  government  transacts,  in  any  foreign  port, 
or  town  or  city,  such  business  affairs  of  the  government 
as  may  be  entrusted  to  him.  Always,  except  in  very 
small  places,  the  office  is  filled  by  American  citizens,  perhaps  resid- 
ing abroad,  but  more  commonly  leaving  home  for  the  express  pur- 
pose of  representing  our  country  and  its  interests  in  foreign  lands.  But 
the  Consul  —  for  by  that  name  is  he  called  —  has  a  more  sacred  duty 
to  do  —  that  of  protecting  any  American  citizen  who  may  be  in  danger 
in  a  foreign  land.  Then  the  flag  flying  over  the  Consulate  seems  to 
demand  protection  for  any  and  all  its  citizens  seeking  its  shelter.  Even 
more, —  it  often  protects  men  of  other  nationalities.  When  a  Mr.  Poin- 
sett was  our  Minister  to  Mexico  from  1825  to  1829,  the  Mexicans,  in 
a  rage,  sought  the  lives  of  certain  European  Spaniards.  The  Spaniards 
fled  to  the  Consulate;  the  Mexicans  pursued,  and  were  about  to  at- 
tack the  building,  when  Mr.  Poinsett  unfurled  the  Stars  and  Stripes, 
and  standing  beneath  its  folds  saved  his  own  life  and  that  of  the 
frightened  Spaniards. 


Moral  influence  is  good,  but  it  is  also  a  good  thing  to  have  some- 
thing material  behind  it.  A  missionary  who  recently  arrived  in  this 
country,  from  Turkey  in  Asia,  mentioned  the  following  experience: 

"  I  left,"  he  said,  the  "  town  of  in  the  morning.     In  the 

afternoon  of  that  day  it  was  attacked  by  the  Kurds,  and  several  hundred 
of  the  inhabitants  were  slaughtered.  When  I  reached  the  seaport,  in- 
tending to  take  the  steamer  on  the  way  to  America,  I  was  told  by  the 
local  authority  that  I  could  not  have  a  permit  to  embark,  for  he  was 
commanded  to  detain  a  person  answering  to  my  description  until  fur- 



ther  orders.  I  explained  to  him  the  necessity  of  my  taking  the  steamer, 
and  the  great  inconvenience  of  delay.  He  expressed  his  regret,  but 
declared  his  inability  to  allow  me  to  proceed.  Presently  the  steamer 
sailed  without  me,  and  I  had  to  wait  another  week. 

"  Day  after  day  passed,  bringing  only  politeness  and  promises. 
The  Consul  telegraphed  to  Constantinople,  but  the  telegram  had  to 
pass  through  the  hands  of  the  Government,  and  my  name  was  pur- 
posely so  muddled  that  the  Minister  could  only  telegraph  back,  '  I  have 
received  your  communication,  but  cannot  make  out  to  whom  it  refers.' 
At  last  the  Consul  managed  to  get  word  to  the  commander  of  the  gun- 
boat, which  was  lying  about  sixty  miles  off.  Next  morning,  looking 
<out  on  the  Mediterranean,  I  saw  the  smoke  of  an  approaching  steamer. 
As  it  came  nearer,  I  said  to  myself,  '  Why,  that  looks  like  one  of  the 
White  Squadron.'  Presently  I  saw  at  her  fore-peak  the  Stars  and 
Stripes.  She  anchored  in  the  port,  and  the  commander  called  on  the 
local  authority,  and  said  to  him,  '  I  have  come  to  inquire  into  the  case 

of  Mr. .'    The  local  magistrate,  with  great  urbanity,  said,  '  Oh, 

that  is  all  right.  His  papers  are  in  order,  and  he  can  go  at  any  time.' 
The  commander  replied,  '  I  am  very  glad  of  it,  for  otherwise  I  should 
have  been  compelled  to  demand  him.'  " 


HE  land,  your  geographies  tell  you,  makes  up  a  large 
part  of  the  earth's  surface.  And  I  am  sure  all  chil- 
dren know  that  the  extent  of  land,  in  this  "  Coun- 
try of  Ours,"  as  Benjamin  Harrison  calls  it,  is  very 
great;  very  great  also  the  stretches  of  sea-coast 
hemming  in  the  land.     But  the  larger  the  land  the 

worse  for  the  people,  unless  on  every  part  of  it 

on  every  mountain,  in  every  valley  —  there  is  en- 
joyed the  order  and  protection  which  the  flag  represents.  In 
olden  times  beacon-fires  on  hill-tops  were  the  signals  for  free- 
men to  rally  to  their  country's  aid.  Let  ours  be  the  better,  more 
inspiring,  signal  of  the  waving  flag! 


I  remember  reading  a  short  time  ago  about  a  Celtic  regiment, 
called  the  Black  Watch,  which  had  been  gone  from  home  for  many 
years,  and  when  it  landed  again  upon  the  shores,  the  men  immediately 
kneeled  down  and  kissed  the  sands  of  Galway.  That's  the  kind  of 
patriotism  we  want  now-a-days;  the  patriotism  that  loves  the  soil  upon 
which  we  tread,  that  loves  the  air  that  surrounds  us  here  in  America, 
that  loves  the  stars  and  stripes  because  they  represent  this  great  re- 
public; the  kind  of  patriotism  that  not  only  seeks  to  defend  our  in- 
stitutions, but  seeks  to  elevate  our  manhood  and  womanhood.—  Anon. 




Breathes  there   the   man   with    soul   so  dead, 
Who  never  to  himself  hath  said, 

"  This  is  my  own,  my  native  land!  " 
Whose  heart  hath  ne'er  within  him  burned, 
As  home  his  footsteps  he  hath  turned, 

From  wandering  on  a  foreign  strand! 
If  such  there  breathe,  go,  mark  him  well  I 
For  him  no  minstrel  raptures  swell; 
High  though  his  titles,  proud  his  name, 
Boundless  his  wealth  as  wish  can  claim, 
Despite  those  titles,  power,  and  pelf, 
The  wretch,  concentred  all  in  self, 
Living,   shall   forfeit  fair  renown, 
And,  doubly  dying,  shall  go  down, 
To  the  vile  dust  from  whence  he  sprung, 
Unwept,  unhonored,  and  unsung. 

—  Sir  Walter  Scott. 






i.  Our 
2.  Our 
3-  Our 


dear  land  !  our 
dear  land !  our 
thersspurn'd   op 

1 T 

r    ■••• 

na  -    tive      land !  Home      of  the  brave  and 

na  -    tive      land!    None     can  com -pare  with 

pres-sion's    laws,     And  fought  for    God  and 

fight ! 

Thy     tow'r    -    ing    hills,     thy      prai  -  ries  wide,      Thy  hoar  -  y        for  -   ests 

Our      own        dear  land,    our        na  -   tive  land,      O'er     all       our   homes    thy 

Our      own        dear  land,    our        na  -   tive  land,    Home   ev    -    er        of        the 

mP -9-                       e        B  L         cres-        '■£    -P- 

-g 1- — 9— O * fi 1 — ft- 


old     and  dim,       Thy  streams  that  roll      in     matchless  pride,  Thy     tor  -  rent's  thun  -  der 
ban  -  ner  waves,     And       na  -  tions  yet       un  -  born  shall  stand    Be  -  side      thy     he  -  roes' 
brave  and    free;      The       fin    -    est  work     of       na-ture's  hand— Our   own      dear  land      for 




me ! 

— & 


Thy  streams  that  roll 
And  na  -  tions  yet 
The      fi  -  nest  work 


0 p_ 



in     match-less  pride,  Thy     tor  -  rent's  thun  -  der  hymn, 
un  -  born  shall  stand    Be  -  side      thy     he   -  roes' graves, 
of       na-ture's  hand — Our  own    dear  land     for    me! 
-a-  dim. 

ft      t      f—f-,f-        ,        ..        „ 





From  Levekmore's  "  Academy  Song  Book,"  Ginn  &  Co.,  Publishers,  by  permission. 


James  Riley. 

L.  V.  H.  Crosby. 
Air,  "Dearest  Mae." 




-0 m-^—m — p^A 

i.  That     o      -      cean- guard  -  ed     flag       of     light,     for  -   ev   -    er      may     it       fly!        It 

2.  Tim-bers have crash'd  and  guns    have  peal'd    be  -  neath     its      ar  -  dent     glow;   But 

3.  Its      stripes     of      red,       e    -    ter  -    nal    dyed    with  heart-streams  of       all      lands;    Its 


flashed     o'er  Mon-  mouth's  blood  -   y     fight, 

nev    -     er      did        that      en     -  sign   yield 

white,     the    snow-capped  hills      that    hide 



it        Mc  -  Hen  -  ry's        sky;  It 

hon  -    or        to       the         foe;  Its 

storm   their     up  -  raised      hands;      Its 

bears       up   -   on        its       folds       of     flame      to     earth's     re  -  mot  -   est         wave       The 
fame     shall  march   with      mar   -   tial    tread  down        a  -    ges      yet        to  be  .     .      To 

blue,       the       o    -    cean    waves    that    beat    round     free-donvs    cir  -  cled        shore;      Its 






names       of    men      whose  deeds        of    fame      shall      e'er         in  -  spire        the        brave, 
guard     those  stars        that      nev    -    er    paled         in       fight       on     land         or         sea. 
stars,       the  prints        of  an    -   gels'   feet,        that     shine       for      ev      -     er    -     more. 



_fc L 


cean-guard   -    ed        flag 

t — r 

of     light,      For 





er      may  it 





-*-= — 0 n 

Words  by  permission  of  Cassgll  &  Co.,  Limited. 


SEA,  with  all  its  perils  and  shipwrecks,  seems  to 
have  had  little  of  terror  for  the  hardy  seamen 
of  America.  In  every  war  in  which  we  have 
fought,  their  skill  and  courage  have  been 
shown.  And  not  only  ships  of  war,  but  ships 
of  trade  have  run  the  gauntlet  of  the  waves. 
But  battle-skill  and  commercial  supremacy 
count  for  little  unless  the  flag  flies  from  the  masthead  of  every  ship  and 
brightens  every  harbor  and  haven  into  which  our  ships  enter.  In 
ancient  times,  the  galley-prows  bore  figures  of  heathen  gods  and 
heroes.  Better  far,  the  adornment  of  that  flag  which  stands  for  the 
living  manhood  and  immortal  valor  of  our  sailor  lads! 



Thou  too,  sail  on,  O  ship  of  state! 
Sail  on,  O  Union,  strong  and  great! 
Humanity,  with  all  its  fears, 
With  all  the  hopes  of  future  years, 

Is  hanging  breathless  on  thy  fate! 
We  know  what  Master  laid  thy  keel, 
What  Workman  wrought  thy  ribs  of  steel, 

Who  made  each  mast,  and  sail,  and  rope, 
What  anvils  rang,  what  hammers  beat, 
In  what  a  forge  and  what  a  heat, 

Were  shaped  the  anchors  of  thy  hope! 
Fear  not  each  sudden  sound  and  shock, 
'Tis  of  the  wave  and  not  the  rock, 
Tis  but  the  flapping  of  the  sail, 
And  not  a  rent  made  by  the  gale! 


In  spite  of  rock,  and  tempest's  roar, 
In  spite  of  false  lights  on  the  shore, 
Sail  on,  nor  fear  to  breast  the  sea, 
Our  hearts,   our  hopes,  are  all  with  thee! 
Our  hearts,  our  hopes,  our  prayers,  our  tears, 
Our  faith,   triumphant  o'er  our  fears, 
Are  all  with  thee  —  are  all  with  thee! 

—  Henry  Wadsivorth  Longfellow. 


During  the  Civil  War  it  was  an  easy  thing  in  the  North  to  support 
the  Union,  and  it  was  a  double  disgrace  to  be  against  it.  But  among 
the  highest  and  loftiest  patriots,  those  who  deserved  best  of  the  whole 
country,  were  the  men  from  the  South  who  possessed  such  loyalty  and 
heroic  courage  that  they  stood  by  the  flag  and  followed  the  cause  of  the 
whole  nation,  and  the  whole  people.  Among  all  those  who  fought  in 
this,  the  greatest  struggle  for  righteousness,  these  men  stand  pre- 
eminent, and  Farragut  stands  first. 

He  belongs  to  that  class  of  commanders  who  possess  in  the  highest 
degree  the  qualities  of  courage  and  daring,  of  readiness  to  assume  great 
responsibility  and  to  run  great  risks. 

As  a  boy  he  had  sailed  as  a  midshipman,  and  he  saw  the  war  of 
1 812,  in  which,  though  our  frigates  and  sloops  fought  some  glorious 
actions,  our  coasts  were  blockaded  and  insulted,  and  the  Capitol  at 
Washington  burned,  because  our  statesmen  and  people  had  been  too 
short-sighted  to  build  a  big  fighting  navy;  and  Farragut  was  able  to 
perform  his  great  feats  on  the  Gulf  coast  because  in  the  Civil  War  we 
had  ships  as  good  as  any  afloat. 

No  man  in  a  profession  as  highly  technical  as  the  navy  can  win 
great  success  unless  he  has  been  specially  brought  up  in  and  trained 
for  that  profession,  and  has  devoted  his  life  to  the  work.  Step  by  step 
Farragut  rose,  but  never  had  an  opportunity  of  distinguishing  him- 
self in  his  profession  until,  when  he  was  sixty  years  old,  the  Civil  War 
broke  out.  He  was  made  flag-officer  of  the  Gulf  squadron;  and  the 
first  success  that  the  Union  forces  met  with  in  the  southwest  was 
scored    when  one  night  he  burst  the  iron  chains  stretched  across  the 


Mississippi,  swept  past  the  forts,  sank  the  rams  and  gunboats  that 
sought  to  bar  his  way,  and  captured  New  Orleans. 

In  the  last  year  of  the  war  he  was  permitted  to  attempt  the  cap- 
ture of  Mobile.  All  he  wanted  was  a  chance  to  fight.  He  possessed 
splendid  self-confidence,  and  utterly  refused  to  be  daunted  by  the 
rumors  of  the  formidable  nature  of  the  defences  against  which  he  was 
to  act.  "  I  mean  to  be  whipped  or  to  whip  my  enemy,"  he  said,  "  and 
not  to  be  scared  to  death." 

The  attack  was  made  early  on  the  morning  of  August  5.  Every 
man  in  every  craft  was  thrilling  with  excitement.  For  their  foes  who 
fought  in  sight,  for  the  forts,  the  gunboats,  and  the  great  ironclad 
ram,  they  cared  nothing;  but  all,  save  the  very  boldest,  dreaded  the 
torpedoes  —  the  mines  of  death  —  which  lay,  they  knew  not  where, 
thickly  scattered  through  the  channels.  Farragut  stood  in  the  port 
main-rigging  of  the  Hartford,  close  to  the  main-top,  lashed  to  the  mast. 
As  they  passed  the  forts,  Farragut  heard  the  explosion  of  a  torpedo 
and  saw  the  monitor  Tecumseh,  then  but  five  hundred  feet  from  the 
Hartford,  reel  violently,  lurch  heavily  over,  and  go  down  head-fore- 
most. This  was  the  crisis  of  the  fight,  and  the  crisis  of  Farragut's 
career.  The  column  was  halted  in  a  narrow  channel,  right  under  the 
fire  of  the  forts.  A  few  moments'  delay  and  confusion,  and  the  golden 
chance  would  have  been  past,  and  the  only  question  would  have  been 
as  to  the  magnitude  of  the  disaster.  Ahead  lay  terrible  danger,  but 
ahead  lay  also  triumph.  The  other  ships  would  not  obey  the  signal 
to  go  ahead,  and  the  admiral  himself  resolved  to  take  the  lead.  Back- 
ing hard,  he  got  clear  of  the  others  and  then  went  ahead  very  fast. 
A  warning  cry  came  that  there  were  torpedoes  ahead.  "  Go  ahead, 
full  speed,"  shouted  the  admiral,  and  he  steamed  forward.  The  cases 
of  torpedoes  were  heard  knocking  against  the  bottom  of  the  ship;  but 
they  failed  to  explode,  and  the  Hartford  went  through  the  gates  of 
Mobile  Bay.  Within  three  hours  the  Confederate  flotilla  was  destroyed, 
the  bay  was  won,  and  the  forts  around  were  helpless. 

Farragut  had  proved  himself  the  peer  of  Nelson,  and  had  added 
to  the  annals  of  the  Union  the  page  which  tells  of  the  greatest  sea-fight 
in  our  history. —  Hon.  Theodore  Roosevelt,  adapted  from  "  Hero  Tales.'' 




Unfurl  our  standard  high! 

Its  glorious  folds  shall  wave 
Where'er  the  land  looks  to  the  sky, 

Or    ocean's    surges    lave! 
And  when,  beneath  its  shade,  the  brave, 

With  patriotic   ire, 
Combat  for   glory   or  the   grave, 

It  shall  their  hearts  inspire 
With  that  chivalric  spark  which  first 
Upon  our  foes  in  terror  burst! 

Unfurl  the  stripes  and  stars! 

They  evermore  shall  be 
Victorious  on  the  field  of  Mars  — 

Triumphant  on  the  sea! 
And  when  th'  o'erruling  fates  decree 

The  bolt  of  war  to  throw, 
Thou,  sacred  banner  of  the  free, 

Shall  daunt  the  bravest  foe; 
And  never  shall  thy  stars  decline 
Till   circling   suns  have   ceased  to   shine. 

—  Owen  Grenliffe  Warren. 




1.  The  Liberty  Cap Song,  The  Liberty  Cap. 

2.  The  Liberty  Bell Song,  The  Liberty  Bell. 

(  The  Sword  (War) Song,  The  Sword  of  Bunker  Hill. 

(  The  Dove  (Peace) Song,  Angel  of  Peace. 

4.  The  Eagle Song,  Where  the  Eagle  is  King. 

5.  The  Shield Song,  Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic. 



Words  by  Gertrude  Sneller. 

<o_0-j 1 ^ .  Tiri-y,.t,.i  r  «^ 

E.  Dora  Cogswell. 





i.      When    old    moth-er   Free-dom     a       par      -        ty    gave  To    her  sons  and  her    daugh  -  ters 

2.  Now  Co-lum   -  bi  -  a's   cap  was   of    red.white,   and  blue,  And   be-came  her,  the  dear  lit  -  tie 

3.  She         looked      so  charm-ing  that  night  at       the  ball,  With  the  lib  -    er  -  ty    capon    her 





bright,  She  cautioned  them  all  to  look  their  best  When  they  visited  her  that  night 
elf!  There  was  none  oth-er  like  it  in  all  the  world, For  Freedom  had  made  it  herself, 
head,  That  Dame  Freedom  kissed  her  be-fore  them  all,"  You're  my  favorite  child,"she  said. 

-3 2 







*-* — =*- 


9^-S 1 

f>0, -3  f— 



i.  2.  "O    Co-lum-bi-a    fair,      O  what    will  you  wear?    Too      poor     for     a        sty  -  lish 

3.       Then     here     is      a  cheer    for  the   lib  -    er  -  ty      cap,  With  its  stripes  of     the    red,white,and 


^:jy,i  1    :? 









molto  rail. 



a  tempo. 

wrap  ! 

^ -b         1       ';       V 

O        nev    -    er  mind,     child,        you  will   set    them    all    wild, 
May  Co-lum  -  bi  -  a         wear 

I  f    you 
it  thro'  all      the     long  years,     And  her 



sty     -    lish      wrap ! 
red,    white,and  blue ! 







cres.  e  accel. 

fe* N 

come       in      your 
chil  -  dren      be 

lib  -     er 
lov     -    al 





true  ! 

If     you 
And   be 


9^ F r— TT 

h  -± 







If        you     come, 
And        be       true, 



you     come,      If 
be       true,     And 


you    come     in     your 
her     chil  -  dren   be 








er  -    ty 
al     and 




E  in  America  do  not  often  see  a  liberty  cap.  That  is  indeed 
too  bad.  For  there  could  not  be  a  prettier  emblem  to 
grace  the  heads  of  America's  boys  and  girls,  whenever 
they  wish  to  celebrate  that  Freedom  which  is  the  birth- 
right of  every  American.  How  straight  the  cap  stands!  With  what 
a  free  and  jaunty  grace  it  carries  itself!  How  the  ever-beautiful  red, 
white  and  blue  blend  in  that  bewitching  headgear!  So,  may  children 

Don  them  to  wear, 

Doff  them  to  cheer, —  for  the  Flag. 



Of  old  sat  Freedom  on  the  heights, 
The  thunders  breaking  at  her  feet; 

Above  her  shook  the  starry  lights, 
She  heard  the  torrents  meet. 

There  in  her  place  she  did  rejoice, 
Self-gathered   in  her  prophet  mind, 

But  fragments  of  her  mighty  voice, 
Came  rolling  on  the  wind. 

Then  stepped  she  down  thro'  town  and  field 
To  mingle  with  the  human  race, 

And  part  by  part  to  men  revealed 
The  fullness  of  her  face. 

Grave  mother  of  majestic  works, 
From  her  isle  altar  gazing  down, 

Who,  godlike,  grasps  the  triple  forks, 
And  kinglike,  wears  the  crown. 


Her  open  eyes  desire  the  truth. 

The  wisdom  of  a  thousand  years 
Is  in  them.     May  perpetual  youth 

Keep  dry  their  light  from  tears. 

That  her  fair  form  may  stand  and  shine, 

Make  bright  our  days  and  light  our  dreams, 

Turning  to  scorn  with  lips  divine 
The  falsehood  of  extremes. 

—  Alfred   Tennyson. 

All  who  stand  beneath  our  banner  are  free.  Ours  is  the  only  flag 
that  has  in  reality  written  upon  it  Liberty,  Fraternity,  Equality,  the 
three  grandest  words  in  all  the  languages  of  men.  Liberty:  give  to 
every  man  the  fruit  of  his  own  labor,  the  labor  of  his  hand  and  of  his 
brain.  Fraternity:  every  man  in  the  right  is  my  brother.  Equality: 
the  rights  of  all  are  equal.  No  race,  no  color,  no  previous  condition, 
can  change  the  rights  of  men.  The  Declaration  of  Independence  has  at 
last  been  carried  out  in  letter  and  in  spirit.  To-day,  the  black  man  looks 
upon  his  child,  and  says:  The  avenues  of  distinction  are  open  to  you; 
upon  your  brow  may  fall  the  civic  wreath.  We  are  celebrating  the 
courage  and  wisdom  of  our  fathers,  and  the  glad  shout  of  a  free  people, 
the  anthem  of  a  grand  nation,  commencing  at  the  Atlantic,  is  follow- 
ing the  sun  to  the  Pacific,  across  a  continent  of  happy  homes. —  Robert 
G.  Ingersoll. 


Ye  crags  and  peaks,  I'm  with  you  once  again! 
I  hold  to  you  the  hands  you  first  beheld, 
To  show  they  still  are  free!     Methinks  I  hear 
A  spirit  in  your  echoes  answer  me, 
And  bid  your  tenant  welcome  home  again. 

O  sacred  forms,  how  fair,  how  proud  you  look! 
How  high  you  lift  your  heads  into  the  sky! 
How  huge  you  are!  how  mighty,  and  how  free! 
Ye  are  the  things  that  tower,  that  shine;  whose  smile 
Makes  glad,  whose  frown  is  terrible;  whose  forms, 
Robed  or  unrobed,  do  all  the  impress  wear 
Of  awe  divine!    Ye  guards  of  liberty, 


I'm  with  you  once  again!     I  call  to  you 
With  all  my  voice!     I  hold  my  hands  to  you, 
To  show  they  still  are  free!     I  rush  to  you 
As  though  I  could  embrace  you! 

Scaling  yonder  peak, 
I  saw  an  eagle  wheeling,  near  its  brow, 
O'er  the  abyss.     His  broad  expanded  wings 
Lay  calm  and  motionless  upon  the   air, 
As  if  he  floated  there,  without  their  aid, 
By  the  sole  act  of  his  unlorded  will 
That  buoyed  him  proudly  up.     Instinctively 
I  bent  my  bow;  yet  wheeled  he,  heeding  not 
The  death  that  threatened  him.     I  could  not  shoot. 
'Twas  liberty!     I  turned  my  bow  aside, 
And  let  him  soar  away. 

Oh!  with  what  pride  I  used 
To  walk  these  hills,  look  up  to  God, 
And  bless  Him  that  'twas  free.     'Twas  free! 
From  end  to  end,  from  cliff  to  lake,  'twas  free! 
Free  as  our  torrents  are,  that  leap  our  rocks, 
And  plough   our  valleys,   without  asking   leave; 
Or  as  our  peaks  that  wear  their  caps  of  snow, 
In  very  presence  of  the  regal  sun. 
How  happy  was  I  then!     I  loved 
Its  very  storms.     Yes,  I  have  .at  and  eyed 
The  thunder  breaking  from  his  cloud,  and  smiled 
To  see  him  shake  his  lightnings  o'er  my  head; 
To  think  I  had  no  master  save  his  own. 

Ye  know  the  jutting  cliff,  round  which  a  track 
Up  hither  winds,  whose  base  is  but  the  brow 
To  such  another  one,  with  scanty  room 
For  two  abreast  to  pass?     O'ertaken  there 
By  the  mountain  blast,  I've  laid  me  flat  along; 
The  while,  gust  followed  gust  more  furiously, 
As  if  to  sweep  me  o'er  the  horrid  brink, 
And  I  have  thought  of  other  lands,  whose  storms 
Are  summer  flaws  to  those  of  mine,  and  just 
Have  wished  me  there.    The  thought  that  mine  was  free 
Has  checked  that  wish,  and  I  have  raised  my  head, 
And  cried  in  thraldom  to  that  furious  wind, 
Blow  on!     This  is  a  land  of  liberty! 

—  /.  Sheridan  Knowles. 




A  massive  castle,  far  and  high, 

In  towering  grandeur  broke  upon  my  eye. 
Proud  in   its   strength  and  years,   the   ponderous  pile 

Flung  up  its  time-defying  towers; 
Its  lofty  gates  seemed  scornfully  to  smile 

At  vain  assaults  of  human  powers, 
And  threats  and  arms  deride. 
Its   gorgeous   carvings   of  heraldic   pride 

In  giant  masses  graced  the  walls  above; 

And  dungeons  yawned  below. 

Bursting  on  my  steadfast  gaze, 

See,    within,    a   sudden   blaze! 
So  small  at  first,  the  zephyr's  slightest  swell, 

That  scarcely  stirs  the  pine-tree   top, 

Nor  makes  the  withered  leaf  to  drop. 
The  feeble  fluttering  of  that  flame  would  quell. 

But  soon  it  spread, 

Waving,  rushing,  fierce  and  red, 

From  wall  to  wall,  from  town  to  town, 

Raging  with  resistless  power; 

Till  every  fervent  pillar  glowed, 

And  every  stone  seemed  burning  coal. 

Beautiful,   fearful,   grand, 

Silent  as  death,  I  saw  the  fabric  stand. 

At  length  a  crackling  sound  began; 

From  side  to  side,  throughout  the  pile  it  ran; 

And  louder  yet  and  louder  grew, 

Till  now  in  rattling  thunder  peals  it  grew; 

Huge,  shivered  fragments  from  the  pillars  broke, 

Like  fiery  sparkles  from  the  anvil's  stroke. 

The  shattered  walls  were  rent  and  riven, 

And  piecemeal  driven, 

Like  blazing  comets  through  the  troubled  sky. 

'Tis  done;  what  centuries  have  reared 

In  quick  explosion  disappeared, 
Nor  e'en  its  ruins  met  my  wondering  eye. 

But  in  their  place, 

Bright  with  more  than  human  grace, 

Robed  in  more  than  mortal  seeming, 
Radiant  glory  in  her  face, 

And  eyes  with  heaven's  own  brightness  gleaming, 


Rose   a   fair,    majestic    form, 

As  the  mild  rainbow  from  the  storm. 

I  marked  her  smile,  I  knew  her  eye; 

And  when  with  gesture  of  command, 

She  waved  aloft  a  cap-crowned  wand, 
My  slumber  fled  'mid  shouts  of  "  Liberty." 

Read  ye  the  dream?  and  know  ye  not 

How  truly  it  unlocked  the  world  of  fate? 

Went  not  the  flame  from  this  illustrious  spot, 

And  spread  it  not,  and  burns  in  every  state? 

And  when  their  old  and  cumbrous  walls, 
Filled   with   this   spirit,    glow   intense, 
Vainly  they  rear  their  impotent  defence: 

The  fabric  falls! 

That  fervent  energy  must  spread, 

Till  despotism's  towers  be  overthrown, 

And  in  their  stead 

Liberty    stands    alone. 

Hasten  the  day,  just  Heaven! 

Accomplish    thy    design, 
And  let  the  blessings  thou  hast  freely  given 

Freely  on  all  men  shine, 
Till  equal  rights  be  equally  enjoyed, 
And  human  power  for  human  good  employed; 
Till  law,  not  man,  the  sovereign  rule  sustain, 
And  peace  and  virtue  undisputed  reign. 

—  Henry  Ware,  Jr. 


Dark  as  the  clouds  of  even. 
Ranked   in   the  western   heaven, 
Waiting  the  breath  that  lifts 
All  the  dead  mass,  and  drifts 
Tempest  and  falling  brand 
Over  a  ruined  land; — 
So   still  and  orderly, 
Arm  to  arm,  knee  to  knee, 
Waiting  the  great  event, 
Stands  the  black  regiment. 


Down  the  long,  dusky  line 
Teeth  gleam  and  eyeballs  shine; 
And   the  bright  bayonet, 
Bristling  and  firmly  set, 
Flashed  with  a  purpose  grand, 
Long  ere  the  sharp  command 
Of  the  fierce  rolling  drum 
Told  them  their  time  had  come, 
Told  them  what  work  was  sent 
For  the  black  regiment. 

"  Now,"   the   flag-sergeant   cried, 
"  Though  death  and  hell  betide, 
Let  the  whole  nation  see 
If  we  are  fit  to  be 
Free  in  this  land;  or  bound 
Down,  like  the  whining  hound  — 
Bound  with  red  stripes  of  pain 
In  our  cold  chains  again!  " 
Oh!  what  a  shout  there  went 
From  the  black  regiment! 

"Charge!"     Trump  and  drum  awoke; 
Onward  the  bondmen  broke; 
Bayonet  and  sabre-stroke 
Vainly  opposed  their  rush. 
Through  the  wild  battle's  crush, 
With  but  one  thought  aflush, 
Driving  their  lords  like  chaff, 
In  the  guns'  mouths  they  laugh; 
Or  at  the  slippery  brands 
Leaping  with  open  hands, 
Down  they  tear  man  and  horse, 
Down  in  their  awful  course; 
Trampling  with   bloody   heel 
Over  the  crashing  steel; — 
All  their  eyes  forward  bent, 
Rushed  the  black  regiment. 

"Freedom!"  their  battle-cry  — 
"Freedom!  or  leave  to  die!" 
Ah!  and  they  meant  the  word, 
Not  as  with  us  'tis  heard, 


Not  a  mere  party  shout; 

They  gave  their  spirits  out, 

Trusted  the  end  to  God, 

And  on  the  gory  sod 

Rolled  in  triumphant  blood; 

Glad  to  strike  one  free  blow, 
Whether  for  weal  or  woe; 

Glad  to  breathe  one  free  breath, 
Though  on  the  lips  of  death; 
Praying  —  alas!   in  vain!  — 
That  they  might  fall  again, 
So  they  could  once  more  see 
That  burst  to  liberty! 
This  was  what  "  freedom  "  lent 
To  the  black  regiment. 

Hundreds  on  hundreds  fell; 
But  they  are  resting  well; 
Scourges  and  shackles  strong 
Never  shall  do  them  wrong. 
Oh,  to  the  living  few, 
Soldiers,  be  just  and  true! 
Hail  them  as  comrades  tried; 
Fight  with  them  side  by  side; 
Never,  in  field  or  tent, 
Scorn  the  black  regiment 


—  George  Henry  Boker. 


The  south-land  boasts  its  teeming  cane, 
The  prairied  west  its  heavy  grain, 
And  sunset's  radiant  gates  unfold 
On  rising  marts  and  sands  of  gold! 

Rough,  bleak,  and  hard,  our  little  State 
Is  scant  of  soil,  of  limits  strait; 
Her  yellow  sands  are  sands  alone, 
Her  only  mines  are  ice  and  stone! 

From  autumn  frost  to  April  rain, 
Too  long  her  winter  woods  complain; 
From  budding  flower  to  falling  leaf, 
Her  summer  time  is  all  too  brief. 


Yet,  on  her  rocks,  and  on  her  sands, 
And  wintry  hills,  the  school-house  stands; 
And  what  her  rugged  soil  denies 
The  harvest  of  the  mind  supplies. 

The  riches  of  the  commonwealth 

And  free,   strong  minds,  and  hearts  of  health; 

And,  more  to  her  than  gold  or  grain, 

The  running  hand  and  cultured  brain. 

For  well  she  keeps  her  ancient  stock, 
The  stubborn  strength   of   Pilgrim   Rock; 
And  still  maintains,  witn  milder  laws 
And  clearer  light,  the  good  old  cause! 

Nor  heeds  the  sceptic's  puny  hands, 

While  near  her  school  the  church-spire  stands; 

Nor  fears  the  blinded  bigot's  rule, 

While  near  her  church-spire  stands  the  school. 

—  John  Grecnlcaf  Wkittier, 

W.  K.  W. 



Music  by  Hamlin  E.  Cogswell. 

Cho.    Ring,     ring,       ring!  for  Tyr  -  an-  ny       is    brok  -    en j     Ring,     ring,       ring 

— rd % — *« — 9 — L^— 

Bell      of     Lib  -  er  -  ty  ; 
Bell     of     Lib  -  er  -  ty  ; 

Ring,      ring, 
Ring,      ring, 

for  man -date  long  since  spok  -  en, 
for  Lin-coln'sword    is     spok  -   en, 



-0 0 0- 


Bell     of   Lib  -  er  -  ty; 
meno  mosso. 

Ring,     ring,      rini 
\    es\ 

for    man-date  long  since  spok 
Fine.       a  tempo. 




Mak    -  ing  Our     Fa  -    thers  for  -  ev  -  er      to 

Grand  -  ly    pro-  claim  -  ing,         Ev-'ry    Man     is  Free. 

K       !—.        .       .       N      > 

A— P- 

#  t  i  \v 

Long,    long  they    fought       with 
Hard     was     the     strife,      'twixt 

-0-  -0-  -0-'  -0-  -0- 



Mak  -  ing  Our    Coun  -  try  for  -  ev  -  er    to 

-N-,-  I .  ,     , , 1 fw 

be  free. 


fs — I — JY- 

:^=^z=aj— gjJ^^z^s. 

cour-ageall     un -daunted  ;  Brave -ly   they  sought      to  break  oppression's  chain  ! 
gal-lant  Blue  and  Gray;      Fierce-ly   they  fought      as     on  -  ly   Sax-ons    can. 



— i — h 
— i — t 



In  their  proud 
Long,long  the 

I  I        h 

-a-.      -0-      -0- 

D.C.  Chorus. 

eyes        the  pow'r  of  England  flaunted 
years     that  ush  -  ered  Freedom's  day, 


-+ h I P F- 1 

No  -  bly  they  fought  their  free-domdear  to     gain. 
Tell- ing     to  earth   that     Ev-'ry  Man'sa      Man. 

the  pul 
to  all  t 


HAT  boy  or  girl  is  there  in  all  this  broad  land  who 
does  not  know  the  story  of  the  wonderful  old 
Liberty  Bell;  how  it  rang  out  the  glorious  tid- 
ings of  the  adoption  of  the  Declaration  of  In- 
dependence? How  this  message  came  down 
from  the  steeple  as  though  sent  from  the  skies 
to  the  eager  and  cheering  crowds  in  the  streets 
of  Philadelphia?  How  the  bell,  now  old  and 
cracked,  bears  upon  its  surface  those  words 
which   can   never  be   uttered  without   stirring 

se  of  every  patriot,  "  Proclaim  Liberty  throughout  all  the  land 

he  inhabitants  thereof." 


INDEPENDENCE   BELL,   JULY  A,,    1 776. 

There  was  tumult  in  the  city, 

In  the  quaint  old  Quaker's  town,— 
And  the  streets  were  rife  with  people, 

Pacing,  restless,  up  and  down;  — 
People,  gathering  at  corners, 

Where  they  whispered,  each  to  each, 
And  the  sweat  stood  on  their  temples, 

With  the  earnestness  of  speech. 

As  the  bleak  Atlantic  currents 

Lash  the  wild  Newfoundland  shore, 
So  they  beat  against  the  State  House,— 

So  they  surged  against  the  door; 
And  the  mingling  of  their  voices 

Made  a  harmony  profound. 
Till  the  quiet  street  of  Chestnut 

Was  all  turbulent  with  sound. 



"Will  they  do  it?"  — "Dare  they  do  it?"  — 

"Who  is  speaking?"  — "What's  the  news?'*- 
"What  of  Adams?"  — "  What  of  Sherman?"  — 

"Oh,   God   grant  they  won't   refuse!"  — 
"  Make  some  way  there!  "  —  "  Let  me  nearer!  "  - 

"I  am  stifling!"  — "  Stifle,  then! 
When  a  nation's  life's  at  hazard, 

We've  no  time  to  think  of  men!" 

So  they  beat  against  the  portal, 

Man  and  woman,  maid  and  child; 
And  the  July  sun  in  heaven 

On  the  scene  looked  down  and  smiled; 
The  same  sun  that  saw  the  Spartan 

Shed  his  patriot  blood  in  vain, 
Now  beheld  the  soul  of   Freedom, 

All  unconquered,  rise  again. 

See!     See!     The  dense  crowd  quivers 

Through  all  its  lengthy  line, 
As  the  boy  beside  the  portal 

Looks  forth  to  give  the  sign! 
With  his  small  hands  upward  lifted, 

Breezes  dallying  with   his  hair, 
Hark!  with  deep,  clear  intonation, 
Breaks  his  young  voice  on  the  air. 

Hushed  the  people's  swelling  murmur, 

List   the   boy's   strong,   joyous   cry! 
"Ring!"  he  shouts,  "Ring!  Grandpa, 

Ring!     Oh,  Ring  for  Liberty!" 
And,   straightway,   at  the   signal, 

The  old  bellman  lifts  his  hand, 
And  sends  the  good  news,  making 

Iron   music  through  the  land. 

How  they  shouted!     What  rejoicing! 

How  the  old  bell  shook  the  air, 
Till  the  clang  of   Freedom  ruffled 

The  calm,  gliding  Delaware! 
How  the  bonfires  and  the  torches 

Illumed  the  night's  repose, 
And  from  the  flames,  like  Phoenix, 

Fair  Liberty  arose! 


That  old  bell  now  is  silent, 

And  hushed  its  iron  tongue, 
But  the  spirit  it  awakened 

Still  lives, —  forever  young. 
And,  while  we  greet  the  sunlight, 

On  the  fourth  of  each  July, 
We'll  ne'er  forget  the  bellman, 

Who,   'twixt  the   earth  and  sky, 
Rung  out  Our  Independence; 

Which,  please  God,  shall  never  die! 


In  some  strange  land  and  time, —  for  so  the  story  runs, —  they 
were  about  to  found  a  bell  for  a  mighty  tower, —  a  hollow,  starless 
heaven  of  iron. 

It  should  toll  for  dead  monarchs,  "The  king  is  dead;"  and  it 
should  make  glad  clamor  for  the  new  prince,  "  Long  live  the  king!  " 
It  should  proclaim  so  great  a  passion,  or  so  grand  a  pride,  that  either 
would  be  worshipped;  or,  wanting  these,  forever  hold  its  peace.  Now, 
this  bell  was  not  to  be  dug  out  of  the  cold  mountain;  it  was  to  be  made 
of  something  that  had  been  warmed  with  a  human  touch,  or  loved 
with  a  human  love. 

And  so  the  people  came  like  pilgrims  to  a  shrine,  and  cast  their 
offerings  into  the  furnace. 

By  and  by,  the  bell  was  alone  in  its  chamber;  and  its  four  windows 
looked  out  to  the  four  quarters  of  heaven.  For  many  a  day  it  hung 

The  winds  came  and  went,  but  they  only  set  it  sighing;  birds  came 
and  sang  under  its  eaves,  but  it  was  an  iron  horizon  of  dead  melody 
still.  All  the  meaner  strifes  and  passions  of  men  rippled  on  below  it; 
they  out-grouped  the  ants;  they  out-wrought  the  bees;  they  out- 
watched  the  shepherds  of  Chaldea;  but  the  chamber  of  the  bell  was  as 
dumb  as  the  cave  of  Machpelah. 

At  last  there  came  a  time  when  men  grew  grand  for  Right  and 
Truth,  and  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder  over  all  the  land,  and  went  down 
like  reapers  to  the  harvest  of  death;  looked  into  the  graves  of  them 




that  slept,  and  believed  there  was  something  grander  than  living; 
glanced  on  into  the  far  future,  and  discerned  there  was  something 
better  than  dying;  and  so,  standing  between  the  quick  and  the  dead, 
they  quitted  themselves  like  men. 

Then  the  bell  awoke  in  its  chamber;  and  the  great  wave  of  its 
music  rolled  gloriously  out,  and  broke  along  the  blue  walls  of  the 
world  like  an  anthem.  Poured  into  that  fiery  heat  together,  the 
humblest  gifts  were  blent  in  one  great  wealth,  and  accents  feeble  as  a 
sparrow's  song  grew  eloquent  and  strong;  and  lo!  a  people's  stately  soul 
heaved  on  the  waves  of  a  mighty  voice. 

We  thank  God,  in  this  our  day,  for  the  furnace  and  the  fire;  for  the 
good  sword  and  the  true  word;  for  the  great  triumph  and  the  little 

By  the  memory  of  the  Ramah  into  which  war  has  turned  the  land, 
for  the  love  of  the  Rachels  now  lamenting  within  it,  for  the  honor  of 
Heaven  and  the  hope  of  mankind,  let  us  who  stand  here,  past  and 
present  clasping  hands  over  our  heads,  the  broad  age  dwindled  to  a. 
line  under  our  feet,  and  ridged  with  the  graves  of  dead  martyrs;  let  us 
declare  before  God  and  these  witnesses, — "  We  will  finish  the  Work 
that  the  Fathers  began." — B.  F.  Taylor. 


fT  may  seem  strange  to  call  upon  the  boys  and  girls  of  the 
Empire  State  to  celebrate  the  sword  —  the  instrument 
by  which,  in  days  gone  by,  in  our  own  land,  thousands 
have  been  slain.  For  the  Sword  here  stands  for  muskets, 
bayonets,  guns  —  small  and  great  —  and  every  sort  of 
weapon  by  which  brave  men  have  lost  their  lives  in  bat- 
tle. In  other  words,  it  stands  for  War,  with  all  its  cruelties  and  horrors. 
And  yet,  there  come  times  in  the  history  of  every  people  when  they 
must  draw  the  sword,  or  perish.  Bad  as  war  always  is,  slavery  is 
worse,  the  loss  of  freedom  is  worse.  That  is  why  the  American  colo- 
nists, armed  with  old-fashioned  flint-lock  muskets,  stood  so  bravely 
against  the  attacks  of  the  British  redcoats;  that  is  why 

"  The  farmers  gave  them  ball  for  ball, 
From  behind  each  fence  and  barnyard  wall." 

Yes,  and  more  than  that:  At  first  the  colonists  were  anxious 
merely  to  secure  such  rights  as  they  thought  were  fairly  theirs  under 
the  British  government;  but  soon  and  fast  grew  the  wish  for  Inde- 
pendence —  the  gift  of  God  to  all  men.  Now,  was  it  not  worth  while 
to  fight  in  such  a  cause  and  to  gain  such  a  priceless  thing?  Let  other 
examples  be  recalled,  and  let  us  not  be  afraid  to  rejoice  over  all  true 
victories  won  by  The  Sword. 


Americans  need  to  keep  in  mind  the  fact  that  as  a  nation  they 
have  erred  far  more  often  in  not  being  willing  to  fight  than  in  being 
too  willing.  Once  roused,  our  countrymen  have  always  been  danger- 
ous and  hard-fighting  foes,  but  they  have  been  over-difficult  to  rouse. 
The  educated  classes  in  particular  need  to  be  perpetually  reminded  that, 



though  it  is  an  evil  thing  to  brave  a  conflict  needlessly,  or  to  bully  and 
bluster,  it  is  an  even  worse  thing  to  flinch  from  a  fight  for  which  there 
is  legitimate  provocation. 

xA-merica  is  bound  scrupulously  to  respect  the  rights  of  the  weak, 
but  she  is  no  less  bound  to  make  stalwart  insistence  on  her  own  rights 
as  against  the  strong. —  Gov.  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

THE  RISING  IN   1 776. 

Out  of  the  North  the  wild  news  came, 
Far  flashing  on  its  wings  of  flame, 
Swift  as  the  boreal  light  which  flies 
At  midnight  through  the  startled  skies. 
And  there  was  tumult  in  the  air, 

The  fife's  shrill  note,  the  drum's  loud  beat, 
And  through  the  wide  land  everywhere 

The  answering  tread  of  hurrying  feet; 
While  the  first  oath  of  Freedom's  gun 
Came  on  the  blast  from   Lexington; 
And  Concord  roused,  no  longer  tame, 
Forgot  her  old  baptismal  name, 
Made  bare  her  patriot  arm  of  power, 
And  swelled  the  discord  of  the  hour. 

Within  its  shade  of  elm  and  oak 

The  church  of  Berkeley  Manor  stood; 
There  Sunday  found  the  rural  folk. 

And  some  esteemed  of  gentle  blood. 

In  vain  their  feet  with  loitering  tread 
Passed  'mid  the  graves  where  rank  is  naught; 
All  could  not  read  the  lesson  taught 

In  that  republic   of  the  dead. 

The  pastor   came;   his   snowy   locks 

Hallowed  his  brow  of  thought  and  care; 

And  calmly,  as  shepherds  lead  their  flocks, 
He  led  into  the  house  of  prayer. 

The  pastor  rose;   the  prayer  was  strong; 

The  psalm  was  warrior  David's  song; 

The  text,  a  few  short  words  of  might, 

"  The  Lord  of  hosts  shall  arm  the  right!  " 


He  spoke  of  wrongs  too  long  endured, 
Of  sacred  rights  to  be  secured; 
Then  from  his  patriot  tongue  of  flame 
The   startling  words  for  freedom  came. 
The  stirring  sentences  he  spake 
Compelled  the  heart  to  glow  or  quake; 
And,  rising  on  his  theme's  broad  wing, 

And  grasping  in  his  nervous  hand 

The  imaginary  battle  brand, 
In  face  of  death  he  dared  to  fling 
Defiance  to  a  tyrant  king. 

Even  as  he  spoke,  his  frame,  renewed 
In  eloquence  of  attitude. 
Rose,  as  it  seemed,  a  shoulder  higher; 
Then  swept  his  kindling  glance  of  fire 
From  startled  pew  to  breathless  choir; 
When  suddenly  his  mantle  wide 
His  hands  impatient  flung  aside, 
And  lo!  he  met  their  wondering  eyes, 
Complete,  in  all  a  warrior's  guise. 

A  moment  there  was  awful  pause. 

When  Berkeley  cried,  "  Cease,  traitor!  cease, 

God's  temple  is  the  house  of  peace!  " 

The   other   shouted,    "  Nay,   not  so! 
When  God  is  with  our  righteous  cause 
His  holiest  places,  then,  are  ours, 
His  temples  are  our  forts  and  towers, 

That  frown  upon  the  tyrant  foe; 
In  this,  the  dawn  of  Freedom's  day, 
There  is  a  time  to  fight  and  pray!  " 

And  now  before  the  open  door, 

The  warrior  priest  had  ordered  so, 

The  enlisting  trumpet's  sudden  roar 

Rang  through  the  chapel  o'er  and  o'er, 
Its  long  reverberating  blow, 

So  loud  and  clear,  it  seemed  the  ear 

Of  dusty  death  must  wake  and  hear. 

And  there  the  startling  drum  and  fife 

Fired  the  living  with  fiercer  life; 



While  overhead,   with  wild  increase, 
Forgetting  its  ancient  toll  of  peace, 

The  great  bell  swung  as  ne'er  before; 
It  seemed  as  it  would  never  cease; 
And  every  word  its  ardor  flung 
From  off  its  jubilant  iron  tongue 

Was,  "War!     War!     War!" 

"Who  dares?'    this  was  the  patriot's  cry, 
As  striding  from  the  desk  he  came, 
"  Come  out  with   me,   in   Freedom's   name. 
For  her  to  live,  for  her  to  die?" 
A  hundred  hands  flung  up  reply, 
A   hundred   voices   answered,   "  I." 

—  T.  Buchanan  Read. 

Be  it  in  the  defense  or  be  it  in  the  assertion  of  a  people's  rights,  I 
hail  the  sword  as  a  sacred  weapon;  and  if  it  has  sometimes  taken  too 
deep  a  dye,  yet,  like  the  anointed  rod  of  the  High  Priest,  it  has  at 
other  times,  and  as  often,  blossomed  into  celestial  flowers  to  deck  the 
freeman's  brow.  Abhor  the  sword?  Stigmatize  the  sword?  No!  for 
in  the  passes  of  the  Tyrol  it  cut  to  pieces  the  banner  of  the  Bavarian, 
and  through  those  craggy  defiles  struck  a  path  to  fame  for  the  peasant 
insurrectionist  of  Innspruck.  Abhor  the  sword?  Stigmatize  the 
sword?  No!  for  it  swept  the  Dutch  marauders  out  of  the  fine  old 
towns  of  Belgium,  scourged  them  back  to  their  own  phlegmatic 
swamps,  and  knocked  their  flag  and  sceptre,  their  laws  and  bayonets 
into  the  sluggish  waters  of  the  Scheldt.  Abhor  the  sword?  Stigma- 
tize the  sword?  NO!  For  at  its  blow  a  giant  nation  started  from 
the  waters  of  the  Atlantic,  and  by  the  redeeming  magic  of  the  sword, 
and  in  the  quivering  of  its  crimson  light,  the  crippled  colonies  sprang 
into  the  attitude  of  a  proud  republic, —  prosperous,  limitless,  invinci- 
ble.—  Thomas  Francis  Meagher. 


William  Ross  Wallace. 

Bernard  Covert. 





i.       He     lay      up  -   on 

2.  The  sword  was  brought, 

3.  '"Twason      that  dread, 

his      dy  -   ing     bed ; 
the     sol  -dier's  eye 
im  -  mor  -  tal     day, 

4.     "  O,     keep    the  sword  " —         his      ac  -  cents  broke — 

His     eye 

Lit  with 

I  dared 

A  smile — 

was  grow  -  ing 

a  sud  -  den 

the  Brit  -  on's 

and  he     was 




— (Si- 

flame ; 
dead  — 

-ft — 

When  with        a        fee 
And  as         he     grasped 

A  cap  -    tain   raised 

But    his  wrin  -  kled    hand 

ble  voice    he  called  His 

the  an  -  cient  blade,  He 

this  blade     on        me, —  I 

still  grasped  the  bl^de  Up 




-ff 1" 







weep -ing    son              to     him:  "Weep  not,       my  boy!" 

murmured  War  -      ren'sname:  Then  said,  "My  boy, 

tore      it    from            his  hand :  And  while     the  glo     - 

on     that     dy  -       ing  bed.  The    son        re-mains ; 



the   vet- 'ran    said,  "I 

I     leave  you    gold —  But 
rious  bat  -  de    raged,  It 

the  sword  re  -  mains —  Its 










ant  -  lers  bring 
mark      me      now  — 

free  -  dom  blessed 
bless      the      sire, 



The  Sword 

The  Sword 

The  Sword 

And  Sword 














quick  -  ly  from 
leave  you,  mark 
boy,  the  God 
twen  -  ty      mil 

yon     ant  -  lers  bring 
me,  mark    me    now  — 
of     free -dom  blessed 
lions  bless  the      sire, 

The  Sword 
The  Sword 
The  Sword 
And  Sword 



Bun -ker  Hill' 

Bun -ker  Hill.1 

Bun  -  ker  Hill.' 

Bun -ker  Hill. 




>3-   \ 






Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 



utz t 

!» a J — 



Matthias  Keller. 
I 1- 


i.     An  -    gel    of 

2.  Broth-  ers    we 

3.  An  -   gels  of 

— A 

Peace,  thou 
meet,     on 
Beth  -  le  - 

hast  wan-dered    too 
this     al  -    tar     of 
hem,   an  -  swer  the 


Spread  thy  white   wings  to      the 
Ming -ling    the      gifts     we    have 
Hark!    a      new    birth-song    is 


:| r: 






1.  An  -    gel     of 

2.  Broth -ers     we 

3.  An  -   gels    of 

Peace,  thou 
meet      on 
Beth  -   le  - 

hast  wan-dered   too 
this     al  -    tar     of 
hem,   an  -  swer  the 

long ! 
strain  ! 


-*— P 

Spread  thy  white  wings     to     the 
Ming  -  ling  the    gifts       we  have 
Hark!    a     new  birth  -sons:   is 

Maestoso,  0  =  76 

sun  -  shine  of  love  ! 
gath  -  ered  for  thee, 
fill  -  ing    the    sky  !  - 

Come  while  our  voi  -  ces  are  blend  -  ed  in  song, 
Sweet  with  the  o  -  dors  of  myr  -  tie  and  pine, 
Loud  as  the  storm-wind  that  turn  -  bles  the  main 



sun  -  shine  of  love  ! 
gath -ered  for  thee, 
fill  -  ing    the    sky  !- 

Come  while  our  voi    -  ces   are  blend  -  ed     in     song,- 
Sweet  with  the    o    -    dors  of    myr  -  tie    and  pine, 
Loud    as      the  storm-wind  that  turn  -  bles  the  main, 








Words  by  special  arrangement  with  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 
Music  used  by  permission  of  Oliver  Ditson  Company,  owners  of  copyright. 












Fly       to     our     ark      like    the  storm-beat  -  en  dove! 

Breeze  of     the    prai  -    rie     and  breath  of     the  sea, — 

Bid      the    full   breath  of     the    or  -  gan    re  -  ply, — 








Fly  to  our  ark  like  the  storm-beat  -  en  dove! 
Breeze  of  the  prai  -  rie  and  breath  of  the  sea, — 
Bid     the     full  breath     of     the    or  -    gan    re -ply, — 

lr    r  r 



Fly      to  our  ark       on     the 

Mead  -  ow  and  moun-  tain  and 

Let     the  loud  tern  -  pest  of 




Fly      to    our      ark      on    the 

Mead  -  ow    and      moun-tain  and 

Let    the    loud     tem  -  pest  of 

r      i — LZrfcEz=t 




J— ; 



t — ri 


-  5) 0 a— k — \-^-\ — m — a — 1 

-*-    r^4~-4r-4^tS«-iH3-=l 

-#-     -4-       -j-      -j-     "— I \   -4-     -w- 

wings  of  the  dove 
for  -  est  and  sea ! 
voi    -  ces    re  -  ply,- 



Speed  o'er  the 
Sweet     is     the 
Roll     its    long 

far  -  sounding  bil  -  lows  of 
fra-grance  of    myr  -  tie    and 
surge  like  the  earth  -  shak-ing 

main ! 






wings   of     the  dove,— 
for  -  est     and   sea! 
voi  -  ces     re  -  ply, — 





Speed  o'er  the 
Sweet  is  the 
Roll      its  long 

—   1  I 

far  -  sounding   bil   -   lows  of 
fra-grance  of  myr  -    tie    and 
surge  like  the  earth -shak-ing 


main ! 



*—  0 




Crowned  with  thine  ol 
Sweet  -  er  the  in 
Swell       the    vast      song 


ive  -  leaf    gar  -    land     of    love, — 

cense  we      of    -    fer      to     thee, — 

till       it     mounts    to       the     sky!  — 





Crowned  with  thine  ol 
Sweet  -  er  the  in 
Swell      the    vast    song 

ive  -  leaf    gar  -    land     of    love, — 
cense  we      of    -     fer      to     thee, 
till        it    mounts    to      the   sky !  — 




=j 1: 




An    -     gel      of 
Broth  -  ers    once 
An    -    gels     of 



An    -    gel      of 

Broth  -  ers    once 

An    -   gels     of 

/4-     -    - 

t 1 — 1= 

& — » — & — 



-0-:  -e-  -&- 

Peace,thou  hast  wait  -   ed  too  long  ! 

more  round  this    al    -    tar  of  thine ! 

Beth  -  le  -  hem,  ech  -    o  the  strain  ! 


— I— i * 


Peace,  thou  hast  wait  -  ed  too  long ! 
more  round  this  al  -  tar  of  thine ! 
Beth  -    le  -  hem,  ech  -    o       the    strain  ! 





-l    4 






:*= * 


^  -•- 




DOVE  is  quite  a  common  sight  to  children  living 
in  the  country  —  and  a  great  many  boys  and  girls 
could  write  very  interesting  compositions  about 
its  beauty,  its  quiet  ways,  and  its  contented  life. 
They  could  weave  into  their  thoughts,  also,  that 
beautiful  story  of  olden  times  about  the  dove  that 
was  once  sent  forth  from  an  ark,  at  a  time  when  the  whole  of  the 
Earth's  surface  was  covered  with  water,   to  see  if  she  could  find  a 
resting  place  "for  the  sole  of  her  foot;"  and  how  at  first  she  could 
find  none,  but  going  forth  again,  after  seven  days  resting  in  the  ark, 
she  returned  at  evening  — "  and,  lo,  in  her  mouth  was  an  olive  leaf 
pluckt  off;  "  so  the  people  in  the  ark  knew  that  the  waters  had  abated. 
Well,  ever  since  that  time,  almost,  the  olive  leaf,  or  branch,  has  meant 
victory  — just  as  the  dry  land  gained  a  victory  over  the  water,— and 
the  Dove  has  been  the  symbol  of  Peace  — just  as  peace  and  happiness 
came  to  the  dwellers  shut  up  in  the  storm-tossed  ark  on  the  top  of  the 
mountain.     Now  what  more  pleasant  celebration  can  happy  children 
have,  than  to  read  and  talk  and  sing  about  the  glory  and  prosperity 
which  comes  to  a  nation  that  is  at  peace  with  all  the  world?     Let  us 
talk  about  the  sword  and  cruel  war  when  we  must  because  our  country 
is  in  peril;  but  let  the  songs  of  Peace  and  its  praises  be  ever  upon  our 
lips,  until 

"  The  war-drums  beat  no  longer, 
And  the  battle-flags  are  furled 
In  the  Parliament  of  Man, 
The  Federation  of  the  World." 



There  is  a  story  told 
In  Eastern  tents,  when  autumn  nights  grow  cold, 
And  round  the  fire  the  Mongol  shepherds  sit 
With  grave  responses  listening  unto  it; 
Once,  on  the  errands  of  his  mercy  bent, 
Buddha,  the  holy  and  benevolent, 
Met  a  fell  monster,  huge  and  fierce  of  look, 
Whose  awful  voice  the  hills  and  forests  shook. 
"O  son  of  Peace!"  the  giant  cried,  "thy  fate 
Is  sealed  at  last,  and  love  shall  yield  to  hate." 
The  unarmed  Buddha  looking,  with  no  trace 
Of  fear  or  anger,  in  the  monster's  face, 

With  pity  said:    "  Poor  fiend,  even  thee  I  love." 
Lo!  as  he  spake,  the  sky-tall  terror  sank 
To  hand-breadth  size;  the  huge  abhorrence  shrank 

Into  the  form  and  fashion  of  a  dove; 
And  where  the  thunder  of  its  rage  was  heard, 
Brooding  above  him  sweetly  sang  the  bird; 
"  Hate  hath  no  harm  for  love,"  so  ran  the  song, 
And  peace  unweaponed  conquers  every  wrong!  " 

—  John  Grccnlcaf  IVhittier. 

It  is  a  beautiful  picture  in  Grecian  story,  that  there  was  at  least 
one  spot,  the  small  island  of  Delos,  dedicated  to  the  gods,  and  kept  at 
all  times  sacred  from  war.  No  hostile  foot  ever  sought  to  press  this 
kindly  soil;  and  the  citizens  of  all  countries  here  met,  in  common 
worship,  beneath  the  aegis  of  inviolable  peace.  So  let  us  dedicate  our 
beloved  country;  and  may  the  blessed  consecration  be  felt  in  all  its 
parts,  throughout  its  ample  domain!  The  temple  of  honor  shall 
be  surrounded  here  at  last,  by  the  Temple  of  Concord,  that  it 
may  never  more  be  entered  by  any  portal  of  war;  the  horn  of  abun- 
dance shall  overflow  at  its  gates;  the  angel  of  religion  shall  be  the 
guide  over  its  steps  of  flashing  adamant;  while  within  its  enraptured 
courts,  purged  of  violence  and  wrong,  justice,  returning  to  earth 
from  her  long  exile  in  the  skies,  with  mighty  scales  for  nations  as  for 
men,  shall  rear  her  serene  and  majestic  front;  and  by  her  side,  greatest. 


of  all,  charity,  sublime  in  meekness,  hoping  all  and  enduring  all, 
shall  divinely  temper  every  righteous  decree  and  with  words  of  infinite 
cheer  shall  inspire  those  good  works  that  cannot  vanish  away.  And 
the  future  chiefs  of  the  Republic,  destined  to  uphold  the  glories  of  a 
new  era,  unspotted  by  human  blood,  shall  be  "  the  first  in  Peace,  and 
the  first  in  the  hearts  of  their  countrymen." 

But  while  seeking  these  blissful  glories  for  ourselves,  let  us  strive 
to  extend  them  to  other  lands.  Let  the  bugles  sound  the  Truce  of  God 
to  the  whole  world  forever.  Let  the  selfish  boast  of  the  Spartan 
women  become  the  grand  chorus  of  mankind,  that  they  have  never 
seen  the  smoke  of  an  enemy's  camp.  Let  the  iron  belt  of  martial 
music,  which  now  encompasses  the  earth,  be  exchanged  for  the  golden 
cestus  of  Peace,  clothing  all  with  celestial  beauty.—  Charles  Sumner, 
from  "  The  True  Grandeur  of  Nations,"  an  oration  delivered  before  the 
authorities  of  the  city  of  Boston,  July  4,  1845. 


This  is  the  arsenal.     From  floor  to  ceiling, 
Like  a  huge  organ,  rise  the  burnished  arms; 

But  from  their  silent  pipes  no  anthem  pealing 
Startles  the  villages  with  strange  alarms. 

Ah!  what  a  sound  will  rise,  how  wild  and  dreary, 
When  the  Death-angel  touches  these  swift  keys! 

What  loud  lament  and  dismal   Miserere 
Will  mingle  with  their  awful  symphonies! 

I  hear  even  now  the  infinite  fierce  chorus, 
The  cries  of  agony,  the  endless  groan, 

Which,  through  the  ages  that  have  gone  before  us, 
In  long  reverberations  reach  our  own. 

On  helm  and  harness  rings  the  Saxon  hammer. 

Through  Cimbric  forest  roars  the  Norseman's  song, 
And  loud,  amid  the  universal  clamor, 

O'er  distant  deserts  sounds  the  Tartar  gong. 


I  hear  the  Florentine,  who  from  his  palace 
Wheels  out  his  battle-bell  with  dreadful  din, 

And  Aztec  priests  upon  their  teocallis 

Beat  the  wild  war-drums  made  of  serpent's  skin. 

The  tumult  of  each  sacked  and  burning  village; 

The  shout  that  every  prayer  for  mercy  drowns; 
The  soldiers1  revels  in  the  midst  of  pillage; 

The  wail  of  famine  in  beleaguered  towns; 

The  bursting  shell,  the  gateway  wrenched  asunder, 

The  rattling  musketry,  the  clashing  blade; 
And  ever  and  anon,  in  tones  of  thunder, 

The  diapason  of  the  cannonade. 

Is  it,  O  man,  with  such  discordant  noises, 

With  such  accursed  instruments  as  these, 
Thou  drownest  Nature's  sweet  and  kindly  voices, 

And  jarrest  the  celestial  harmonies? 

Were  half  the  power  that  fills  the  world  with  terror, 
Were  half  the  wealth  bestozved  on  camps  and  courts, 

Given  to  redeem  the  human  mind  from  error, 
There  were  no  need  of  arsenals  or  forts: 

The  warrior's  name  would  be  a  name  abhorred! 

And  every  nation  that  should  lift  again 
Its  hand  against  a  brother,   on   its  forehead 

Would  wear  for  evermore  the  curse  of  Cain! 

Down  the  dark  future,  through  long  generations, 
The  echoing  sounds  grow  fainter,  and  then  cease; 

And  like  a  bell,  with  solemn,  sweet  vibrations, 
/  hear  once  more  the  voice  of  Christ  say,  "Peace!  " 

Peace!  and  no  longer  from  its  brazen  portals 
The  blast  of  War's  great  organ  shakes  the  skies! 

Hut,  beautiful  as  songs  of  the  immortals, 
The  holy  melodies  of  love  arise. 

—  H.  W.  Longfellow. 


HIS,  surely,  is  true:  If  you  have  ever  seen  an  Eagle 
shut  up  in  a  cage,  deprived  of  the  power  to  fly,  and 
no  scream  of  triumph  ever  issuing  from  his  throat,  it 
must  have  given  you  a  faint  idea  of  the  forlorn  and 
unhappy  plight  of  any  human  being  when  deprived  of 

liberty,  pining  away  in  hopeless  captivity. 

If  you  have  ever  watched  that  same  bird  flying  high  and  strong, 

or  have  seen  him  perched  upon  some  tall  cliff  or  crag,  rejoicing  in  the 

upper  air,  and  gazing  with  unblinking  eyes  upon  the  sun, —  you  have 

seen  a  fine  illustration  of  the  joys  of  Freedom. 


Bird  of  the  broad  and  sweeping  wing 

Thy  home  is  high  in  heaven, 
Where  wide  the  storms  their  banners  fling, 

And  the  tempest  clouds  are  driven. 
Thy  throne  is  on  the  mountain  top; 

Thy  fields  —  the  boundless  air; 
And  hoary  peaks  that  proudly  prop 

The  skies,  thy  dwellings  are. 


And  where  was  then  thy  fearless  flight? 

"  O'er  the  dark,  mysterious  sea. 
To  the  lands  that  caught  the  setting  light, 

The  cradle  of  liberty. 
There  on  the  silent  and  lonely  shore, 

For  ages  I  watched  alone, 
And  the  world,  in  its  darkness,  asked  no  more 

Where  the  glorious  bird  had  flown. 

But  then  came  a  bold  and  hardy  few, 
And  they  breasted  the  unknown  wave; 

I  caught  afar  the  wandering  crew, 

And  I  knew  they  were  high  and  brave. 

9  (129) 



I  wheeled  around  the  welcome  bark, 

As  it  sought  the  desolate  shore; 
And  up  to  heaven,  like  a  joyous  lark, 

My  quivering  pinions  bore. 

And  now  that  bold  and  hardy  few 

Are  a  nation  wide  and  strong; 
And  danger  and  doubt  I  have  led  them  through, 

And  they  worship   me   in   song; 
And  over  their  bright  and  glancing  arms 

On   field,   and  lake,   and   sea, 
With  an  eye  that  fires,  and  a  spell  that  charms, 

I  guide  them  to  victory." 

—  James  Gates  Pcrcival. 


Bird  of  Columbia!  well  art  thou 

An  emblem  of  our  native  land; 
With  unblenched  front  and  noble  brow, 

Among  the  nations  doomed  to  stand; 
Proud,  like  her  mighty  mountain  woods; 

Like  her  own  rivers  wandering  free; 
And  sending  forth  from  hills  and  floods 

The  joyous  shout  of  liberty! 
Like  thee,  majestic  bird!  like  thee, 

She  stands  in  unbought  majesty, 
With  spreading  wing,  untired  and  strong, 

That  dares  a  soaring    far  and  long, 
That  mounts  aloft,  nor  looks  below, 

And  will  not  quail,  though  tempests  blow 

The  admiration  of  the  earth, 
In  grand  simplicity  she  stands; 

Like  thee,  the  storms  beheld  her  birth, 
And  she  was  nursed  by  rugged  hands; 

But,  past  the  fierce  and  furious  war, 
Her  rising  fame  new  glory  brings, 

For  kings  and  nobles  come  from  far 
To  seek  the  shelter  of  her  wings. 
And  like  thee,  rider  of  the  cloud, 
She  mounts  the  heavens,  serene  and  proud, 
Great  in  a  pure  and  noble  fame, 
Great  in  her  spotless  champion's  name, 
And  destined  in  her  day  to  be 
Mighty  as  Rome,  more  nobly  free.  —  C.  W.  Thompson. 

Thomas  Buchanan  Read. 

Martial  style. 


William  F.  Hartley. 







-^ — 

i.  Where  sweeps  round  the  moun  -  tains    the   cloud        on     the    gale,      And  streams  from  their 

2.  I       mount      the     wild  horse      with     no     sad     -    die     or      rein,       And  guide    his    swift 

3.  When      A      -    pril      is    sound   -  ing    his     horn        o'er    the     hills,      And  brook- lets     are 








-•-     w 

z* *" 







tains    leap 
with      a 
ing       in 




■HP        •'  r  V      V 

to      the  vale, —  As  fright-ened  deer   leap  when  the  storm  with     his 

on      his  mane:  Thro' paths  steep  and    nar  -  row,  and  scorn  -  ing      the 

to      the  mills, — When  warm  Au- gust  slum-bers      a  -  mong   her    green 







*i— " 



pack  Rides  o  -  ver 
crag,  I  chase  with 
leaves,    And        har    -    vest 

the  steep  in  the  wild 
my  ar  -  row  the  flight 
en  -   cum   -    bers      her       gar 



*r  ? 



tor  -  rent's  track, —     Ev'n 
of        the     stag ;        Through 
ners    with  sheaves,  When  the 






Words  by  permission  J.  B.  Lippincott  Company;  Music,  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 








there       my     free    home         is;  there  watch         I      the    flocks     Wan-der     white      as      the 
snow  -  drifts    en  -  gulf    -    ing,      I         fol     -    low    the     bear,         And  face      the  gaunt 

flail         of       No  -  vem    -    ber      is      swing  -   ing   with   might,       And  the       mil  -    ler      De  - 


J 1- 


i V 


^—$ 1 1- 







foam         is       on      stair  -  ways     of      rocks ; 
wolf      when     he      snarls        in      his       lair, 
cem    -    ber       is        man   -    tied    with    white,- 


Se  -  cure         in      the    gorge   there     in 

And   watch  through  the    gorge    there    the 

In      field        and      in      forge    there    the 





~=t 3r 

i— -$ 







free  -  dom     we     sing, 
red      pan  -  ther  spri.ig, 
free  -  heart  -  ed     sing, 

And  laugh  at  King  George, where  the  Ea  -  gle 
And  laugh  at  King  George, where  the  Ea  -  gle 
And  laugh      at    King  George, where  the    Ea  -    gle 




An  emblem  of  freedom,  stern,  haughty,  and  high, 
Is  the  Gray  Forest  Eagle,  that  king  of  the  sky. 
When  his  shadows  steal  black  o'er  the  empires  of  kings, 
Deep  terror, —  deep,  heart-shaking  terror, —  he  brings; 
Where  wicked  oppression  is  armed  for  the  weak, 
There  rustles  his  pinion,  there  echoes  his  shriek; 
His  eye  flames  with  vengeance,  he  sweeps  on  his  way, 
And  his  talons  are  bathed  in  the  blood  of  his  prey. 

O,  that  Eagle  of  Freedom!  when  cloud  upon  cloud 
Swathed  the  sky  of  my  own  native  land  with  a  shroud. 
When  lightnings  gleamed  fiercely,  and  thunderbolts  rung, 
How  proud  to  the  tempest  those  pinions  were  flung! 
Though  the  wild  blast  of  battle  rushed  fierce  through  the  air 
With  darkness  and  dread,  still  the  eagle  was  there; 
Unquailing,  still  speeding  his  swift  flight  was  on, 
Till  the  rainbow  of  peace  crowned  the  victory  won. 

O,  that  Eagle  of  Freedom!    age  dims  not  his  eye. 
He  has  seen  earth's  mortality  spring,  bloom,  and  die! 
He  has  seen  the  strong  nations  rise,  flourish,  and  fall, 
He  mocks  at  Time's  changes,  he  triumphs  o'er  all; 
He  has  seen  our  own  land  with  forests  o'erspread, 
He  sees  it  with  sunshine  and  joy  on  its  head; 
And  his  presence  will  bless  this  his  own  chosen  clime, 
Till  the  Archangel's  fiat  is  set  upon  time. 

—  Alfred  B.  Street. 


He  clasps  the  crag  with  crooked  hands; 
Close  to  the  sun  in  lonely  lands, 
Ring'd  with  the  azure  world,  he  stands. 

The  wrinkled  sea  beneath  him  crawls; 
He  watches  from  his  mountain  walls; 
And  like  a  thunderbolt  he  falls. 

—  Alfred  Tennyson. 


Many  years  ago,  a  white-headed  eagle  was  taken  from  its  nest 
when  only  four  months  old,  and  sold  to  a  Wisconsin  farmer  for  a 
bushel  of  corn.  The  bird  was  very  intelligent,  and  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  a  gentleman,  who  purchased  and  presented  him  to  the  Eighth 
Regiment  of  Wisconsin,  then  preparing  to  go  to  the  front.  The  eagle 
was  gladly  received,  and  given  a  place  next  to  the  regimental  flag. 
For  three  years  he  followed  the  "  Live  Eagle  Regiment/'  being  near 
its  flag  in  thirty  battles. 

This  majestic  bird  was  always  moved  and  most  demonstrative  at 
the  sound  of  martial  music.  He  shared  all  the  battles  of  the  regiment, 
but  no  drop  of  his  blood  was  ever  sacrificed.  Vainly  did  rebel  sharp- 
shooters aim  at  his  dark  figure,  conspicuously  "  painted  on  the  crimson 
sky;  "  he  seemed  to  bear  a  charmed  life;  and  his  loyal  comrades  almost 
looked  up  to  him  as  their  leader,  and  with  pride  believed  in  him  as  a 
bird  of  good  omen.  He  was  named  "  Old  Abe,"  sworn  into  the  ser- 
vice, and  proved  to  be  every  inch  a  soldier,  listening  to  and  obeying 
orders,  noting  time  most  accurately,  always  after  the  first  year  giving 
heed  to  "  attention,"  insisting  upon  being  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight, 
and  when  his  comrades,  exposed  to  great  danger  from  the  terrible  fire 
of  the  enemy,  were  ordered  to  lie  down,  he  would  flatten  himself  upon 
the  ground  with  them,  rising  when  they  did,  and  with  outspread  pin- 
ions soar  aloft  over  the  carnage  and  smoke  of  the  battle.  When  the 
cannons  were  pouring  forth  destruction  and  death,  above  the  roar  and 
thunder  of  the  artillery  rose  his  wild,  shrill,  battle-cry  of  freedom.  He 
was  always  restless  before  the  march  to  the  encounter,  but  after  the 
smoke  of  the  battlefield  had  cleared  away  he  would  doff  his  soldier- 
like bearing,  and  with  wild  screams  of  delight  would  manifest  his  joy 
at  the  victory;  but  if  defeat  was  the  result  his  discomfiture  and  deep 
sorrow  was  manifested  by  every  movement  of  his  stately  figure,  but 
drooping  head. —  Adapted  from  M.  S.  Porter. 


'OW  great  was  the  reliance  of  the  Roman  soldier  upon 
his  shield!  With  it,  he  warded  off  the  arrows  of  his 
enemies  aimed  at  his  body;  holding  it  over  him,  like 
a  roof,  he  sheltered  his  head  from  storms  of  mis- 
siles hurled  at  him  from  higher  places.  But  woe  be 
to  him,  if  his  shield  was  not  strong  enough  to  with- 
stand the  weapons  dashed  against  it! 

Recall,  also,  the  command  of  the  Spartan  mother  to  her  soldier- 
son:  "  My  son,  return  with  your  shield  or  upon  it."  That  meant 
that  the  soldier  was  to  win  the  victory  if  possible;  if  not,  was  to  give 
up  his  life  in  defense  of  his  country,  and  be  borne  home  upon  his  shield 
as  a  pall  of  honor. 

So,  Our  Country  is  a  shield  of  Law  and  Justice,  giving  to  every 
citizen  its  sure  and  safe  protection.  May  that  shield  never  be  so 
weak  that  it  cannot  withstand  the  attacks  of  any  and  every  foe! 

On  the  other  hand,  every  citizen  should  be  as  a  shield  for  his 
country  —  trying  to  win  right  victories  for  her,  or  ready,  if  need  be,  to 
die  for  her,  like  the  Spartan  soldier  of  old. 



E'en  when  in  hostile  fields  he  bleeds  to  save  her, 

'Tis  not  his  blood  he  loses,  'tis  his  country's; 

He  only  pays  her  back  a  debt  he  owes. 

To  her  he's  bound  for  birth  and  education, 

Her  laws  secure  him  from  domestic  feuds. 

And  from  the  foreign  foe  her  arms  protect  him. 

She  lends  him  honors,  dignity,  and  rank, 

His  wrong    revenges,  and  his  merit  pays; 

And  like  a  tender  and  indulgent  mother, 

Loads  him  with  comforts,  and  would  make  his  state 

As  blessed  as  nature  and  the  gods  designed  it. 

—  William  Cowper. 


I  do  not  know  how  far  the  United  States  of  America  can  inter- 
fere in  Turkey,  but  American  citizens  are  suffering  in  Armenia,  and 
so  far  as  American  citizens  are  concerned,  I  would  protect  them  there 
at  any  cost.  We  have  given  no  assent  to  the  agreement  of  European 
nations  that  the  Dardanelles  should  be  closed;  and  if  it  were  necessary 
to  protect  American  citizens  and  their  property,  I  would  order  United 
States  ships,  in  spite  of  forts,  in  spite  of  agreements,  to  sail  up  the 
Dardanelles,  plant  themselves  before  Constantinople,  and  demand  that 
American  citizens  should  have  the  protection  to  which  they  are  entitled. 
I  do  not  love  Great  Britain  particularly;  but  I  think  that  one  of  the 
grandest  things  in  all  the  history  of  Great  Britain  is  that  she  does 
protect  her  subjects  everywhere,  anywhere,  and  under  all  circum- 
stances. This  incident  is  a  marvellous  illustration  of  the  protection 
which  Great  Britain  gives  to  her  subjects:  The  King  of  Abyssinia  took 
a  British  subject,  about  twenty  years  ago,  carried  him  up  to  the  fortress 
of  Magdala,  on  the  heights  of  a  rocky  mountain,  and  put  him  into  a 
dungeon,  without  cause  assigned.  It  took  six  months  for  Great 
Britain  to  find  that  out.  Then  she  demanded  his  immediate  release. 
King  Theobald  refused.  In  less  than  ten  days  after  that  refusal  was 
received,  ten  thousand  English  soldiers  were  on  board  ships  of  war, 
and  were  sailing  down  the  coast.  When  they  reached  the  coast,  they 
were  disembarked,  marched  across  that  terrible  country,  a  distance  of 
seven  hundred  miles,  under  a  burning  sun,  up  the  mountain,  up  to  the 
very  heights  in  front  of  the  frowning  dungeon;  and  there  they  gave 
battle,  battered  down  the  iron  gates  of  the  stone  walls,  reached  down 
into  the  dungeon,  and  lifted  out  of  it  that  one  British  subject.  Then 
they  carried  him  down  the  mountain,  across  the  land,  put  him  on  board 
a  white-winged  ship,  and  sped  him  home  in  safety.  That  cost  Great 
Britain  twenty-five  millions  of  dollars.  But  was  it  not  a  great  thing 
for  a  great  country  to  do?  A  country  that  can  see  across  the  ocean, 
across  the  land,  away  up  to  the  mountain  height,  and  away  down  to 
the  darksome  dungeon,  one  subject  of  hers,  out  of  thirty-eight  millions 
of  people,  and  then  has  an  arm  strong  enough,  and  long  enough  to 
stretch  across  the  same  ocean,  across  the  same  lands,  up  the  same 
mountain  heights,  down  to  the  same  dungeon,  and  lift  him  out  and 


carry  him  home  to  his  own  country  and  friends,  in  God's  name,  who 
would  not  die  for  a  country  that  will  do  that?  Well,  our  country  will 
do  it,  and  our  country  ought  to  do  it;  and  all  that  I  ask  is  that  our 
country  shall  model  itself  after  Great  Britain  in  this  one  thing:  The 
life  of  an  American  citizen  must  be  protected,  wherever  he  may  be.— 
William  P.  Frye,  from  a  speech  delivered  in  the  United  States  Senate, 
on  the  Armenian  resolutions. 


Are  ye  all  there?     Are  ye  ajl  there, 

Stars   in   my   country's   sky? 
Are  ye  all  there?    Are  ye  all  there, 
In  your  shining  homes  on  high? 
"Count  us!     Count  us,"  was  their  answer, 
As  they  dazzled  on  my  view, 
In    glorious    perihelion, 
Amid  their  field  of  blue. 

I  cannot  count  ye  rightly; 

There's  a  cloud  with  sable  rim; 
I  cannot  make  your  number  out, 

For  my  eyes  with  tears  are  dim. 
O  bright  and  blessed  angel, 

On  white  wing  floating  by, 
Help  me  to  count,  and  not  to  miss 

One   star   in   my  country's   sky! 

Then  the  angel  touched  mine  eyelids, 

And  touched  the  frowning  cloud; 
And  its  sable  rim  departed, 

And  it  fled  with  murky  shroud. 
There  was  no  missing  Pleiad 

'Mid  all  that  sister  race; 
The    Southern    Cross    gleamed    radiant    forth, 

And  the  Pole  Star  kept  its  place. 

Then  I  knew  it  was  the  angel 

Who   woke  the  hymning  strain 
That  at  our  Redeemer's  birth 

Pealed  out  o'er  Bethlehem's  pjain; 


And  still  its  heavenly  key-stone 
My  listening  country  held, 

For  all  her  constellated  stars 
The  diapason  swelled. 

—  Lydia  Huntley  Sigourney. 


Though  many  and  bright  are  the  stars  that  appear 

In  that  flag  by  our  country  unfurled, 
And   the   stripes   that   are   swelling   in   majesty   there, 

Like  a  rainbow  adorning  the  world, 
Their  light  is  unsullied  as  those  in  the  sky 

By  a  deed  that  our  fathers  have  done, 
And  they're  linked  in  as  true  and  as  holy  a  tie 

In  their  motto  of  "  Many  in  one." 

Then  up  with  our  flag!  — let  it  stream  on  the  air; 

Though  our  fathers  are  cold  in  their  graves, 
They  had  hands  that  could  strike,  they  had  souls  that  could  dare, 

And  their  sons  were  not  born  to  be  slaves. 
Up,  up  with  that  banner!  where'er  it  may  call. 

Our   millions   shall    rally   around, 
And  a  nation  of  freemen  that  moment  shall  fall 

When  its  stars  shall  be  trailed  on  the  ground. 

—  George  Washington  Cutler. 


Note  :  —  This  song  was  inspired  by  a  visit  of  Mrs.  Howe  to  the  "  Circling  Camps  "  around  Washington,  gathered  for  the  dsfence  of 
the  Capital,  early  in  the  War  of  1S61  -5. 

Julia  Ward  Howe. 
,    Allegretto. s        *         n       v 





Mine     eyes  have  seen  the     glo  -  ry    of  the    com -ing  of        the    Lord;         He     is 

I  have  seen  Him    in  the  watch-fires  of         a      hun-dred  cir  -  cling  camps;  They  have 

I  have  read     a       fie  -  ry     gos  -  pel, writ      in     burnished  rows      of    steel;  "As     ye 

He  has  sound-ed   forth  the  trum  -  pet  that  shall  nev  -  er     call       re  -  treat ; 


5.     In    the  beau-ty      of       the      HI    -  ies,Christ  was  born    a  -  cross     the      sea, 

f\         It       IS 

He     is 

With    a 

4— U-=i= 







tramp  -  ling  out  the    vin  -    tage  where     the  grapes    of    wrath     are   stored ; 

build  -  ed  Him  an       al    -    tar      in         the     eve  -  ning  dews    and  damps; 

deal     with  my  con  -  tern  -  ners,    so        with  you       my  grace    shall   deal; 

sift  -    ing  out  the  hearts    of      men        be  -fore       His  judg-ment  seat; 

glo    -    ry  in  His     bo  -    sora    that    trans  -  fig    -  ures  you      and     me; 

r   r — h 












-*    N 




loosed  the  fate  -  f ul 
read  His  righteous 
He  -  ro,  born    of 
swift,  my  soul,    to 
died    to  make  men 

-r* — *-* 


lightning  of  His  ter  -  ri-ble  swift  sword,  His  truth  is 
sen-tence  by  the  dim  and  flar  -  ing  lamps,  His  day  is 
wo-man,crushthe  ser-pent  with  His  heel,"  Since  God  is 
an-swerHim!  be  ju  -  bi-lant,  my  feet!  Our  God  is 
ho  -  ly,  let      us    die    to  make  men  free,  While  God     is 

js      fc  -•-     -•- 

i-t— 4 — n-s— • — c p   ,f~ — t- 


marching  on. 

marching  on. 

marching  on. 

marching  on. 

marching  on. 









Full  Chorus. 






Glo  -    ry!    glo  -   ry!  Hal-  le  -  lu    -    jah!  Glo  -    ry!     glo  -  ry !  Hal  -  le  -   lu 











Glo    -    ry!      glo   -  ry!  Hal  -  le  -    lu    -    jah!  His    truth      is    march  -  ing 




r — r 

By  special  arrangement  with  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 




i.  The  Minute  Man,  3.  March  of  Flags, 

2.  Departure  and  Return  of  4.  Army  and  Navy, 

States,  5,  Homage  to  Columbia, — 




1.  Longfellow,  3.  Holmes, 

2.  Whittier,  4.  Lowell. 



HERE  is  hardly  any  kind  of  patriotic  exercise  in  which 
children  give  so  much  pleasure,  or  from  which  they  re- 
ceive so  much  profit,  as  in  the  representation,  in  costume, 
of  a  great  historical  event.  It  is  true  that  such  picture- 
grouping  cannot  easily  be  arranged  for  an  ordinary  school- 
opening.  But  now  and  then,  on  a  public  occasion  in  afternoon 
or  evening,  there  is  nothing  into  which  children  will  so  heartily 
enter  as  such  a  pictorial  exercise;  and  there  is  always  some  teacher, 
or  children's  friend,  to  be  found  who  has  the  needful  enthusiasm, 
intelligence  and  ingenuity  to  make  the  matter  a  success.  And  let 
nobody  think  that  great  elaboration  or  expense  of  costuming  is 
needful.  Things  simply  and  inexpensively  made,  or  the  use  of  an 
old-time  coat  or  dress  found  in  a  garret  or  unused  drawer  at  home, 
may  serve  all  needful  purposes.  To  all  taking  part,  the  meaning  of 
the  exercise  should  be  made  clear, —  and  indeed  it  is  well,  on  printed 
program,  or  by  oral  explanation,  to  give  a  preliminary  hint  to  the 
audience.  Several  pictorial  programs  follow,  for  the  benefit  of  those 
who  believe  that  novelty  induces  interest,  and  interest  —  in  things 
patriotic  as  in  things  financial  —  begets  profit. 

NO.    I.       "  THE  MINUTE   MAN." 

The  name,  "  Minute  Man  "  refers  to  those  patriots  in  the  time  of 
the  American  Revolution,  who  were  ready,  "  at  a  minute's  notice  "  to 
seize  their  muskets  and  fight  against  the  British.  This  was  exactly 
what  they  did  when  the  "  Redcoats  "  came  marching  from  Boston  on 
through  Lexington  to  Concord.  No  better  idea  could  be  given  of  the 
intention  of  the  British  than  is  conveyed  by  Longfellow's  poem  of 
"  Paul  Revere's  Ride."  This  might  be  read  or  recited  before  the 
tableau  is  shown.  In  the  tableau  the  central  figure  should  be  a  minute 
man.    A  good  model  of  him  may  be  had  by  studying  a  photograph  of 




French's  "  Minute  Man,"  a  finely  chiseled  bronze  statue,  standing  near 
the  Concord  bridge,  at  a  point  where  the  colonial  farmers  met  the 
British  regulars,  and  sent  them,  frightened  and  flying,  back  towards 
Boston.  About  this  central  figure  group  thirteen  girls,  in  white,  repre- 
senting the  original  colonies  that  stood  "  shoulder  to  shoulder  "  during 
the  Revolution;  their  arms  raised  and  hands  extended  as  if  to  bid  the 
rustic  soldier  "  God  speed  "  in  his  defence  of  native  land.  While  the 
tableau  is  still  in  view,  let  a  clear-voiced  and  intelligent  pupil  repeat  the 
famous  ode  written  and  recited  by  the  great  American  scholar  and 
patriot,  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson.    Here  it  is: 

By  the  rude  bridge  that  arched  the  flood, 
Their  flag  to  April's  breeze  unfurled, 

Here  once  the  embattled  farmers  stood, 
And  fired  the  shot  heard  round  the  world. 

The  foe  long  since  in  silence  slept; 

Alike  the  conqueror  silent  sleeps; 
And  Time  the  ruined  bridge  has  swept 

Down  the  dark  stream  which  seaward  creeps. 

On  this  green  bank,  by  this  soft  stream, 

We  set  to-day  a  votive  stone; 
That  memory  may  their  deed  redeem, 

When,  like  our  sires,  our  sons  are  gone. 

Spirit,  that  made  these  heroes  dare 
To  die,  and  leave  their  children  free, 

Bid  Time  and  Nature  gently  spare 

The  shaft  we  raise  to  them  and  thee. 

As  the  poem  ends,  or  even  before  if  the  young  folks  cannot  hold 
their  positions,  let  the  curtain  fall,  and  have  a  good  boy  speaker  declaim 
"  The  Minute  Man  "  by  another  great  American,  George  William 



The  Minute  Man  of  the  Revolution!  And  who  was  he?  He  was 
the  husband  and  father,  who  left  the  plough  in  the  furrow,  the  hammer 
on  the  bench,  and,  kissing  wife  and  children,  marched  to  die  or  to  be 
free!  He  was  the  old,  the  middle  aged,  the  young.  He  was  Captain 
Miles,  of  Acton,  who  reproved  his  men  for  jesting  on  the  march!  He 
was  Deacon  Josiah  Haines,  of  Sudbury,  eighty  years  old,  who  marched 
with  his  company  to  South  Bridge,  at  Concord,  then  joined  in  that  hot 
pursuit  to  Lexington,  and  fell  as  gloriously  as  Warren  at  Bunker  Hill. 
He  was  James  Hayward  of  Acton,  twenty-two  years  old,  foremost  in 
that  deadly  race  from  Charlestown  to  Concord,  who  raised  his  piece  at 
the  same  moment  with  a  British  soldier,  each  exclaiming,  "  You  are  a 
dead  man!  "  The  Briton  dropped,  shot  through  the  heart.  Hayward 
fell,  mortally  wounded.  This  was  the  Minute  Man  of  the  Revolution! 
The  rural  citizen,  trained  in  the  common  school,  the  town  meeting, 
who  carried  a  bayonet  that  thought,  and  whose  gun,  loaded  with  a 
principle,  brought  down,  not  a  man,  but  a  system.  With  brain  and 
heart  and  conscience  all  alive,  he  opposed  every  hostile  order  of  British 
council.  The  cold  Grenville,  the  brilliant  Townsend,  the  reckless  Hills- 
borough, derided,  declaimed,  denounced,  laid  unjust  taxes,  and  sent 
troops  to  collect  them,  and  the  plain  Boston  Puritan  laid  his  finger  on 
the  vital  point  of  the  tremendous  controversy,  and  held  to  it  inexorably. 
Intrenched  in  his  own  honesty,  the  king's  gold  could  not  buy  him; 
enthroned  in  the  love  of  his  fellow-citizens,  the  king's  writ  could  not 
take  him;  and  when,  on  the  morning  at  Lexington,  the  king's  troops 
marched  to  seize  him,  his  sublime  faith  saw,  beyond  the  clouds  of  the 
moment,  the  rising  sun  of  the  America  we  behold,  and  careless  of  him- 
self, mindful  only  of  his  country,  he  exultingly  exclaimed,  "  Oh,  what 
a  glorious  morning!  "  He  felt  that  a  blow  would  soon  be  struck  that 
would  break  the  heart  of  British  tyranny.  His  judgment,  his  con- 
science told  him  the  hour  had  come.  Unconsciously,  his  heart  beat 
time  to  the  music  of  the  slave's  epitaph: 

"  God  wills  us  free; 
Man   wills   us   slaves; 
I  will  as  God  wills: 
God's  will  be  done!" 

—  George  William  Curtis. 



NO.    2.      DEPARTURE   AND    RETURN    OF   THE    STATES. 

In  the  year  1861,  as  every  intelligent  boy  and  girl  should  know, 
the  following  States  resolved  to  sever  their  connection  with  the  Union, 
or,  as  the  phrase  ran  in  those  days  —  "to  secede"  from  the  Union: 
South  Carolina,  Mississippi,  Florida,  Alabama,  Georgia,  Louisiana, 
Texas.  Arkansas,  North  Carolina,  Virginia,  Tennessee  followed.  It 
was  a  sad  day  for  our  country  when  they  decided  thus  to  leave  the 
National  roof  and  the  House  of  the  Union  that  had  sheltered  them  so 
long!  But  they  seemed  to  think  they  were  right,  and  so  they  marched 
forth  with  a  very  defiant  air.  Choose,  then,  seven  girls  of  spirit  to  repre- 
sent these  departing  States.  Let  South  Carolina,  bearing  a  palmetto 
branch,  be  the  leader, —  and  all  attired  in  white.  Then  let  the  Northern, 
Eastern,  Western  States  be  each  represented  by  a  girl, —  or  if  that 
would  make  the  number  too  great,  let  three  girls  stand,  one  each,  for 
the  North,  the  East,  the  West.  Let  these,  in  black,  take  their  places 
in  the  background,  center  of  the  stage  or  platform,  with  their  eyes 
downcast,  while,  to  the  playing  of  a  piece  in  a  minor  key,  the  procession 
of  the  Southern  States  sweeps  by.  As  they  disappear,  the  North,  East, 
West  pass  slowly  off  at  the  opposite  side  of  the  platform.  Straight- 
way a  sympathetic  voice  repeats  the  following  poem: 


By  the  flow  of  the  inland  river, 

Whence  the  fleets  of  iron  have  fled, 
Where  the  blades  of  the  grave-grass  quiver, 

Asleep  are  the  ranks  of  the  dead; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  one,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  other,  the  Gray. 

These  in  the  robings  of  glory, 

Those  in  the  gloom  of  defeat; 
All  with  the  battle-blood  gory, 

In  the  dust  of  eternity  meet; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  laurel,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  willow,  the  Gray. 


From  the  silence  of  sorrowful  hours, 

The  desolate  mourners  go, 
Lovingly  laden  with  flowers. 

Alike  for  the  friend  and  the  foe; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  roses,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  lilies,  the  Gray. 

So,  with  an  equal  splendor, 

The  morning  sun-rays  fall, 
With  a  touch  impartially  tender, 

On  the  blossoms  blooming  for  all; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Broidered  with  gold,  the  Blue; 

Mellowed  with  gold,  the  Gray. 

So,  when  the  summer  calleth, 

On   forest  and  field  of  grain, 
With  an  equal  murmur  falleth 

The  cooling  drip  of  the  rain; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Wet  with  the  rain,  the  Blue; 
Wet  with  the  rain,  the  Gray. 

Sadly,  but  not  with  upbraiding, 

The  generous  deed  was  done; 
In  the  storm  of  the  years  that  are  fading 

No  braver  battle  was  won; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  blossoms,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  garlands,  the  Gray. 

No  more  shall  the  war-cry  sever, 

Or  the  winding  rivers  be  red; 
They  banish  our  anger  forever, 

When  they  laurel  the  graves  of  our  dead. 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Love  and  tears  for  the  Blue; 

Tears  and  love  for  the  Gray. 

—  Francis  Miles  Finch. 



Just  as  the  voice  dies  away,  to  a  march  in  major  key,  the  Northern 
States,  in  white,  march  in  with  flags  waving,  escorting  the  Southern 
States,  waving  flags  also  —  and  all  march  about  the  stage  singing  as 
only  patriotic  children  can  sing,  "My  Country!  'tis  of  Thee."  After 
the  curtain  falls,  let  the  children  be  seated,  or  grouped,  upon  the  stage. 
When  the  curtain  has  been  raised,  let  a  good  speaker  declaim  the 
following  extract  from  that  great  Union  Southern  citizen,  Henry  W. 
Grady;  another,  the  next  selection  from  a  great  Northern  citizen, 
Robert  C.  Winthrop. 


With  consecrated  service,  what  could  we  not  accomplish;  what 
riches  we  should  gather;  what  glory  and  prosperity  we  should  render 
to  the  Union;  what  blessings  we  should  gather  into  the  universal 
harvest  of  humanity.  As  I  think  of  it,  a  vision  of  surpassing  beauty 
unfolds  to  my  eyes.  I  see  a  South,  the  home  of  fifty  millions  of  people, 
who  rise  up  every  day  to  call  from  blessed  cities,  vast  hives  of  industry 
and  thrift;  her  country-sides  the  treasures  from  which  their  resources 
are  drawn;  her  streams  vocal  with  whirring  spindles;  her  valleys  tranquil 
in  the  white  and  gold  of  the  harvest;  her  mountains  showering  down 
the  music  of  bells,  as  her  slow-moving  flocks  and  herds  go  forth  from 
their  folds;  her  rulers  honest  and  her  people  loving,  and  her  homes 
happy  and  their  hearth-stones  bright,  and  their  waters  still  and  their 
pastures  green,  and  her  conscience  clear;  her  wealth  diffused,  and  poor- 
houses  empty;  her  churches  earnest  and  all  creeds  lost  in  the  gospel. 
Peace  and  sobriety  walking  hand  in  hand  through  her  borders;  honor 
in  her  homes;  uprightness  in  her  midst;  plenty  in  her  fields;  straight 
and  simple  faith  in  the  hearts  of  her  sons  and  daughters;  her  two  races 
walking  together  in  peace  and  contentment ;  sunshine  everywhere  and 
all  the  time,  and  night  falling  on  her  gently  as  from  the  wings  of  the 
unseen  dove. 

All  this,  my  country,  and  more,  can  we  do  for  you.  As  I  look,  the 
vision  grows,  the  splendor  deepens,  the  horizon  falls  back,  the  skies 


open  their  everlasting  gates,  and  the  glory  of  the  Almighty  God  streams 
through  as  He  looks  down  on  His  people  who  have  given  themselves 
unto  Him,  and  leads  them  from  one  triumph  to  another  until  they 
have  reached  a  glory  unspeakable,  and  the  whirling  stars,  as  in  their 
courses  through  Arcturus  they  run  to  the  Milky  Way,  shall  not  look 
down  on  a  better  people  or  happier  land. —  Henry  W.  Grady,  from  an 
address  delivered  at  Dallas,  Texas,  October  26,  1887. 

We  are  one,  by  the  memories  of  our  fathers!  We  are  one,  by  the 
hopes  of  our  children!  We  are  one,  by  a  Constitution  and  a  Union 
which  have  not  only  survived  the  shock  of  foreign  and  of  civil  war,  but 
have  stood  the  abeyance  of  almost  all  administration,  while  the  whole 
people  were  waiting,  breathless  in  alternate  hope  and  fear,  for  the  issues' 
of  an  execrable  crime!  We  are  one,  bound  together  afresh,  by  the 
electric  chords  of  sympathy  and  sorrow,  vibrating  and  thrilling,  day  by 
day,  of  that  live-long  summer,  through  every  one  of  our  hearts,  for 
our  basely  wounded  and  bravely  suffering  President,  bringing  us  all 
down  on  our  knees  together,  in  common  supplication  for  his  life,  and 
involving  us  all  at  last  in  a  common  flood  of  grief  at  his  death!  I 
dare  not  linger  on  that  great  affliction,  which  has  added,  indeed,  "  an- 
other hallowed  name  to  the  historical  inheritance  of  our  Republic," 
but  which  has  thrown  a  pall  of  deepest  tragedy  upon  the  falling  curtain 
of  our  first  century.  Oh,  let  not  its  influence  be  lost  upon  us  for  the 
century  to  come,  but  let  us  be  one,  henceforth  and  always,  in  mutual 
regard,  conciliation,  and  affection! 

"  Go  on,  hand  in  hand,  O  States,  never  to  be  disunited!  Be  the 
praise  and  heroic  song  of  all  posterity!  Join  your  invincible  might  to 
do  worthy  and  godlike  deeds! — Robert  C.  Winthrop. 


NO.    3.      THE    MARCH    OF   THE    FLAGS. 

In  this  tableau,  an  even  number  of  boys  and  girls  —  any  con- 
venient number,  all  carrying  flags,  march  upon  the  stage  to  the  music 
of  "  Stars  and  Stripes  Forever,"  by  Sousa.  It  may  be  well  also  to 
have  one  additional  boy  and  one  girl,  with  larger  flags,  round  which  the 
rest  of  the  little  flag-company  may  march  or  wheel.  If  blue  suits  for 
the  boys  and  white  for  the  girls  cannot  be  had,  ordinary  costumes  will 
do  —  especially  if  the  boys  will  wear  soldiers'  caps,  and  the  girls,  sailor 
or  liberty  caps.  The  marching  may  be  very  simple  or  very  intricate, 
according  to  time  and  ingenuity.  A  pleasing  effect  will  be  produced 
if  during  the  march  the  flags  are  massed  or  "  stacked  "  in  the  center  of 
the  stage,  leaving  the  two  standard-bearers  there  as  a  guard  of  honor 
while  the  rest  of  the  company  resume  the  march  around  the  flags. 
After  a  time,  the  marchers  return  to  the  center,  each  taking  a  flag 
from  one  or  other  of  the  standard  bearers.  Then  marching  away,  but 
soon  returning  to  the  stage-center,  they  form  a  tableau,  by  grouping 
themselves  about  the  two  leaders  —  the  latter  standing  erect  and  fac- 
ing front,  while  the  rest,  each  holding  the  flag  in  the  left  hand,  with 
the  right  remove  the  cap,  bowing  to  and  saluting  the  two  central  ban- 
ners on  the  stage.    Then  the  curtain  falls. 

NO.    4.      THE    ARMY    AND    NAVY. 

To  the  music  of  familiar  tunes,  the  thirteen  colonies,  represented 
by  as  many  girls,  march  in,  in  single  file,  and  in  the  order  of  the  creation 
of  the  various  colonies  as  states.  They  are  followed,  similarly,  by 
other  girls  representing  the  remaining  thirty-two  states.  All  march  as 
they  may  be  directed  by  their  teacher-leader,  going  through,  for  a 
little  time,  with  evolutions  more  or  less  varied.  Finally,  as  they  range 
into  lines  at  opposite  sides  of  the  stage,  the  boys  march  in,  in  single 
flle  —  the  "  Army  "  distinguished  by  blue  coats  and  soldier  caps  — 
the  "  Navy  "  by  blue  blouses  and  sailor  caps.  They  form  a  tableau- 
group  in  center  of  stage,  with  a  tall  boy  as  color-sergeant,  flag  in  hand, 
in  the  midst  of  the  group.  Then  the  "  States  "  resume  their  march, 
circling  about  the  mid-stage  soldiers  and  sailors  —  and  at  length  all 
march  off  the  stage  in  the  following  order:   (1)  The  Color-Bearer;  (2) 



The  Thirteen  Colonies;  (3)  The  Army  and  Navy;  (4)  The  States.  A 
beautiful  color  effect  will  be  added  to  the  stage-picture  if  each  girl  will 
carry  a  short  staff  with  a  small  "  banneret  "  of  red  or  blue,  with  the 
name  of  colony  or  state  in  white  letters  in  the  center.  Let  the  soldier- 
boys  carry  muskets,  easily  made  —  the  sailor-boys,  cutlasses.  One  flag 
will  suffice  to  give  distinction  to  the  entire  tableau. 

NO.    5.     HOMAGE  TO   COLUMBIA. 

Columbia  should  be  impersonated  by  the  "  Goddess  of  Liberty  " 

a  girl  whose  pleasing  face  and  tall  figure  may  come  nearest  to  the  ideal 
of  such  a  character.  She  should  be  seated  in  a  chair  placed  upon  a 
platform  or  dais.  The  best  costume, —  a  white  dress  with  the  flag 
draped  over  it,— or,  a  flag-dress,  such  as  any  skillful  and  tasty  lady 
teacher  can  readily  make.  Upon  the  head  of  the  Goddess,  let  a  crown, 
or  wreath,  or  liberty  cap  be  placed;  let  her  right  hand  carry  a  spear, 
surmounted  by  an  eagle.  Thus  placed  and  ready,  the  curtain  may  be 
raised.  To  the  sound  of  march-music  the  States  of  the  Union,  repre- 
sented by  girls,  march  in,—  and  following,  an  equal  number  of  boys, 
as  soldiers  and  sailors,  to  stand  for  the  Army  and  Navy.  In  single 
file  they  pass  before  the  Goddess,  each  one  in  turn  bowing  to  her, 
then  passing  to  form  a  line  at  the  back  of  the  stage.  The  march  proper 
may  then  begin  —  changing  from  "  ones  "  to  "  twos  "  and  "  fours,"  or 
even  wider  lines  —  a  boy  and  girl  marching  together,  well-matched  in 
size  and  bearing.  How  to  vary  the  march  and  execute  its  "  figures," 
some  teacher  in  every  school  will  well  understand.  I  have  tried  the 
plan  —  and  it  worked  admirably  —  of  having  each  girl  carry  a  ban- 
neret of  red  cloth  on  which  was  sewed,  in  white  letters,  the  name  of  a 
state;  the  soldier  boys  carrying  toy  guns;  the  sailor  lads,  paper  cut- 
lasses. At  the  proper  time,  the  Goddess  rises  —  signals  for  the  troop 
to  wheel  before  her,  raise  aloft  their  bannerets  and  weapons,  then  bow 
—  as  the  Goddess  extends  her  spear  —  bowing  lower  as  the  curtain 


i.  Henry  W.  Longfellow,  born  February  2.7,  1807. 

2.  John  G.  Whittier,  born  December  17,  1807. 

3.  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  born  August  29,  1809. 

4.  James  Russell  Lowell,  born  February  22,  1819. 

It  would  not  be  possible  to  estimate  the  influence  which  these  four 
poets  have  had  upon  our  national  life  and  character.  They  were  all 
born  in  New  England; — yet  they  all  wrote  on  themes  that  concerned 
the  whole  country.  Surely  a  half-hour,  or  indeed  a  half-day,  could  not 
be  more  profitably  spent  than  in  reading  aloud  or  reciting  a  few  of  the 
poems  of  each.  So,  a  few  suggestions,  easily  amplified,  are  here  set 

I.  Longfellow. 

1.  Sketch  of  Longfellow's  Life. 

2.  Reading  from  Hiawatha.     (Selected.) 

3.  Recitation,  The  Ship  of  State. 

4.  Recitation,  Killed  at  the  Ford. 

5.  Singing,  America. 

2.  Whittier. 

1.  Essay,  The  Life  of  Whittier. 

2.  Recitation,  Barbara  Frietchie. 

3.  Reading,  Laus  Deo. 

4.  Singing,  The  Centennial  Hymn. 

5.  Recitation,  At  Port  Royal. 



3.  Holmes. 

1.  Sketch  of  the  Poet's  Life. 

2.  Recitation,  Old  Ironsides. 

3.  Singing,  The  American  Hymn. 

4.  Reading,  A  Ballad  of  the  Boston  Tea  Party. 

5.  Recitation,  Grandfather's  Story  of  Bunker  Hill. 

4.  Lowell. 

1.  Lowell's  Life. 

2.  Reading,  Character  of  Washington. 

3.  Singing,  True  Freedom.     (Riverside  Song  Book.) 

4.  Recitation,  Selection  from  the  Commemoration  Ode. 

5.  Singing,  The  Fatherland.     (Riverside  Song  Book.) 




i.  Columbus'  Day Song,  Columbus. 

2.  Landing  of  the  Pilgrims  .  Song,  The  Breaking  Waves  Dashed  High. 

3.  Lexington  and  Concord.  .  .Song,  Three  Cheers  for  the  Olden  Time. 

4.  Fourth  of  July Song,  Independence  Day. 

5.  Yorktown Song,  The  Land  of  Washington. 



FEW  years  ago  "  this  country  of  ours  "  made  a  great  cele- 
bration in  honor  of  the  four  hundredth  anniversary  of 
the  landing  of  Christopher  Columbus  on  this  continent. 
I  suppose  all  Empire  State  boys  and  girls  can  point 
out  on  the  map  just  the  spot  where  the  landing  was 
made,  the  cross  planted,  and  the  flag  raised.  Of  course,  it  was  not 
the  dear  flag  of  the  stars  and  stripes.  Who  can  tell  what  banner 
it  was?  I  am  quite  sure  you  know  that, —  but  perhaps  you  have  for- 
gotten the  precise  day  —  October  12,  1492  —  when  Columbus  stepped 
on  shore,  saved  from  the  perils  of  the  sea,  and  from  death  at  the  hands 
of  his  own  crew.  Perhaps  some  of  you  —  the  older  children  —  went 
to  Chicago  in  1893  and  saw  the  "White  City  " — a  wonderful  group 
of  buildings,  filled  with  rare  and  beautiful  things  from  every  part  of 
the  earth.  And  it  was  all  in  memory  of  the  great  sailor  and  discoverer, 
Columbus.  But  you  children  cannot  celebrate  in  that  way  —  not  even 
by  building  palaces  of  play-blocks.  You  can  recall  the  great  navi- 
gator by  telling  the  story  of  his  life, —  his  birth  in  far-off  Genoa  —  his 
longing  for  the  sea  —  his  appearance  at  the  Court  of  Spain  —  his 
reception  by  Queen  Isabella  —  the  sacrifices  which,  for  his  sake,  she 
made  —  his  various  voyages  —  his  imprisonment  and  death.  It  is  a 
wonderful  story,  is  it  not?  Such  a  story  as  boys  and  girls  should 
cherish  because  of  the  lessons  of  Faith  and  Perseverance  which  it 
teaches, —  lessons  which  may  help  them  to  the  use  of  the  same  noble 




In  Columbus  were  singularly  combined  the  practical  and  the 
poetical.  His  mind  had  grasped  all  kinds  of  knowledge,  whether  pro- 
cured by  study  or  observation,  which  bore  upon  his  theories;  impatient 
of  the  scanty  aliment  of  the  day,  his  impetuous  ardor,  as  has  well  been 
observed,  threw  him  into  the  study  of  the  fathers  of  the  Church,  the 
Arabian  Jews,  and  the  ancient  geographers;  while  his  daring,  but 
irregular,  genius,  bursting  from  the  limits  of  imperfect  science,  bore 
him  to  conclusions  far  beyond  the  intellectual  vision  of  his  con- 
temporaries. If  some  of  his  conclusions  were  erroneous,  they  were  at 
least  ingenious  and  splendid,  and  their  error  resulted  from  the  clouds 
which  still  hung  over  his  peculiar  path  of  enterprise.  His  own  dis- 
coveries enlightened  the  ignorance  of  the  age,  guided  conjecture  to 
certainty,  and  dispelled  that  very  darkness  with  which  he  had  been 
obliged  to  struggle. 

In  the  progress  of  his  discoveries  he  has  been  remarked  for  the 
extreme  sagacity  and  the  admirable  justness  with  which  he  seized  upon 
the  phenomena  of  the  exterior  world.  The  variations,  for  instance,  of 
terrestrial  magnetism,  the  direction  of  currents,  the  grouping  of  marine 
plants,  fixing  one  of  the  grand  climacteric  divisions  of  the  ocean,  the 
temperatures  changing  not  solely  with  the  distance  to  the  equator, 
but  also  with  the  difference  of  meridians;  these  and  similar  phenomena, 
as  they  broke  upon  him,  were  discerned  with  wonderful  quickness  of 
perception,  and  made  to  contribute  important  principles  to  the  stock 
of  general  knowledge.  This  lucidity  of  spirit,  this  quick  convertibility 
of  facts  to  principles,  distinguish  him  from  the  dawn  to  the  close  of  his 
sublime  enterprise,  insomuch  that  with  all  the  sallying  ardor  of  his 
imagination,  his  ultimate  success  has  been  admirably  characterized  as  a 
"conquest  of  reflection.'' — Washington  Irving. 


Joaquin  Miller. 

Unknown.    (A  German  Air.) 

K  I 1  -I i 


i.     Be  -   hind    him  lay       the 

2.  "My     men  grow  mut'-nous 

3.  They   sailed  and  sailed,  as 

4.  They  sailed, they  sailed,  then 

5.  Then,  pale     and  worn,    he 






A    -    zores, 
by         day; 
might  blow, 

Be    -  hind 

My  men 

Un  -  til 

mate :  "  This  mad 

deck,      And  thro' 

the  gates      of 

grow  ghast  -  ly 

at  last      the 

sea  shows     his 

the  dark  -  ness 










mp  N 




Her    -    cu-les;      Be -fore     him  not      the  ghost    of    shores,      Be  -  fore     him     on   -  ly 

wan        and  weak."  The  stout  mate  tho't     of  home;    a     spray        Of     salt      wave  wash'd  his 

blanch'd  mate  said :  ",    not    e   -    ven  God    would  know  Should  I  and     all      my 

teeth         to-night,      He  curls    his    lip,      he  lies       in      wait,     With    lift  -    ed      teeth     as 

peered      thatnight.     Ah,  dark -est  night!  and  then      a      speck—    A      light!    a      light!     a 

itf-    S    f  "*f 









-  less  seas.  The 


mate  said 







3!      the 


-  y 

swar  - 

thy  cheek. "What  shall 




Ad    - 


-  ral, 

If     we     sight 

naught  but 


fall  dead.  These  ver   - 



for  - 


their  way, 

For  God   from  these 



to   bite !  Brave    Ad   - 


-   ral, 





What  shall  we 




a  light !     It       grew- 





nn  - 


!  It    grew     to 




r— P 

— ta 


— i — 




— 1= 




— » 1 

— 1 

■ M 


E  r    g 









L       U 


— w 

-1 — J 







are  gone  ;Speak,Ad  -  mi  -   ral,     what 
at  dawn?""Why,you  shall    say,      at 
is  gone.  Nowspeak,brave  Ad  -  mi    - 
is  gone  ?"The  words  leaped  as       a 
of  dawn  ;  He  gained    a    world  !   he 






#*/■ , 


shall  I  say?""Why  say,  sail  on!  and 
break  of  day:  'Sail  on!  sail  on!  and 
ral,  and  say"— He  said,  "Sail  on  !  and 
leap -ingsword:  "Sail  on!  sail  on!  and 
gave  that  world    Its  watchword: "On!  and 


on ! ' " 









"  'Tis  a  wonderful  story,"  I  hear  you  say, 

"  How  he  struggled  and  worked  and  plead  and  prayed, 

And  faced  every  danger  undismayed, 

With  a  will  that  would  neither  break  nor  bend, 

And  discovered  a  new  world  in  the  end  — 

But  what  does  it  teach  to  a  boy  of  to-day? 

All  the  worlds  are  discovered,  you  know,  of  course, 

All  the  rivers  are  traced  to  their  utmost  source: 

There  is  nothing  left  for  a  boy  to  find, 

If  he  had  ever  so  much  a  mind 

To  become  a  discoverer  famous; 
And  if  we'd  much  rather  read  a  book 
About  someone  else,  and  the  risks  he  took, 

Why  nobody,  surely,  can  blame  us." 

So  you  think  all  the  worlds  are  discovered  now; 

All  the  lands  have  been  charted  and  sailed  about, 

Their  mountains  climbed,  their  secrets  found  out; 

All  the  seas  have  been  sailed,  and  their  currents  known  — 

To  the  uttermost  isles  the  winds  have  blown 

They  have  carried  a  venturing  prow? 

Yet  there  lie  all  about  us  new  worlds,  everywhere, 

That  await  their  discoverer's  footfall;  spread  fair 

Are  electrical  worlds  that  no  eye  has  yet  seen, 

And  mechanical  worlds  that  lie  hidden  serene 

And  await  their  Columbus  securely. 
There  are  new  worlds  in  Science  and  new  worlds  in  Art, 
And  the  boy  who  will  work  with  his  head  and  his  heart 

Will  discover  his  new  world  surely. 


All  hail,  Columbus,  discoverer,  dreamer,  hero,  and  apostle!  We 
here,  of  every  race  and  country,  recognize  the  horizon  which  bounded 
his  vision,  and  the  infinite  scope  of  his  genius.  The  voice  of  gratitude 
and  praise  for  all  the  blessings  which  have  been  showered  upon  man- 
kind by  his  adventure  is  limited  to  no  language,  but  is  uttered  in 
every  tongue.  Neither  marble  nor  brass  can  fitly  form  his  statue. 
Continents  are  his  monument,  and  unnumbered  millions,  past,  present, 
and  to  come,  who  enjoy  in  their  liberties  and  their  happiness  the  fruits 
of  his  faith,  will  reverently  guard  and  preserve,  from  century  to  cen- 
tury, his  name  and  fame. —  Chauncey  Mitchell  Depcw,  from  Dedicatory 
Oration  at  World's  Columbian  Exposition. 


N  the  year  1620  —  some  people  say  on  December 
2 1  st,  others  December  22a.  —  a  company  of  Pil- 
grims, as  they  are  called,  landed  at  a  place  now 
known  as  Plymouth,  on  the  coast  of  Massachu- 
setts. They  were  English  folk,  but  came  to 
this  country  straight  from  Holland,  having  been 
driven  from  their  former  home  in  England  by  religious  persecution. 
But  I  need  not  tell  here  the  story  of  their  sufferings  on  the  slow 
and  stormy  voyage  across  the  ocean  —  nor  how  cold  and  cheerless 
was  the  landing  in  the  depth  of  winter.  What  child  has  not  read 
it  in  the  history  book,  or  heard  the  story  repeated  at  the  fireside? 
Yet  no  matter  how  often  the  story  may  have  been  read,  or  told,  it  is  well 
to  keep  in  mind  and  to  celebrate,  at  least  once  a  year,  the  good  traits 
of  the  Forefathers. 

They  were  not  real  generous  men  and  women  in  their  treatment 
of  those  who  differed  from  them  in  belief,  yet  they  were  mild  indeed 
in  comparison  with  the  Puritans,  as  they  were  called, —  a  company  of 
men  and  women  who  came  to  this  country  much  later  in  the  century. 
But  if  we  cannot  celebrate  the  kindness  of  the  Pilgrims,  we  certainly 
may  their  faith.  How  greatly  they  needed  it  in  all  their  troubles  on 
land  and  tempests  on  sea,  and  how  grandly  they  showed  it!  And  so 
with  their  courage.  Was  it  not  a  splendid  trait  in  their  character? 
Neither  starvation,  disease,  nor  the  Indian's  tomahawk  could  make 
them  fear.  (Just  here  might  come  in  a  study  of  "  The  Indian  "  in  our 
country's  history.)  And  so,  children,  study  out  and  tell  to  your  teach- 
ers other  good  things  about  these  early  and  hardy  colonists, —  for 

"  they  fought  a  good  fight." 




Mayflower,   Mayflower,  slowly  hither  flying, 

Trembling  westward  o'er  yon  balking  sea, 
Hearts  within,  "  Farewell,  dear  England,"  sighing, 
Winds  without,  "  But  dear  in  vain,"  replying. 
Gray-lipped  waves,  about  thee,  shouted,  crying, 
"  No!  It  shall  not  be!" 

Jamestown,  out  of  thee; 
Plymouth,  thee;  thee,  Albany. 
Winter  cries,  "Ye  freeze;  away!" 
Hunger  cries,  "Ye  starve;  away!" 
Vengeance  cries,  "Your  graves  shall  stay!" 

Then  old  shapes  and  masks  of  things, 
Frames  like  Faiths,  or  clothes  like  kings; 
Ghosts  of  Goods,  once  fleshed  and  fair, 
Grown  foul  Bads  in  alien  air; 
War,  and  his  most  noisy  lords. 
Tongued  with  lithe  and  poisoned  swords, 
Error,  Terror,  Rage,  and  Crime. 
All,  in  a  windy  night  of  time, 
Cried  to  me,  from  land  and  sea — 
"No!  Thou  shalt  not  be!" 

Now  Praise  to  God's  oft-granted  grace. 

Now  Praise  to  Man's  undaunted  face, 

Despite  the  land,  despite  the  sea, 

I  was,  I  am,  and  I  shall  be. 

How  long,  Good  Angel,  O.  how  long? 

Sing  me,  from  heaven,  a  man's  own  song! 

"  Long  as  thine  Art  shall  love  true  love, 

Long  as  thy  Science  truth  shall  know, 
Long  as  thy  Eagle  harms  no  Dove, 

Long  as  thy  Law  by  law  shall  grow, 
Long  as  thy  God  is  God  above. 

Thy  brother   every   man   below, 
So  long,  dear  Land  of  all  my  love, 

Thy  name  shall  shine,  thy  fame  shall  glow!  " 

—  Sidney  Lanier. 


Felicia  Hemans. 




Miss  Browne,  arr. 





rt— *- 


The  break  -   ing  waves  dash'd  high 
Not      as  the     con-queror  comes, 

On      a      stern 
They,  the 

m  w       -&- 

and       rock -bound  coast, 
true    -  heart  -    ed     came ; 

3.  A  -  mid        the    storm    they  sang, 

4.  What  sought  they   thus       a   -    far? 



-•-  -9- 

The  stars 

Bright       jew 

™ N N" 



m       -<s>- 
the     sea! 
the    mine  ? 





— (— 




The  woods       a  -  gainst       a      storm   -    y       sky     Their    gi  ant  branch  -  es     tossed ; 

Not    with        the    roll  of      stir  -    ring    drums,    Or    trump     that  sings        of     fame ; 










The  sound  -  ing    aisles        of    wood  -   land  rang    With     an  -    thems   of  the    free ; 

The  wealth      of     seas,        the  spoils       of     war?    They  sought      a    faith's     pure  shrine ! 











The    heav    -  y  night  hung       dark, 

Not      as         the       fly    -  ing  come, 

The     hills    and 
In       si   -    lence 

wa    -    ters     o'er, 
and        in       fear, 

The      o    -    cean      ea  -    gle        soared,  The      roll  -  ing 

Ay,    call         it       ho    -    ly         ground,  The      soil   where 

u_ r-#^ 0 0- 




wave's  white  foam ; 
first     they    trod ; 






I  ,   J 




When  a      band      of       ex   -    iles  moor'd 
They      shook    the  depths   of     des    - 

their  bark      On     wild 
ert's  gloom  With  hymns 

New  Eng  -land's  shore, 
of     loft    -    y      cheer. 


8F^?£^=^-d^ j*5 



The         rock  -    ing    pines     in      for 
They        left      un  -  stained  what  there 

est  roar'd,    To     bid 
they  found,  Free  -dom 

them  wel  -  come  home, 
to     wor  -   ship  God. 





-!* *■ 


By  permission  of  Silver,  Burdett  &  Company.     From  "  Songs  of  the  Nation." 




Here,  on  this  rock,  and  on  this  sterile  soil, 

Began  the  kingdom,  not  of  kings,  but  men; 

Began  the  making  of  the  world  again. 

Here  centuries  sank,  and  from  the  hither  brink, 

A  new  world  reached  and  raised  an  old  world  link, 

When  English  hands,  by  wider  vision  taught, 
And  here  revived,  in  spite  of  sword  and  stake, 
Their  ancient  freedom  of  the  Wapentake. 

Here  struck  the  seed  —  the  Pilgrims'   roofless  town, 
Where  equal  rights  and  equal  bonds  were  set; 
Where  all  the  people,   equal-franchised,   met; 

Where  doom  was  writ  of  privilege  and  crown; 

Where  human  breath  blew  all  the  idols  down; 
Where  crests  were  naught,  where  vulture  flags  were  furled, 
And  common  men  began  to  own  the  world! 

—  John  Boyle  O'Reilly. 


Methinks  I  see  it  now,  that  one  solitary,  adventurous  vessel,  the 
Mayflower  of  a  forlorn  hope,  freighted  with  the  prospects  of  a  future 
state,  and  bound  across  the  unknown  sea.  I  behold  it  pursuing,  with 
a  thousand  misgivings,  the  uncertain,  the  tedious  voyage.  Suns  rise 
and  set,  and  weeks  and  months  pass,  and  winter  surprises  them  on 
the  deep,  but  brings  them  not  the  sight  of  the  wished-for  shore.  I 
see  them,  now,  scantily  supplied  with  provisions,  crowded  almost  to 
suffocation  in  their  ill-stored  prison,  delayed  by  calms,  pursuing  a  cir- 
cuitous route;  and  now,  driven  in  fury  before  the  raging  tempest,  in 
their  scarcely  seaworthy  vessel.  The  awful  voice  of  the  storm  howls 
through  the  rigging.  The  laboring  masts  seem  straining  from  their 
base;  the  dismal  sound  of  the  pumps  is  heard;  the  ship  leaps,  as  it 
were,  madly  from  billow  to  billow;  the  ocean  breaks  and  settles  with 
ingulfing  floods  over  the  floating  deck,  and  beats  with  deadening 
weight  against  the  staggering  vessel.  I  see  them  escaped  from  these 
perils,  pursuing  their  all  but  desperate  undertaking,  and  landed  at  last, 
after  a  five  months'  passage,  on  the  ice-clad  rocks  of  Plymouth,  weak 

j68  manual  of  patriotism. 

and  exhausted  from  the  voyage,  poorly  armed,  scantily  provisioned, 
depending  on  the  charity  of  their  ship-master  for  a  draught  of  beer  on 
board,  drinking  nothing  but  water  on  shore,  without  shelter,  without 
means,  surrounded  by  hostile  tribes. 

Shut  now  the  volume  of  history,  and  tell  me,  on  any  principle 
of  human  probability,  what  shall  be  the  fate  of  this  handful  of  adven- 
turers? *  *  *  Student  of  history,  compare  for  me  the  baffled 
projects,  the  deserted  settlements,  the  abandoned  adventurers  of  other 
times,  and  find  the  parallel  of  this.  Was  it  the  winter  storm,  beating 
upon  the  houseless  heads  of  women  and  children?  was  it  hard  labor 
and  spare  meals?  was  it  disease?  was  it  the  tomahawk?  was  it  the  deep 
malady  of  a  blighted  hope,  a  ruined  enterprise,  and  a  broken  heart, 
aching  in  its  last  moments  at  the  recollections  of  the  loved  and  left, 
beyond  the  sea?  was  it  some  or  all  of  them  united  that  hurried  this 
forsaken  company  to  their  melancholy  fate?  And  is  it  possible  that 
neither  of  these  causes,  that  not  all  combined,  were  able  to  blast  this 
bud  of  hope!  Is  it  possible  that  from  a  beginning  so  feeble,  so  frail,  so 
worthy  not  so  much  of  admiration  as  of  pity,  there  has  gone  forth  a 
progress  so  steady,  a  growth  so  wonderful,  a  reality  so  important,  a 
promise  yet  to  be  fulfilled  so  glorious! — Edward  Everett. 


HESE  are  memorable  places  on  the  map  of  Ameri- 
can history.  For  the  brave  stand  a  few  colonial 
farmers  there  made  against  trained  British  regu- 
lars was  the  opening  fight  of  a  Revolution,  a  strug- 
gle for  independence,  which  never  ceased  nor 
slackened  until  England  gave  up  the  contest  at 
Yorktown,  seven  years  later. 
This  fight  at  Lexington  and  Concord  was  fought  April  17,  1775. 
Even  yet,  that  is  a  great  day  in  New  England,  and  kept  with  more 
ceremony  and  enthusiasm  than  the  Fourth  of  July.  Let  me  tell  you 
what  the  boys  in  Lexington  do  on  that  day:  Early  in  the  morning 
they  rise  up,  hurry  into  their  clothes  and  march  away  to  Concord,  over 
the  very  ground  the  soldiers  trod  a  century  and  a  quarter  ago.  On 
their  march,  they  pass  by  many  places  where  now  are  memorial  tablets, 
telling  what  was  done  here  and  there  along  the  whole  line  of  their 
journey.  Who  cannot  see  what  a  vividness  and  sense  of  reality  this 
early  morning  march,  year  by  year,  must  give  to  these  young  patriots? 
But  if  New  York  children  cannot  actually  travel  on  foot  from  Lexing- 
ton to  Concord,  playing  soldier,  they  may,  in  imagination,  walk  along 
the  avenue  of  History,  seeing  by  the  roadside  the  inscriptions  and 
memorials  which  History  herself  has  put  there,  that  the  Nation  may 
keep  in  mind  the  dangers  and  hardships  endured  by  the  men  of  olden 
time,  that  they  might  secure  to  themselves  and  their  posterity  the 

blessings  of  independence. 





By  the  rude  bridge  that  arched  the  flood, 

Their  flag  to  April's  breeze  unfurled, 
Here  once  the  embattled  farmers  stood, 

And  fired  the  shot  heard  round  the  world. 

The  foe  long  since  in  silence  slept; 

Alike  the  conqueror  silent  sleeps; 
And  Time  the  ruined  bridge  has  swept 

Down  the  dark  stream  which  seaward  creeps. 

On  this  green  bank,  by  this  soft  stream, 

We  set  to-day  a  votive  stone; 
That   memory   may   their   deed   redeem, 

When  like  our  sires,  our  sons  are  gone. 

Spirit,  that  made  these  heroes  dare 

To  die,  and  leave  their  children  free, 
Bid  Time  and  Nature  gently  spare 

The  shaft  we  raise  to  them  and  thee. 

—  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson, 


Darkness  closed  upon  the  country  and  upon  the  town,  but  it  was 
no  night  for  sleep.  Heralds  on  swift  relays  of  horses  transmitted  the 
war  message  from  hand  to  hand,  till  village  repeated  to  village,  the 
sea  to  the  backwoods,  the  plains  to  the  highlands,  and  it  was  never 
suffered  to  droop  till  it  had  been  borne  North  and  South  and  East 
and  West,  throughout  the  land.  It  spread  over  the  bays  that  receive 
the  Saco  and  the  Penobscot ;  its  loud  reveille  broke  the  rest  of  the  trap- 
pers of  New  Hampshire,  and,  ringing  like  bugle  notes  from  peak  to 
peak,  overleapt  the  Green  Mountains,  swept  onward  to  Montreal,  and 
descended  the  ocean  river  till  the  responses  were  echoed  from  the  cliffs 
at  Quebec.  The  hills  along  the  Hudson  told  to  one  another  the  tale. 
As  the  summons  hurried  to  the  South,  it  was  one  day  at  New  York, 
in  one  more  at  Philadelphia,  the  next  it  lighted  a  watch-fire  at  Balti- 
more, thence  it  waked  an  answer  at  Annapolis.     Crossing  the  Potomac 


near  Mt.  Vernon,  it  was  sent  forward,  without  a  halt,  to  Williamsburg. 
It  traversed  the  Dismal  Swamp  to  Nansemond,  along  the  route  of  the 
first  emigrants  to  North  Carolina.  It  moved  onward  and  still  onward, 
through  boundless  groves  of  evergreen,  to  Newbern  and  to 

"  For  God's  sake,  forward  it  by  night  and  day/'  wrote  Cornelius 
Harnett,  by  the  express  which  sped  for  Brunswick.  Patriots  of  South 
Carolina  caught  up  its  tones  at  the  border  and  despatched  it  to  Charles- 
ton, and,  through  pines  and  palmettos  and  moss-clad  live-oaks,  farther 
to  the  South,  till  it  resounded  among  the  New  England  settlements 
beyond  the  Savannah.  The  Blue  Ridge  took  up  the  voice  and  made 
it  heard  from  one  end  to  the  other  of  the  valley  of  Virginia.  The 
Alleghanies,  as  they  listened,  opened  their  barriers  that  the  "  loud 
call  "  might  pass  through  to  the  hardy  riflemen  on  the  Holstein,  the 
Watauga  and  the  French  Broad.  Ever  renewing  its  strength,  power- 
ful enough  even  to  create  a  commonwealth,  it  breathed  its  inspiring 
word  to  the  first  settlers  of  Kentucky,  so  that  hunters  who  made 
their  halt  in  the  valleys  of  the  Elkhorn  commemorated  the  nineteenth 
day  of  April,  1776,  by  naming  their  encampment  "  Lexington."  \\  ith 
one  impulse  the  Colonies  sprung  to  arms;  with  one  spirit  they  pledged 
themselves  to  each  other,  "  to  be  ready  for  the  extreme  event."  With 
one  heart  the  continent  cried,  "  Liberty  or  death!  " — George  Bancroft. 

It  was  a  brilliant  April  night.  The  winter  had  been  unusually 
mild,  and  the  spring  very  forward.  The  hills  were  already  green;  the 
early  grain  waved  in  the  fields;  and  the  air  was  sweet  with  blossoming 
orchards.  Already  the  robins  whistled,  the  blue-bird  sang,  and  the 
benediction  of  peace  rested  upon  the  landscape.  Under  the  cloudless 
moon,  the  soldiers  silently  marched,  and  Paul  Revere  swiftly  rode, 
galloping  through  Medford  and  West  Cambridge,  rousing  every  house 
as  he  went,  spurring  for  Lexington,  and  Hancock,  and  Adams,  and 
evading  the  British  patrols  who  had  been  sent  out  to  stop  the  news. 
Stop  the  news!  Already  the  village  church  bells  were  beginning  to 
ring  the  alarm,  as  the  pulpits  beneath  them  had  been  ringing  for  many 
a  year.  In  the  awakening  houses  lights  flashed  from  window  to 
window.     Drums  beat  faintly  far  away  and  on  every  side.     Signal  guns 



flashed  and  echoed.  The  watch-dogs  barked,  the  cocks  crew.  Stop 
the  news!  Stop  the  sunrise!  The  murmuring  night  trembled  with  the 
summons  so  earnestly  expected,  so  dreaded,  so  desired.  And  as,  long 
ago,  the  voice  rang  out  at  midnight  along  the  Syrian  shore,  wailing 
that  great  Pan  was  dead,  but  in  the  same  moment  the  choiring  angels 
whispered,  "Glory  to  God  in  the  highest,  for  Christ  is  born!"  so,  if 
the  stern  alarm  of  that  April  night  seemed  to  many  a  wistful  and  loyal 
heart  to  portend  the  passing  glory  of  British  dominion  and  the  tragical 
chance  of  war,  it  whispered  to  them  with  prophetic  inspiration,  "  Good- 
will to  men:  America  is  born!" — George  William  Curtis,  from  the 
oration  delivered  at  the  centennial  celebration  of  Concord  fight. 


Fanny  Crosby 


i.  Three cheers.three cheers,f or  the  old  -    en    time,  And  the  brave  that  knew    no    fear,   my  boys; 
2.     Theydared    to     look     in    the  flash  -  ing     eye      Of   the  storm-king  when    he  pass'  boys ; 



t — r 











:•  > 





They  stood   e-  rect      as     the    gi    -ant      oak,  And  laugh'd  when  the  storm  was  near,    my  boys. 
A       shout  went  up,     and     a   peal     of        joy   Rang     out       on     the  win  -  'try  blast,    my  boys. 

J3.r    1-  f  . 4- 

ty-     0     T0 0 W- — • — jr-ff— -r f~^ 

r=tr — j- — | — e    &M I — r — r 


Like  them  we'll  boast    of     the     land  we      love,    And  her  proud  flag  stream-ing    high,     my  boys  ; 
The  grass  is     green  where  they  calm-ly       rest.     Those     vet  -  'rans  true     and   brave,   my  boys ; 








Z>.  C  «/  /■'/«£. 

-:     i   -fr 


We'll  sing      a  -  loud  from  the  bright  green  hills.While  the  o  -  cean  waves  re  -  ply,      my  boys. 
Their  mem  -  'ry  shines  like    a      ra  -  diant  star,   O'er  the  land  they  died     to     save,      my  boys. 



H— I- 




Bernhard  Klein. 





i.  Tell 
2.  Near 
3-     It 
4.    Let 

me,  boys,     what  mean  those  voi  -    ces  That       are      shout   -  ing      in         the 

a  hun  -  dred  years  have  float  -  ed  On      time's    rest  -    less,  chang  -  ing 

was  then       our  youth  -  ful  na   -   tion  Raised     its        con    -     se  -  crat    -    ed 

us  join       those  hap   -  py  voi   -    ces  That       are      shout  -  ing      in         the 


0      -J.. 









b                   1      1      1      1      1  r 

Ev  -  'ry        one         I      see      re    -  joi  -  ces ;  Bands  play  tunes     for  march  -  ing 

Since  our        na  -   tion  rose    and  vot  -  ed     That     the  coun  -  try  should    be 

Sealed  with  blood     the  Dec  -  la    -  ra  -  tion     Of       her  In   -    de  -  pend  -  ence 

Ev  -  'ry        free  -  man's  heart  re    -  joi  -  ces;  Bright  beams  ev  -    'ry  eye        we 


_£ ^ 



-#■    -Jt 











feet ;     And  the  stars  and  stripes  are  blow  -  ing  On  the 

free.     Gay  the  stars  and  stripes  are  blow  -  ing  On  the 

grand.  Gay  the  stars  and  stripes  are  blow  -  ing  On  the 

meet.    Gay  the  stars  and  stripes  are  blow  -  ing  On  the 

P  > 

o  -  cean  and  the  shore  ; 

o  -  cean  and  the  shore  ; 

o  -  cean  and  the  shore; 

o  -  cean  and  the  shore  ; 





Soli  ;  repeat  in  Chorus. 







All     our     hearts  with  thanks  o'er -flow  -  ing,     In   -  de  -  pend  -  ence  Day  once     more. 
/  — =  ff  sf 








T  is  not  likely  that  boys  or  girls  would  consent  to  go  to  school 
on  "  the  glorious  Fourth."  If  they  were  asked  to  do  so, 
they  probably  would  read  a  declaration  of  independence, 
If  all  of  their  own  making.  And  so,  it  might  be  asked  — 
"Why  suggest  any  exercise  for  that  day?"  Why,  be- 
cause we  ought  not  to  forget  such  a  day.  True  —  but  are  we  not 
in  danger  of  forgetting  if  we  do  not  call  it  to  mind  at  least  once 
a  year?  Alas!  it  is  much  to  be  feared  that  very  many  boys  think  the 
day  was  made  for  the  express  purpose  of  setting  off  firecrackers  — 
small  and  giant  ones  —  touching  off  small  cannon,  skyrockets,  Roman 
candles  and  lots  of  other  dangerous  playthings.  With  the  girls,  the 
Fourth  is  a  great  picnic  day. 

But,  really,  the  day  was  not  made  for  the  sake  of  powder,  picnics 
and  noise.  It  was  set  aside  as  a  day  in  which  to  recall  the  signing  of 
the  Declaration  of  Independence  —  independence  from  the  grasping 
and  greed  of  England.  But  such  a  glorious  deed  can  be  celebrated 
at  any  convenient  time  in  the  calendar  of  school  days.  It  is  always  in 
order  to  speak  of  the  life  and  patriotism  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  author 
of  the  Declaration;  always  right  to  read  aloud,  for  the  benefit  of  others, 
the  great  truths  which  the  Declaration  contains;  at  any  time,  interest- 
ing to  look  over  the  list  of  signers  of  the  Declaration  and  to  study 
their  lives.  Let  me  commend  John  Hancock,  Roger  Sherman, 
Whipple,  of  New  Hampshire.  See,  young  folks,  if  you  cannot  find 
other  names  with  histories  as  interesting. 


Sink  or  swim,  live  or  die,  survive  or  perish,  I  give  my  hand  and 
my  heart  to  this  vote.  It  is  true,  indeed,  that,  at  the  beginning,  we 
aimed  not  at  independence.  But  there's  a  Divinity  that  shapes  our 
ends.     The  injustice  of  England  has  driven  us  to  arms;  and,  blinded 




to  her  own  interest  for  our  good,  she  has  obstinately  persisted,  till 
independence  is  now  within  our  grasp.  We  have  but  to  reach  forth 
to  it,  and  it  is  ours.  Why,  then,  should  we  defer  the  declaration? 
*  *  *  Whatever  may  be  our  fate,  be  assured,  be  assured,  that  this 
declaration  will  stand.  It  may  cost  treasure  and  it  may  cost  blood,  but 
it  will  stand,  and  it  will  richly  compensate  for  both.  Through  the 
thick  gloom  of  the  present  I  see  the  brightness  of  the  future,  as  the  sun 
in  heaven.  We  shall  make  this  a  glorious,  an  immortal  day.  When 
we  are  in  our  graves,  our  children  will  honor  it.  They  will  celebrate 
it  with  thanksgiving,  with  festivity,  with  bonfires,  and  illuminations. 
On  its  annual  return,  they  will  shed  tears,  copious,  gushing  tears,  not 
of  subjection  and  slavery,  not  of  agony  and  distress,  but  of  exultation, 
of  gratitude,  and  of  joy.  Sir,  before  God,  I  believe  the  hour  has  come. 
My  judgment  approves  this  measure,  and  my  whole  heart  is  in  it. 
All  that  I  have,  and  all  that  I  am,  and  all  that  I  hope  in  this  life,  I 
am  now  ready  here  to  stake  upon  it;  and  I  leave  off  as  I  began,  that 
live  or  die,  survive  or  perish,  I  am  for  the  declaration.  It  is  my  living 
sentiment,  and,  by  the  blessing  of  God,  it  shall  be  my  dying  sentiment; 
independence,  now;  and  independence  forever!  —  Daniel  Webster, 
from  supposed  speech  of  John  Adams. 

Through  the  chances  and  changes  of  vanished  years, 

Our  thoughts  go  back  to  the  olden  time, — 
That  day  when  the  people  resolved  to  be  free. 

And,  resolving,  knew  that  the  thing  was  done. 
What  booted  the  struggle  yet  to  be, 

When  the  hearts  of  all  men  beat  as  one, 
And  hand  clasped  hand,  and  eyes  met  eyes, 
And  lives  were  ready  to  sacrifice? 

The  years  since  then  have  come  and  sped, 
And  the  heroes  of  those  old  days  are  dead; 

But  their  spirit  lives  in  to-day's  young  men; 
And  never  in  vain  would  our  country  plead 
For  sons  that  were  ready  to  die  at  her  need. 

—  Louise  Chandler  Moulton. 


The  United  States  is  the  only  country  with  a  known  birthday. 
All  the  rest  began,  they  know  not  when,  and  grew  into  power,  they 
knew  not  how.  If  there  had  been  no  Independence  Day,  England  and 
America  combined  would  not  be  so  great  as  each  actually  is.  There 
is  no  "  Republican,"  no  "  Democrat  "  on  the  Fourth  of  July, —  all 
are  Americans.  All  feel  that  their  country  is  greater  than  party. — 
James  G.  Blaine. 

On  the  Fourth  of  July,  1776,  the  representatives  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  in  Congress  assembled,  declared  that  these  united 
colonies  are,  and  of  right  ought  to  be,  free  and  independent  states. 
This  declaration,  made  by  most  patriotic  and  resolute  men,  trusting  in 
the  justice  of  their  cause,  and  the  protection  of  Providence,  and  yet 
not  without  deep  solicitude  and  anxiety,  has  stood  for  seventy-five 
years,  and  still  stands.  It  was  sealed  in  blood.  It  has  met  dangers 
and  overcome  them.  It  has  had  enemies  and  it  has  conquered  them. 
It  has  had  detractors,  and  it  has  abashed  them  all.  It  has  had  doubt- 
ing friends,  but  it  has  cleared  all  doubts  away.  And  now,  to-day,  rais- 
ing its  august  form  higher  than  the  clouds,  twenty  millions  of  people 
contemplate  it  with  hallowed  love,  and  the  world  beholds  it,  and  the 
consequences  which  have  followed,  with  profound  admiration. —  Daniel 

You  have  all  read  the  Declaration  of  Independence;  you  have  it 
by  heart;  you  have  heard  it  read  to-day.  A  hundred  years  ago,  it  was 
a  revelation,  startling,  with  new  terror,  kings  on  their  thrones,  and 
bidding  serfs  in  their  poor  huts  rise  and  take  heart,  and  look  up  with 
new  hope  of  deliverance.  It  asserted  that  all  men,  kings  and  peasants, 
master  and  servant,  rich  and  poor,  were  born  equal,  with  equal  rights, 
inheritors  of  equal  claim  to  protection  before  the  law;  that  govern- 
ments derived  their  just  powers,  not  from  conquest  or  force,  but  from 
the  consent  of  the  governed,  and  existed  only  for  their  protection  and 
to  make  them  happy.  These  were  the  truths,  eternal,  but  long 
unspoken;  truths  that  few  dared  to  utter,  which,  Providence  ordained, 
should  be  revealed  here  in  America,  to  be  the  political  creed  of  the 
people,  all  over  the  earth.  Like  a  trumpet  blast  in  the  night,  it  pealed 
through  the  dark  abodes  of  misery,  and  roused  men  to  thought,  and 
hope  and  action. —  Richard  O'Gorman. 



liberty's  latest  daughter. 

Foreseen  in  the  vision  of  sages, 

Foretold   when    martyrs   bled, 
She  was  born  of  the  longing  ages, 
By  the  truth  of  the  noble  dead 
And  the  faith  of  the  living,  fed! 
No  blood  in  her  lightest  veins 
Frets  at  remembered  chains, 
Nor  shame  of  bondage  has  bowed  her  head. 
In  her  form  and  features,  still, 
The   unblenching   Puritan   will, 
Cavalier  honor,  Huguenot  grace, 

The  Quaker  truth  and  sweetness, 
And  the  strength  of  the  danger-girdled  race 

Of  Holland,  blend  in  a  proud  completeness. 
From  the  home   of  all,   where   her  being  began, 
She  took  what  she  gave  to  man :  — 
Justice  that  knew  no  station, 

Belief  as  soul  decreed, 
Free  air  for   aspiration, 

Free  force  for  independent  deed. 
She  takes,  but  to  give  again, 
As  the  sea  returns  the  rivers  in  rain; 
And  gather  the  chosen  of  her  seed 
From  the  hunted  of  every  crown  and  creed. 
Her  Germany  dwells  by  a  gentler  Rhine; 
Her  Ireland  sees  the  old  sunburst  shine; 
Her  France  pursues  some  dream  divine; 
Her  Norway  keeps  his  mountain  pine; 
Her  Italy  waits  by  the  western  brine; 
And,    broad-based,    under    all 

Is  planted  England's  oaken-hearted  mood, 
As   rich   in   fortitude 
As  e'er  went  world-ward  from  the  island  wall. 
Fused  by  her  candid  light, 
To  one  strong  race  all  races  here  unite; 
Tongues  melt  in  hers;  hereditary  foemen 

Forget  their  sword  and  slogan,  kith  and  clan. 
'Twas  glory  once  to  be  a  Roman; 

She  makes  it  glory  now  to  be  a  man. 

—  Bayard  Taylor. 


'HIS  great  battle  —  great  for  the  time  and  great  in  its  conse- 
quences—  was  fought  October  19,  1781.  There  was  scat- 
tered fighting  for  a  year  or  two  after  that  day  between 
America  and  England, —  but  the  Revolution  really  ended 
with  that  memorable  struggle.  It  will  prove  of  great 
interest  to  the  young  folks  in  school  to  trace  the  history  of  our 
seven  years'  Revolutionary  War  from  Lexington  to  Yorktown. 
Let  them  not  think  of  naming  every  battle,  just  when,  just  where 
it  was  fought, —  but  picking  out  here  and  there  a  great  event, 
let  them  follow  the  long  road,  now  sunlighted,  now  deeply  shad- 
owed, from  colonial  dependence  to  independent  statehood.  Knowl- 
edge of  this  sort,  thus  gained,  will  make  of  the  children  in  years  to 
come  more  intelligent,  more  patriotic  citizens,  than  they  could  pos- 
sibly be  without  such  training.  And  on  that  long  road  they  should 
be  able  to  pick  up,  as  one  might  pluck  a  flower  by  the  wayside,  many 
a  pleasant  story  of  the  times  whose  fragrance  and  memory  may  be 
lasting  and  sweet.  Take,  for  instance,  the  story  of  Dolly  Madison 
for  the  girls;  for  the  boys,  that  of  the  Boston  lads  who  went  to  General 
Gage  and  made  their  demands  upon  him,  like  the  saucy  little  Yankees 
they  were! 

And  when  they  have  reached  the  end  of  the  long  road,  let  them 
stop  and  see  the  Yorktown  battle  by  sea  and  land;  note  the  help  of 
the  French  and  the  gallantry  of  La  Fayette;  watch  the  daring  of  the 
Americans  and  the  bravery  of  Washington.     Will  it  not  indeed  pay  us 

to  remember  Yorktown? 




(Closing  passage  from  Centennial  address,  October  18,  1881.) 

"  You  are  the  advance  guard  of  the  human  race;  you  have  the 
future  of  the  world,"  said  Madame  de  Stael  to  a  distinguished  American, 
recalling  with  pride  what  France  had  done  for  us  at  Yorktown.  Let 
us  lift  ourselves  to  a  full  sense  of  such  responsibility  for  the  progress 
of  freedom,  in  other  lands  as  well  as  in  our  own.    *    *    * 

We  cannot  escape  from  the  great  responsibilities  of  this  great 
intervention  of  American  example;  and  it  involves  nothing  less  than 
the  hope  or  the  despair  of  the  Ages!  Let  us  strive,  then,  to  aid  and 
advance  the  liberty  of  the  world,  in  the  only  legitimate  way  in  our 
power,  by  patriotic  fidelity  and  devotion  in  upholding,  illustrating, 
and  adorning  our  own  free  institutions.  We  have  nothing  to  fear 
except  from  ourselves.  We  are  one  by  the  configuration  of  nature 
and  by  the  strong  impress  of  art, —  inextricably  intwined  by  the  lay  of 
our  land,  the  run  of  our  rivers,  the  chain  of  our  lakes,  and  the  iron 
network  of  our  crossing  and  recrossing  and  ever  multiplying  and  still 
advancing  tracks  of  trade  and  travel.  We  are  one  by  the  memories  of 
our  fathers.  We  are  one  by  the  hopes  of  our  children.  We  are  one 
by  a  Constitution  and  a  Union  which  have  not  only  survived  the  shock 
of  foreign  and  civil  war,  but  have  stood  the  abeyance  of  almost  all 
administrations,  while  the  whole  people  were  waiting  breathless,  in 
alternate  hope  and  fear,  for  the  issues  of  an  execrable  crime.  With  the 
surrender  to  each  other  of  all  our  old  sectional  animosities  and 
prejudices,  let  us  be  one,  henceforth  and  always,  in  mutual  regard, 
conciliation,  and  affection! 

"  Go  on,  hand  in  hand,  O  States,  never  to  be  disunited!  Be  the 
praise  and  heroic  song  of  all  posterity!  "  On  this  auspicious  day  let  me 
invoke,  as  I  devoutly  and  fervently  do,  the  choicest  and  richest 
blessings  of  Heaven  on  those  who  shall  do  most,  in  all  time  to  come, 
to  preserve  our  beloved  country  in  Unity,  Peace,  and  Concord. — 
Robert  Charles  Winthrop. 


Note.—"  The  melody  of  this  song  v><is  called  the  "  Drum  and  Fife  March,"  by  the  Provincial  army,  and  was  a  great  favorite  of  the 
American  troops,  especially  as  it  was  played  by  them  at  the  Battle  of  Yorktown.  As  the  publisher  is  desirous  of  rescuing  from  oblivion  a 
spirit-stirring  melody,  once  so  familiar  in  the  American  camp,  it  is  here  given  anew." 

Words  by  Geo.  P.  Morris. 

Music  adapted  by  F.  H.  Brown. 





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■9— V- 




i.  I    love  the  pa-triotsa    -    ges,Who     in     the  days  of  yore,  In    combat  met  the  foe  -  men,And 

2.  I    love  theloft-y    spir  -   it  That  impell'd  our  sires  to  rise         And  found  a  mighty  na  -  tion  Be - 










drove  them  from  our  shore  ; 
neaththe  western  skies ; 



Who  in     thedaysof  yore,..      In    combatmetthe 
Impell'd  our  sires  to  rise  .    .     And  found  a  mighty 


4    g>    'J.**     j> 

jffi     j      i     1     n- 

-=i s\ 


:    f :      f :    f 

3-=« =1— 0 — 4- 







^       *     if 


Elf  c-'cm 







III • • 

foe  -men,And  drove  them  from  our  shore.  Who  flung  our  banner's  starry  field,  In  triumph  to  the  breeze, 
na  -  tion  Beneath  the  west  -  em  skies.        No  clime  so  bright  and  beautiful  As  that  where  sets  the  sun  ; 



**r.  i    f-:f. 



J.  lw  J 






-I— 4-1- 

i ,  1 1 — 









Used  by  permission  of  Oliver  Ditson  Company,  owners  of  the  copyright. 


ist  and  2D  Soprano 

And  spread  broad  maps  of  cit  -  ies  where  Once  wav'd  the  for  -  est  trees ;  And  spread  broad  maps  of 
No  land  so  f  er  -  tile,  f  air,and  free,  As  that  of  Washing -ton;  No  land  so  fer  -  tile, 

&/—  r 



*— + 

-N-5'— !V 

*— *- 

-I ^ 

And  spread  broad  maps  of    cit  -  ies  where  Once  wav'd  the  for  -  est    trees ;  And  spread  broad  maps  of 
No    land     so      fer  -  tile,  fair,and  free,  As    that    of  Wash-ing  -  ton ;       No    land     so      f er  -  tile, 

Tenor  and  Bass. 

Tenor  and  Bass.  1       m      _        _     _       *•*• 







I g-X 

-<*-  .#- 



J— O- 





i    * 

-=»— h-=f 





cit -ies      where  Once  wav'd  the     for  -  est    trees.   Hur-rah !     Hur-rah!      Hur-rah !      Hur-rah! 
fair,and     free,     As    that      of    Wash-ing  -  ton.      Hur-rah!     Hur-rah!      Hur-rah!      Hur-rah! 















-#-  V^ 

cit -ies   where  Once  wav'd  the     for  -  est    trees.    Hur-rah!     Hur-rah!      Hur-rah!      Hur-rah! 
fair,  and    free,     As     that      of      Washing -ton.      Hur-rah!     Hur-rah!      Hur-rah!      Hur-rah! 



r— r=fc 








*— *- 










+    V^-V 












The  Marquis  de  Rochambeau,  at  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of 
Yorktown,  said: 

"  Citizens  of  the  United  States:  You  have  invited  us  to  celebrate 
with  you  a  great  achievement  of  arms,  and  we  did  not  hesitate  to  brave 
the  terrors  of  the  ocean  to  say  to  you  that  what  our  fathers  did  in  1781 
we,  their  sons,  would  be  willing  to  do  to-day,  and  attest  our  constant 
friendship,  and  further  show  that  we  cherish  the  same  sentiments  as 
our  fathers  in  those  glorious  days  we  now  celebrate.  In  the  name 
of  my  companions,  who  represent  here  the  men  who  fought,  permit 
me  to  hope  that  the  attachment  formed  in  these  days  around  this 
monument  which  is  about  to  be  erected  will  be  renewed  in  one  hun- 
dred years,  and  will  again  celebrate  the  victory  which  joined  our  fathers 
in  comradeship  and  alliance." 

President  Arthur's  address,  at  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of 

"  Upon  this  soil  one  hundred  years  ago  our  forefathers  brought 
to  a  successful  issue  their  heroic  struggle  for  independence.  Here  and 
then  was  established,  and,  as  we  trust,  made  secure  upon  this  continent 
for  ages  yet  to  come,  that  principle  of  government  which  is  the  very 
fibre  of  our  political  system  —  the  sovereignty  of  the  people.  The 
resentments  which  attended  and  for  a  time  survived  the  clash  of  arms 
have  long  since  ceased  to  animate  our  hearts.  It  is  with  no  feeling 
of  exultation  over  a  defeated  foe  that  to-day  we  summon  up  a  remem- 
brance of  those  events  which  have  made  holy  ground  where  we  tread. 
Surely  no  such  unworthy  sentiment  could  find  harbor  in  our  hearts,  so 
profoundly  thrilled  with  that  expression  of  sorrow  and  sympathy  which 
our  national  bereavement  has  evolved  from  the  people  of  England  and 
their  august  sovereign;  but  it  is  altogether  fitting  that  we  should 
gather  here  to  refresh  our  souls  with  the  contemplation  of  the  unfalter- 
ing patriotism,  the  sturdy  zeal  and  the  sublime  faith  with  which  were 
achieved  the  results  we  now  commemorate.  For  so,  if  we  learn  aright 
the  lesson  of  the  hour,  shall  we  be  incited  to  transmit  to  the  generation 


which  shall  follow  the  precious  legacy  which  our  fathers  left  to  us  — 
the  love  of  liberty  protected  by  law. 

"  Of  that  historic  scene  which  we  here  celebrate,  no  feature  is  more 
prominent  and  none  more  touching  than  the  participation  of  our  gal- 
lant allies  from  across  the  sea.  It  was  their  presence  which  gave  fresh 
and  vigorous  impulse  to  the  hopes  of  our  countrymen  when  well-nigh 
disheartened  by  a  long  series  of  disasters.  It  was  their  noble  and 
generous  aid,  extended  in  the  darkest  period  of  that  struggle,  which 
sped  the  coming  of  our  triumph  and  made  capitulation  at  Yorktown 
possible,  a  century  ago.  To  their  descendants  and  representatives  who 
are  here  present  as  honored  guests  of  the  nation,  it  is  my  glad  duty 
to  offer  a  cordial  welcome.  You  have  a  right  to  share  with  us  the 
associations  which  cluster  about  the  day  when  your  fathers  fought 
side  by  side  with  our  fathers  in  the  cause  which  was  here  crowned 
with  success,  and  none  of  the  memories  awakened  by  this  anniversary 
are  more  grateful  to  us  all  than  the  reflection  that  the  national  friend- 
ships here  so  closely  cemented  have  outlasted  the  mutations  of  a 
changeful  century.  God  grant,  my  countrymen,  that  they  may  ever 
remain  unshaken,  and  that  henceforth,  with  ourselves  and  with  all 
nations  of  the  earth,  we  may  be  at  peace." 



General  Grant  and  the  Civil  War, 

Song,  See,  the  Conquering  Hero  Comes. 

Admiral  Dewey  and  the  Spanish  War, 

Song,  Dezvey  at  Manila  Bay. 

In  Memoriam  —  May  30th. 

Selections Song,  Song  for  Memorial  Day. 

Selections Song,  The  Heroes'  Greeting. 

Selections Song,  In  Memoriam. 

Selections Song,  Remembered. 



IHE  name   of  Ulysses   S.    Grant   is   forever   linked   in   history 
with   the    Civil   War,   waged  between    the   North   and   the 
South   from    1861    to    1865.       Many   a   general   and  officer 
and  thousands  upon  thousands  of  private  soldiers,  on  both 
sides,  fought  with  indescribable  bravery.       But  it  remained 
for   General   Grant   to   bring   the   war  to   an   end  by   the   surrender 
of   Robert   E.    Lee,    commander-in-chief   of   the    Southern   army,    at 
Appomattox  Courthouse,  April  9,   1865.      Grant  was  often  charged 
with  cruelty  and  even  with  indifference  as  to  the  number  of  his  soldiers 
killed  in  battle.     But  this  is  not  true.     The  sacrifice  of  human  life  in 
the  fierce  battles  that  he  fought  was  great,  but  it  was  necessary.     And 
when  the  "  cruel  war  "  was  over  and  peace  really  came  to  a  sorrowing 
land,  sore-stricken  in  every  part,  no  man  in  all  the  nation  was  kinder 
than  he  to  the  conquered  foe,  as  they  surrendered  on  the  last  battle- 
field of  the  war,  nor  more  compassionate  afterwards  to   the  whole 
people  of  the  desolated  and  impoverished  South.     To  show  such  kind- 
ness and  compassion  he  had  indeed  a  rare  opportunity,  as  President 
of  the  United  States  for  two  terms.     In  this  great  office  he  was  vexed, 
perplexed  and  troubled  by  many  problems  of  Reconstruction  such  as 
no  other  President  had  ever  known;  but  throughout  all  he  was  patient, 
though  firm,  and  loyal  to  the  last  degree  to  what  he  believed  to  be 
the  good  of  the  whole  people.     No  wonder  that  New  York,  the  great- 
est city  of  the  Empire  State,  and  the  metropolis  of  the  land,  asked  that 
the  hero  and  statesman  might  repose  within  its  borders.     And  so  was 
built  the  "  Tomb  of  General  Grant  "  at  Riverside,  in  Greater  New 
York.     (If  time  permits,  a  sketch  of  Grant's  boyhood  and  youth,  stories 
from  his  Autobiography,  and  a  description  of  the  famous  "  Tomb  " 
would  prove  of  very  great  interest,  conveying  much  information  on 

heroic  patriotism.) 





Toll!  bells  of  the  nation,  toll! 

For  Grant,  our  Brave  defender, 
The  hero  true,  who  made  to  Death 
"His  first  and  last   surrender;" 
Toll!     O  bells,  to-day, 
And  let  your  echoes  roll 
Solemnly,  mournfully 
O'er  all  the  land 
From  strand  to  strand; 
Toll!  bells  of  the  nation,  toll! 
For  Liberty's  defender. 

Rise!  sons  of  the  nation,  rise! 

And  love's  true  homage  render 
To  him  who  grandly  made  to  Death 
"  His   first  and  last   surrender; " 
Lament,  O  world,  to-day, 
And  let  the  earth  and  skies 
Silently,  mournfully 
Be  witness  to  their  grief 
Who  mourn  an  honored  chief; 
Mourn,  sons  of  the  nation,  mourn, 
For  Grant,  our  brave  defender. 

It  was  on  Decoration  Day,  in  the  city  of  New  York,  the  last  one 
he  ever  saw  on  earth.  That  morning,  the  members  of  the  Grand  Army 
of  the  Republic,  the  veterans  in  that  vicinity,  rose  earlier  than  was 
their  wont.  They  seemed  to  spend  more  time  that  morning  in  unfurl- 
ing the  old  battle-flags,  in  burnishing  the  medals  of  honor  which  deco- 
rated their  breasts,  for  on  that  day  they  had  determined  to  march 
by  the  house  of  their  dying  commander,  to  give  him  a  last  marching 
salute.  In  the  streets,  the  columns  were  formed;  inside  the  house, 
on  that  bed  from  which  he  never  was  to  rise  again,  lay  the  stricken 
chief.  The  hand  which  had  seized  the  surrendered  sword  of  countless, 
thousands  could  scarcely  return  the  pressure  of  the  friendly  grasp. 


That  voice  that  had  cheered  on  to  triumphant  victory  the  allegiance 
of  America's  manhood,  could  no  longer  call  for  the  cooling  draught 
which  slaked  the  thirst  of  a  fevered  tongue,  and  prostrate  on  that  bed 
of  anguish  lay  the  form  which,  in  the  New  World,  had  ridden  at  the 
head  of  the  conquering  column  —  which,  in  the  Old  World,  had  been 
deemed  worthy  to  stand  with  head  covered  and  with  feet  sandaled  in 
the  presence  of  princes,  kings  and  emperors.     In  the  street  his  ear 
caught  the  sound  of  martial  music.     Bands  were  playing  the  same 
strains  which  had  echoed  his  guns  at  Vicksburg,  the  same  quick-steps 
to  which  his  men  sped  in  hot  haste  when  pursuing  Lee  through  Vir- 
ginia.    And  then  came  the  heavy,  measured  step  of  moving  columns, 
a  step  which  can  be  acquired  only  by  years  of  service  in  the  field.     He 
recognized  it  all  now.     It  was  the  tread  of  his  old  veterans.     With  his 
little  remaining  strength,  he  arose,  and  dragged  himself  to  the  window. 
He  gazed  upon  those  battle-flags  dipped  to  him  in  salute,  those  precious 
standards,  bullet-riddled,  battle-stained,  but  remnants  of  their  former 
service,  with  scarcely  enough  left  of  them  on  which  to  print  the  names 
of  the  battles.     They  had  seen  his  eyes  once  more  light  with  the  flames 
that  had  enkindled  them  at  Shiloh,  at  the  heights  of  Chattanooga,  amid 
the  glories  of  Appomattox,  and  as  those  war-scarred  veterans  looked, 
with  uncovered  heads  and  upturned  faces,  for  the  last  time  upon  the 
pallid  features  of  their  old  chief,  the  cheeks  which  had  been  bronzed 
with  Southern  suns,  and  begrimed  with  powder,  were  bathed  in  the 
tears  of  manly  grief.     Soon  they  saw  rising  the  hand  which  had  so 
often  pointed  out  to  them  the  path  of  victory.     He  raised  it  slowly 
and  painfully  to  his  head  in  recognition  of  their  salutation.     When 
the  column  had  passed,  the  hand  fell  heavily  by  his  side.     It  was  his 
last  military  salute. —  Horace  Porter. 


When  his  work  was  done,  this  man  of  blood  was  as  tender  toward 
his  late  adversaries  as  a  woman  towards  a  son!  He  imposed  no 
humiliating  conditions,  spared  the  feelings  of  his  antagonists,  sent 
home  the  disbanded  Southern  men  with  food  and  horses  for  working 
their  crops,  and  when  a  revengeful  spirit  in  the  executive  chair  showed 


itself  and  threatened  the  chief  Southern  generals,  Grant,  with  a  holy 
indignation,  interposed  himself,  and  compelled  his  superior  to  re- 
linquish his  rash  purpose. 

A  man  he  was,  without  vices,  with  an  absolute  hatred  of  lies,  and 
an  eradicable  love  of  truth,  of  a  perfect  loyalty  to  friendship,  neither 
envious  of  others  nor  selfish  of  himself.  With  a  zeal  for  the  public 
good  unfeigned,  he  has  left  to  memory  only  such  weaknesses  as  con- 
nect him  with  humanity,  and  such  virtues  as  will  rank  him  among 


The  tidings  of  his  death,  long  expected,  gave  a  shock  to  the  whole 
world.  Governments,  rulers,  eminent  statesmen,  and  scholars  from 
all  civilized  nations,  gave  sincere  tokens  of  sympathy.  For  the  hour, 
sympathy  rolled  as  a  wave  over  the  whole  land.  It  closed  the  last 
furrow  of  war;  it  extinguished  the  last  prejudice;  it  effaced  the  last 
vestige  of  hatred;  and  cursed  be  the  hand  that  shall  bring  them  back! 

Johnston  and  Buckner  on  one  side  of  his  bier,  and  Sherman  and 
Sheridan  upon  the  other,  he  has  come  to  his  tomb, —  a  silent  symbol 
that  liberty  had  conqured  slavery,  and  peace  war. 

He  rests  in  peace!    No  drum  nor  cannon  shall  disturb  his  slumber! 

Sleep,  hero,  sleep,  until  another  trumpet  shall  shake  the  heavens 
and  the  earth!  Then  come  forth  to  glory  and  immortality. —  Henry 
Ward  Beecher. 


W.  K.  W. 

G.  F.  Handel. 

-ft  /  f  -<a- 

-i  /  / — 01- 











1.  "See!       the 

2.  Great      our 

3.  Grand      our 



con  -  qu  ring 
he    -     ro, 
he    -     ro, 

he  - 

ro    comes,     Sound 
in     fight,       Clear 
in    peace,      Bid 













the  drums; 

of    might ; 

cord  cease ; 





■   pets, 



-    cil, 


pas    - 



Greet  . 
Greet  . 



4L.        V 



pre  -  pare,        the 
the       sol     -     dier, 
the    states   -    man 

-<2 , 





When  the  shuddering  earth  foretold 
Ruin,  and  war's  thunder  rolled, 

Who  was  honest  as  the  soil, 
Natural,   simple,   free  of  cant, 

Patient  as  the  oxen  toil? 

While  the  earthquake  rent  the  land, 
Brothers  battling  hand  to  hand, 

Who  looked  never  toward  the  rear, 
Let  the  politicians  rant, 

Void  of  selfishness  and  fear? 

Oh,  the  need  of  one,  could  do 
Work  for  twenty!   stanch  and  true, 

Taciturn  through  praise  and  blame  — 
One,  disaster  could  not  daunt, 

Firm,  decided  as  the  name, 

When  our  leaders  weakened,  then 
Who  was  master  over  men? 

While  dismay  the  Nation  smote, 
Thoughtful,    wise,    of   anger   scant, 

Greatest  who,  in  plainest  coat? 

Silent  battler,  manly  judge, 
Weighing  chiefs  without  a  grudge, 

When  the  gun-smoke  parted,  foes 
Shielded  from  revenge  and  taunt, 

Shared  your  heart  who  bore  your  blows, 

Faithful  to  the  falsest  friends, 
Duped  by  rogues  for  paltry  ends, 

You  were  like  the  wholesome  earth, 
Home  for  oak  and  poison-plant! 

Fair  and  foul  but  raised  your  worth, 





Red  and  black  usurp  the  white; 
Fear  of  death  is  fear  of  night: 

Redder,  blacker  moments  far, 
Fenced  about  with  spectres  gaunt, 

You  have  passed  in  hatefui  war, 

Though  the  last  dark  field  you  plow, 
Fearless  then,  no  fear  is  now, 

Great  our  General!     What  is  night? 
Shades  that  o'er  the  landscape  slant  — 

All  beyond  them,  glorious  Light, 

Fame  for  you  for  aye  shall  run 
Even  as  all-victorious   Sun, 

For  like  him  you  cannot  die. 
Dawns  your  lofty  deeds  will  chant, 
Hark!  the  coming  aeons  cry  — 
"  Grant,  Grant!  " 

—  C.  De  Kay. 

(New  York,  March  30,  1885.) 


Not  by  the  ball  or  brand 
Sped  by  a  mortal  hand, 
Not  by  the  lightning  stroke 
When  fiery  tempests  broke, — 
Not  'mid  the  ranks  of  war 
Fell  the  great  Conqueror. 

Unmoved,  undismayed, 

In  the  crash  and  carnage  of  the  cannonade, — 

Eye  that  dimmed  not,  hand  that  failed  not, 

Brain  that  swerved  not,  heart  that  quailed  not, 

Steel  nerve,  iron  form, — 

The  dauntless  spirit  that  o'erruled  the  storm. 


While  the  Hero  peaceful  slept 
A  foeman  to  his  chamber  crept, 
Lightly  to  the  slumberer  came, 
Touched  his  brow  and  breathed  his  name; 
O'er  the  stricken  form  there  passed 
Suddenly  an  icy  blast. 

The  Hero  woke;  rose  undismayed; 
Saluted  Death  —  and  sheathed  his  blade. 

The  Conqueror  of  a  hundred  fields 
To  a  mightier  Conqueror  yields; 
No  mortal  foeman's  blow 
Laid  the  great  Soldier  low. 
Victor  in  his  latest  breath  — 
Vanquished  but  by  Death. 

—  Francis  F.  Browne. 

General  Sheridan,  in  reply  to  a  request  for  his  opinion  of  General 
Grant  as  a  commander,  recently  said:  "  He  was  a  far  greater  man  than 
people  thought  him  to  be.  He  was  able,  no  matter  how  situated,  to 
do  more  than  was  expected  of  him.  That  has  always  been  my  opinion 
of  General  Grant.  I  have  the  greatest  admiration  for  him,  both  as  a 
man  and  as  a  commander." 


General  Sherman,  having  been  asked  why  he  and  Sheridan  always 
acknowledged  the  leadership  of  Grant,  replied:  "  Because,  while  I 
could  map  out  a  dozen  plans  for  a  campaign,  every  one  of  which  Sheri- 
dan would  declare  he  could  fight  out  to  victory,  neither  he  nor  I  could 
tell  which  of  the  plans  was  the  best  one;  but  Grant,  who  simply  sat 
and  listened  and  smoked  while  we  had  been  talking  over  the  maps, 
would,  at  the  end  of  our  talking,  tell  us  which  was  the  best  plan,  and, 
in  a  dozen  or  two  words,  the  reason  of  his  decision,  and  then  it  would 
all  be  so  clear  to  us  that  he  was  right  that  Sheridan  and  I  would  look 
at  each  other  and  wonder  why  we  hadn't  seen  the  advantage  of  it  our- 
selves.    I  tell  you,  Grant  is  not  appreciated  yet.     The  military  critics 



of  Europe  are  too  ignorant  of  American  geography  to  appreciate  the 
conditions  of  his  campaigns.  I  have  seen  Grant  plan  campaigns  for 
500,000  troops  along  a  front  line  2,500  miles  in  length,  and  send  them 
marching  to  their  objective  points,  through  sections  where  the  sur- 
veyor's chain  was  never  drawn,  and  where  the  commissariat  necessi- 
ties alone  would  have  broken  down  any  transportation  system  of 
Europe;  and  three  months  later  I  have  seen  those  armies  standing 
where  he  said  they  should  be,  and  what  he  planned  accomplished;  and 
I  give  it  as  my  military  opinion  that  General  Grant  is  the  greatest 
commander  of  modern  times,  and  with  him  only  three  others  can 
stand  —  Napoleon,  Wellington  and  Moltke." 


*HE  name   of   George   Dewey,    in  every  part   of   our   country, 
is    "  a   household    word."       He    stands    forth    as    the    best- 
known  American  who  fought   in   what  is  known   as   "  The 
Spanish-American    War."       There    may    be    a    great    many 
young   pupils   in   our   common   schools   who   do   not   know 
just  what  that  war  was,  or  just  why  it  was  fought, —  but  it  would  be 
difficult  to  find  one,  beyond  the  primary  grades,  who  has  not  heard 
of  Admiral  Dewey,  the  great  sailor,  and  how  he  sailed  with  his  ships 
over  mines  and  torpedoes  and  sunken  vessels,  straight  into  the  har- 
bor of  Manila,  and  on  May  i,  1898,  without  the  loss  of  a  man  or  a 
gun  or  a  ship,  won  the  greatest  naval  victory,  in  many  respects,  ever 
achieved  by  man.     And  when,  in  the  autumn  of   1899,   the  famous 
sailor  came  to  this  country,  he  received  no  warmer  welcome,  no  finer 
tribute  to  his  glory,  than  that  given  him  by  the  school  children  of 
Greater  New  York,  a  welcome  that  was  renewed  and  prolonged  by  the 
boys  and  girls  of  Vermont  when  the  Admiral  returned,  after  many 
years  of  sea-life,  to  his  birth-place  and  boyhood's  home  in  the  "  Green 
Mountain  State."     Is  it  not  right,  then,  for  all  the  boys  and  girls  of 
the  Empire  State  to  have  a  part  in  the  celebration  which  their  school- 
fellows in   Greater   New   York   began?     Yes,    surely.     But   the   wise 
teacher  will  not  fail  to  seize  the  opportunity  to  give  to  his  school  — 
to  each  and  every  pupil  —  the  best  idea  possible  of  the  cause  of  the 
brief  war, —  of  the  valor  of  our  soldiers  and  sailors  —  of  the  fight  at 
Santiago  —  the  battle  at  San  Juan  and  the  bravery  there  displayed  by 
regulars  and  volunteers,  and  by  the  "  Rough  Riders  "  under  the  leader- 
ship of  the  patriot  and  soldier  who  is  now  the  Governor  of  New  York, 
Theodore  Roosevelt  —  the  meaning  of  the  "  Dewey  Arch  "  erected  in 
Greater  New  York,—  and,  above  all,  to  make  clear  and  strong  the  les- 
son taught  Spain  by  this  country,  that  oppression  and  tyranny,   as 
that  of  Cuba  by  Spain,  must  cease,— that  Freedom  is  the  privilege 

of  all  mankind. 





Sure  of  the  right,  keeping  free  from  all  offense  ourselves,  actuated 
only  by  upright  and  patriotic  considerations,  moved  neither  by  passion 
nor  selfishness,  the  Government  will  continue  its  watchful  care  over  the 
rights  and  property  of  American  citizens,  and  will  abate  none  of  its 
efforts  to  bring  about  by  peaceful  agencies  a  peace  which  shall  be 
honorable  and  enduring.  If  it  shall  hereafter  appear  to  be  a  duty 
imposed  by  our  obligations  to  ourselves,  to  civilization  and  humanity, 
to  intervene  with  force,  it  shall  be  without  fault  on  our  part,  and  only 
because  the  necessity  for  such  action  will  be  so  clear  as  to  command 
the  support  and  approval  of  the  civilized  world. —  President  McKinley, 
from  Message  to  Congress,  December,  1897. 


On  the  morning  of  February  16th  came  the  news  that  on  the 
previous  evening  the  battle-ship  Maine  had  been  blown  up  and  totally 
destroyed  in  the  harbor  of  Havana.  This  gigantic  murder  of  sleeping 
men,  in  the  fancied  security  of  a  friendly  harbor,  was  the  direct  out- 
come and  the  perfect  expression  of  Spanish  rule,  and  the  appropriate 
action  of  a  corrupt  system  struggling  in  its  last  agony.  At  last  the 
unsettled  question  had  come  home  to  the  United  States,  and  it  spoke 
in  awful  tones,  which  rang  loud  and  could  not  be  silenced.  A  wave 
of  swift,  fierce  wrath  swept  over  the  American  people.  But  a  word 
was  needed,  and  war  would  have  come  then  in  response  to  this  foul 
and  treacherous  act  of  war,  for  such,  in  truth,  it  was.  But  the  words 
of  Captain  Sigsbee,  the  commander  of  the  Maine,  whose  coolness,  self- 
restraint,  and  high  courage  were  beyond  praise,  asking,  even  in  the 
midst  of  the  slaughter,  that  judgment  should  be  suspended,  were 
heeded  alike  by  government  and  people. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

The  long  trial  has  proved  that  the  object  for  which  Spain  has 
waged  the  war  cannot  be  attained.  The  fire  of  insurrection  may  flame 
or  may  smoulder  with  varying  seasons,  but  it  has  not  been  and  it  is 
plain  that  it  cannot  be  extinguished  by  present  methods.     The  only 


hope  of  relief  and  repose  from  a  condition  which  can  no  longer  be 
endured  is  the  enforced  pacification  of  Cuba.  In  the  name  of  humanity, 
in  the  name  of  civilization,  in  behalf  of  endangered  American  interests, 
which  give  us  the  right  and  the  duty  to  speak  and  to  act,  the  war  in 
Cuba  must  stop.  The  issue  is  now  with  the  Congress.  It  is  a  solemn 
responsibility.  I  have  exhausted  every  effort  to  relieve  the  intolerable 
condition  of  affairs  which  is  at  our  doors.  Prepared  to  execute  every 
obligation  imposed  upon  me  by  the  constitution  and  the  law,  I  await 
your  action. —  President  McKinley,  from  Message  to  Congress,  April 
11,  1898. 

On  the  24th  of  April,  I  directed  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  to 
telegraph  orders  to  Commodore  George  Dewey,  of  the  United  States 
Navy,  commanding  the  Asiatic  Squadron,  then  lying  in  the  port  of 
Hong  Kong,  to  proceed  forthwith  to  the  Philippine  Islands,  there  to 
commence  operations  and  engage  the  assembled  Spanish  fleet. 
Promptly  obeying  that  order,  the  United  States  squadron  entered  the 
harbor  of  Manila  at  daybreak  on  the  1st  of  May  and  immediately 
engaged  the  entire  Spanish  fleet  of  eleven  ships,  which  were  under  the 
protection  of  the  fire  of  the  land  forts.  After  a  stubborn  fight,  in 
which  the  enemy  suffered  great  loss,  their  vessels  were  destroyed  or 
completely  disabled,  and  the  water  battery  at  Cavite  silenced.  Of  our 
brave  officers  and  men,  not  one  was  lost,  and  only  eight  injured,  and 
those  slightly.  All  of  our  ships  escaped  any  serious  damage.  *  *  * 
The  magnitude  of  this  victory  can  hardly  be  measured  by  the  ordinary 
standards  of  naval  warfare.  Outweighing  any  material  advantage  is 
the  moral  effect  of  this  initial  success.  At  this  unsurpassed  achieve- 
ment, the  great  heart  of  our  nation  throbs,  not  with  boasting  or  with 
greed  of  conquest,  but  with  deep  gratitude  that  this  triumph  has  come 
in  a  just  cause,  and  that  by  the  grace  of  God  an  effective  step  has  thus 
been  taken  toward  the  attainment  of  the  wished-for  peace.  To  those 
whose  skill,  courage,  and  devotion  have  won  the  fight,  to  the  gallant 
commander,  and  the  brave  officers  and  men  who  aided  him,  our  country 
owes  an  incalculable  debt. —  President  McKinley,  from  Message  to  Con- 
gress, May  9,  1898. 



Two  fleets  have  sailed  from  Spain.    The  one  would  seek 

What  lands  uncharted  ocean  might  conceal. 
Despised,  condemned,  and  pitifully  weak, 

It  found  a  world  for  Leon  and  Castile. 

Another,  mighty,  arrogant,  and  vain, 

Sought  to  subdue  a  people  who  were  free. 

Ask  of  the  storm-gods  where  its  galleons  be, — 
Whelmed  'neath  the  billows  of  the  northern  main! 

A  third  is  threatened.     On  the  westward  track, 

Once  gloriously  traced,  its  vessels  speed, 
With  gold  and  crimson  battle-flags  unfurled. 
On  Colon's  course,  but  to  Sidonia's  wrack, 

Sure  fated,  if  so  need  shall  come  to  need, 
For  sons  of  Drake  are  lords  of  Colon's  world. 

—  The  New  York  Tribune. 

dewey's  victory  —  May  i,  1898. 

"  Capture  or  destroy  the  Spanish  fleet  at  Manila."  Such  was  the 
purport  of  President  McKinley's  order  to  Commodore  George  Dewey, 
commanding  the  American  squadron  in  Asiatic  waters;  and  right  nobly 
did  he  carry  out  his  instructions.  Anchored  in  the  harbor  of  a  friendly 
power,  he  was  informed  that  by  the  laws  of  neutrality  he  must  put 
to  sea.  Six  thousand  miles  from  home,  with  no  base  of  supplies,  there 
were  but  two  things  for  the  intrepid  commander  to  do:  He  must  seek 
in  flight  the  safety  of  our  own  shores,  or  he  must  fight  against  over- 
whelming odds.  He  did  not  hesitate;  but  chose  the  latter  alternative 
as  if  there  were  no  other. 

How  the  haughty  Spaniards  sneered  at  his  pretensions!  Why 
should  they,  \vith  a  fleet  superior  in  numbers,  protected  by  the  great 
guns  of  their  forts,  fear  the  "Yankee  pigs  "?  —  the  commercials  who 
could  not  fight?  They  were  soon  to  learn  another  lesson.  On  the 
evening  of  April  30,  the  order  to  advance  to  action  was  given.  And, 
under  cover  of  the  darkness,  our  majestic  ships,  with  lights  extin- 
guished, crept  slowly,  like  tigers  of  the  jungle,  through  the  mine-pro- 



tected  channel,  past  the  forts  up  to  the  very  teeth  of  the  Spaniards. 
When  the  morning  of  the  first  of  May  broke  over  the  peaceful  Oriental 
sea,  it  saw  the  despised  American  in  the  very  fangs  of  her  proud  enemy. 

What  a  charming  scene!  The  great  ships  heaving  on  the  bosom 
of  the  placid  bay,  like  graceful  swans.  The  sleeping  city,  quiet  in  the 
distant  haze.  The  gaily  plumaged  tropical  bird  calling  to  its  mate 
in  a  neighboring  palm.  The  pennants  of  the  forts  lazily  flapping  on 
their  supporting  poles. 

The  scene  changes,  and  the  heavenly  peace  of  nature  gives  place 
to  the  hell  of  war!  The  great  guns  of  our  ships  belch  forth  their  wrath 
of  fire  and  steel.  The  Spanish  ships  and  forts  reply.  Soon,  chaos  and 
destruction  reign.  Shells  shriek  through  the  quivering  air.  The  peace- 
ful sea  has  become  a  volcano  from  seething  shot  and  bursting  shell! 
The  startled  Spaniards  had  not  expected  such  an  onslaught.  Surely 
this  foe  can  fight! 

The  Spanish  flag-ship  is  on  fire!  The  flag  is  bravely  transferred 
to  another;  but  that  too  is  soon  disabled.  Frantically  the  iron  hail  is 
poured  from  fort  and  ship;  but  it  glances  from  our  steel  sides  or  falls 
harmlessly  into  the  sea.  Slowly  our  great  ships  move  on,  firing  with 
unerring  aim  as  if  at  target  practice.  Three  times  they  move  around 
the  deadly  curve  and  the  last  Spanish  ship  is  burned  or  sunk;  the  forts 
on  shore  are  a  mass  of  ruins.  The  victory  is  won,  and  not  an  American 
has  been  killed,  not  a  ship  seriously  injured.  Does  our  hero  exult? 
Not  he.  He  sends  a  message  to  the  Spanish  admiral  commending  his 
bravery  and  offering  to  care  for  his  wounded  sailors. 

Days  of  suspense  follow.  There  are  rumors  that  Dewey  has  been 
victorious,  followed  by  others  of  a  less  reassuring  nature.  Spanish 
dispatches  claim  a  victory;  but  singularly  omit  to  mention  American 
losses.  Then  comes  a  report  that  Dewey  has  been  trapped;  and  the 
whole  nation  is  anxious;  but  not  a  word  of  censure  is  heard.  Those 
who  know  Commander  Dewey  say,  "  Do  not  fear,  he  is  a  quiet  man; 
but  when  he  fights,  he  fights  hard." 

At  last  authentic  news  is  received;  and  all  the  world  wonders. 
Men  recall  to  mind  the  achievements  of  Nelson,  when  he  defeated  the 
combined  fleets  of  France  and  Spain  ninety-three  years  ago. 


The  authorities  at  Washington  promptly  make  him  an  admiral 
and  vote  him  a  sword. 

A  new  star  is  added  to  the  already  brilliant  galaxy  of  American 
naval  heroes;  and  to  the  names  of  Paul  Jones,  Decatur,  Hull,  Lawrence, 
Perry,  and  Farragut,  is  added  George  Dewey.  The  civilized  world  is 
amazed.  Men  recall  the  great  feats  of  the  past;  but  history  reveals 
nothing  like  this.  A  whole  fleet,  supported  by  shore  batteries,  de- 
stroyed without  the  loss  of  a  single  man  on  the  victorious  squadron. 

The  new  warships  have  been  tried,  and  the  product  of  modern 
thought  has  triumphed. 

The  nations  awake  to  the  fact  that  a  new  power  has  risen  with 
which  they  must  reckon.  This  young  giant  has  struck  his  first  blow 
in  the  very  cradle  of  the  race,  in  the  stronghold  of  despotism  and 
tyranny;  and  that  blow  was  struck  in  the  name  of  liberty.  Hope 
revives  in  the  hearts  of  the  down-trodden  millions.  Liberty  is  no 
longer  a  dream,  a  sentiment.  It  has  a  champion  who  makes  it  an 
assured  fact. 

And  with  the  dawning  of  the  new  century  come  prophetic  mur- 
murings,  never  heard  before,  that  the  great  race,  speaking  one  tongue, 
that  has  carried  light  to  the  dark  places  of  the  earth,  shall  be  united, 
and  carry  law,  and  liberty,  and  justice  to  all  the  world. —  John  D. 

Youngest  descendant  of  a  glorious  line, — 

Jones,  Perry,  Hull,  Decatur,  heroes  bold, 

Who  fought  this  nation's  brave  sea-fights  of  old, 
And  Farragut,  whose  great  deeds  on  the  brine 
Through  our  wild  civil   strife  with  fierce   glow  shine, — 

Dewey,  all  hail!     With  theirs  is  now  enrolled 

Thy  name;  with  theirs  thy  story  shall  be  told; 
Thy  country's  praise  and  gratitude  are  thine; 
Thy  daring  sally  in  Manila  Bay 

Has  stirred  the  whole  world's  pulse,  and  well  begun 
The  war  for  human  rights  we  wage  to-day 

With  consecrated  sword.     Hero,  well  done! 
The  fleet  was  heaven-directed  in  that  fray  — 

No  grander  battle  e'er  yet  fought  and  won. 

—  Virginia  Vaughan. 


Lilian  Budington. 

Martha  Moses  Peckham. 



i.  Night  came  down  o'er  Ma  -  ni  -  la's    Bay,Where  Span- ish    ships    at         an  -  chor  lay;  And 
2.    Shot    and   shell    on    Ma  -  ni  -  la's  Bay  Wrought  well  God's  work  that      first    of     May;  And 

Span -ish   mines  be-neath   the   wave       To   Span- ish  hearts    bold       cour-age   gave.      A 
Span -ish      ty  -  rants    on      the   wave  Learn'd  right    is    might  with    A  - meri  -  ca's  brave. 









mistroll'd    in     o'er   Ma-ni  -  la's   Bay,  And    A-meri-  can   ships  sailed  in     to     stay,    Where 
Night  came  down  o'er    Ma-ni  -  la's    Bay,Where  A-meri  -  can   ships   at       an -chor  lay;  And  A - 

By  permission  of  Clayton  T.  Summy  Company,  Publishers. 






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meri-ca's    flag  crowns  the  crest    of     the  wave,Where  Span-ish    rule     has    found     a     grave. 

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rah     for  our    he   -  ro    and  col  -  ors  three !  When  Dewey  sailed  o  -  ver     the     o  -  cean. 





N       -0- 

!\     -0- 


rah     for  our    he  -  ro    and  col  -  ors  thr  e!  When  Dewey  sailed  o  -  ver     the 



IHIS  national  holiday  was  at  first  called  "  Decoration  Day  "— 
because  of  the  custom  of  decorating    the  graves  of  Union 
soldiers   on   that  day.      But  now  it  bears   the   sweeter  and 
more  sacred  name  of  Memorial  Day,— because  of  the  call- 
ing  to    remembrance    then,    in    a    special   and    public    way, 
the  brave  men  and  brave  deeds  of  the  terrible  Civil  War  of   1861. 
We  Americans    ought   to    regard    the  thirtieth    of    May,    each    year, 
as   an    Holy    Day,    rather  than    a   mere  amusement    holiday.      Alas! 
it  is  fast  becoming    a    day    for    sports    and    games    and    out-door 
spectacles.    And  yet,  it  can  never  become  wholly  that,  as  long  as  there 
remains  on  earth  a  single  soldier  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 
For  to  him  will  be  present  on  each  Sabbath  Day  of  the  Nation    the 
thought  of  the  mighty  conflict,  with  its  patriotic  spirit,  its  heroic  deeds, 
its   loyal   "Boys   in   Blue,"  — all   indeed   that   made   that   conflict   so 
memorable;  and  his  trembling  hands  will  still  seek  to  strew  flowers  of 
remembrance  upon  the  graves  of  his  former  companions-in-arms.     So, 
let  a  like  spirit  of  loyalty  and  patriotism  animate  the  soul  of  every  one 
of  the  thousands  of  G.  A.  R.  Veterans  still  living.     Let  every  teacher, 
in  his  or  her  place,  seek  to  instill  into  the  mind  of  every  pupil  a  knowl- 
edge of  the  great  events  and  actors  in  the  war-drama;  better  still,  an 
idea  of  the  meaning  of  the  war,  its  triumphant  issue  in  a  restored  Union 
and  an  emancipated  race  —  and  best  of  all,  a  sentiment  in  every  youth- 
ful heart   of  ever-enkindling,  ever-growing  love  for  this  dear  "  Country 

of  Ours!" 

Probably  there  is  not  a  school  district  in  the  State  in  which  there 
is  not  at  least  one  veteran  of  the  Civil  War.  And  the  one  best  way  to 
keep  Memorial  Day  in  school  will  be  to  invite  him,  as  the  guest  of 
honor,  to  tell  his  story  of  the  war.  If  a  G.  A.  R.  "  post  "  is  in  the 
neighborhood,  summon  its  members  to  your  memorial  service  and  let 
some  of  them  speak  for  all.     If  any  soldier  or  sailor  of  the  recent  war 



with  Spain  is  nigh  at  hand,  ask  him  to  be  present  and  speak.  He  will 
be  heard  giving  the  meed  of  praise  and  honor  to  the  men  of  '6i  for 
their  unparalleled  devotion  to  the  Union, —  and  they,  The  Fathers,  will 
testify  in  turn  to  the  patriotic  spirit  which  led  The  Sons  to  beat  down 
tyranny  and  lift  the  Cuban  to  the  joys  of  Freedom.  Do  not  fear  that 
such  a  service  will  celebrate  the  glories  of  war,  and  so  create  a  warlike 
spirit  in  youthful  hearts;  no,  for  it  commemorates,  rather,  the  sorrowful 
and  heart-aching  phases  of  strife.  Nor  fear  that  the  keeping  of  such 
a  day  will  stir  up  a  spirit  of  bitterness  against  the  conquered  South; 
no,  that  has  died  away  by  the  healing  effects  of  time,  by  the  thought 
of  a  common  origin  and  common  destiny  of  all  the  states  in  the  Union. 
The  South  as  well  as  the  North  keeps  its  Memorial  Day  —  for  sorrow 
for  the  dead,  as  Washington  Irving  has  told  us,  is  the  only  sorrow 
from  which  we  refuse  to  be  separated.  But  in  recent  years  —  on  plat- 
forms, in  burial-grounds,  wherever  and  however  Memorial  Day  has 
been  kept, —  the  "  Boys  in  Blue  "  and  the  "  Boys  in  Gray  "  have  met 
and  each  borne  testimony  to  the  valor  and  honor  of  the  other.  If  the 
teacher  of  a  school  cannot  arrange  for  an  exercise  in  the  school,  at 
least  see  to  it  that  the  boys  and  girls  have  a  part  in  any  commemoration 
arranged  by  a  G.  A.  R.  post  or  committee.  And  whether  in  school, 
in  public  hall  or  assembly,  at  a  cemetery  —  wherever  Memorial  Day 
is  kept, —  let  it  be  understood  and  impressed  that  it  is  always  the 
mission  of  Right  and  Duty  to  declare  and  carry  on  war,  whenever  the 
Union  is  in  peril,  or  the  cause  of  Freedom  demands  the  sacrifice. 


Slow  March. 

Friedrich  Silcher. 

i.  We        vis 
2.  Though  stran 
3    Now       an 






it  the  graves 

gers  with  com 
thems      of  praise 


of  our 
rades  lie 
and  thanks 





-*-  -f- 

day,  While 
sleep,        The 

sing,  While 







I        U     0    J  v 

na    -    ture     is  robed     with  the     beau  -   ty      of  May ;  We'll  car   -   ry       of      flow  -  ers  the 

soil     where  they  rest      we     will      sa    -   cred  -  ly  keep  ;  For      in        the     great  con  -  flict  they 

gar  -  lands  and  wreaths  in    pro  -  f  u    -    sion     we  bring ;  And  thou  -  sands  will  bless,  from  each 




-jT— 4— -* a*-—-* 

bright    -    est         with        care,  Of  ten 

stood  side         by         side,  To     -    geth 

sta      -        tion         in  life,  The        gal 

der       af 
■    er     they 
lant     and 



tion      the 

and        to  ■ 

ble     who 






em  -  blems  so  fair,  Of  ten 
geth  -  er  they  died,  To  -  geth 
fell         in      the  strife,     The     gal 

I  V         * 

der      af  -  fee    -  tion    the       em 

er     they  fought  and      to    -  geth 

lant    and  no     -  ble    who      fell 

=h^— K; — I  -a — V    I    , 

blems  so  fair, 
er    they  died, 
in      the  strife. 





Mid  the  flower-wreathed  tombs  I  stand 
Bearing  lilies  in  my  hand. 

—  Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson. 

The  light  that  shines  from  a  patriot's  grave  is  a  pure  and  holy  light. —  Homer 

Proudly  do  I  give 
A  song  to  you  who  kept  the  banner  old, 
The   dearest   flag   o'er  any  country   blowing. 

—  Maurice  F.  Thompson. 

Let  us  scatter  over  their  graves  the  brightest  beauties  of  life  —  the  glad  tokens 
of  a  blessed  immortality. —  George  S.  Mitchell. 

Wherever  Honor's  sword  is  drawn, 

And  Justice  rears  her  head, 
Where  heroes  fall  and  martyrs  bleed, 

There  rest  our  Country's  dead. 

—  Cornelia  M.  Jordan. 

There  is  a  shrine  in  the  temple  of  ages  where  lies,  forever  embalmed,  the 
memories  of  such  as  have  deserved  well  of  their  country  and  their  race. —  John  Mason 

Foes  we  were  in  the  years  long  past, 

Now  friends  in  Union  true; 
And  the  tie  that  binds  our  loyal  love 

Is  the  Red,  the  White  and  Blue. 

—  Anon. 

So  long  as  the  glorious  flag  for  which  they  died  waves  over  our  reunited  country, 
will  each  recurring  spring  see  fresh  laurels  on  the  graves  of  our  country's  dead. — 

*      *      *      fallen  in  manhood's  fairest  noon, — 
We  will  remember,    mid  our  sighs, 
He  never  yields  his  life  too  soon, 
For  country  and  for  right  who  dies. 

—  Atlantic  Monthly. 

Our  Country's  Gallant  Dead—  Our  country's  soil  gives  them  all  sepulture.  They 
sleep  beneath  the  Stripes  and  Stars. —  Joseph  H.  Twitchell. 



The  Northern  Lights  are  blending 

With  the  rays  of  the  Southern  Cross, 
And  the  gulf  is  bridged  between  them 

By  a  common  sense  of  loss. 

—  Susan  J.  Adams. 

They  have  not  died  in  vain.  The  great  hope  that  inspired  and  armed  them  has 
been  realized  how  gloriously!  They  saved  their  country  —  they  and  such  as  they. — 
George  Putnam  (adapted). 

They  throng  the  silence  of  the  heart, 

We  see  them  as  of  yore; 
The  kind,  the  true,  the  brave,  the  sweet, 

Who  talk  with  us  no  more. 

—  Anon. 

Invoke  all  to  heed  well  the  lesson  of  Decoration  Day,  to  weave  each  year  a  fresh 
garland  for  the  grave  of  some  hero  and  to  rebuke  any  and  all  who  talk  of  civil  war, 
save  as  the  "  last  dread  tribunal  of  kings  and  peoples." —  Gen.  William  T.  Sherman 

Their  names  resplendent  on  the  roll  of  fame, 
Their  monument  each  flag  that  floats  on  high: 

Why  should  we  weep?     No,  no,  they  are  not  dead; 
A  grateful  country  will  not  let  them  die. 

—  Thomas  F.  Power. 

In  the  fie!u  of  Gettysburg,  as  we  now  behold  it,  the  blue  and  the  gray  blending  in 
happy  harmony,  like  the  mingling  hues  of  the  summer  landscape,  we  may  see  the 
radiant  symbol  of  the  triumphant  America  of  our  pride,  our  hope  and  our  joy. — 
George  William  Curtis. 

Sleep,  comrades,  sleep  in  calm  repose, 

Upon  Columbia's  breast; 
For  thee  with  love  her  bosom  glows 

Rest  ye,  brave  heroes,  rest! 

—  /.  Henry  Dzvyer. 

Every  act  of  noble  sacrifice  to  the  country,  every  instance  of  patriotic  devotion 
to  her  cause  has  its  beneficial  influence.  A  nation's  character  is  the  sum  of  its 
splendid  deeds;  they  constitute  our  common  patrimony,  the  nation's  inheritance. — 
Henry  Clay. 


*      *      *      in  the  great  review 

When  crowns  and  uniforms  shall  never  fade, 
Heroes,  receive  your  honors  due 

On  grand  parade. 

—  John  A.  Murphy. 

All  the  great  and  good  shall  live  in  the  heart  of  ages,  while  marble  and  bronze 
shall  endure,  and  when  marble  and  bronze  have  perished,  they  shall  "  still  live  "  in 
memory  so  long  as  men  shall  reverence  law  and  honor  patriotism  and  love  liberty. — 
Edward  Everett. 

Glorious  and  meet 
To  honor  thus  the  dead, 
Who  chose  the  better  part 
And  for  their  country  bled. 

—  Richard  Watson  Gilder. 

"Dead  on  the  field  of  honor!"  This  is  the  record  of  thousands  of  unnamed 
men,  whose  influence  upon  other  generations  is  associated  with  no  personal  distinc- 
tion, but  whose  sacrifice  will  lend  undying  lustre  to  the  nation's  archives,  and  richer 
capacity  to  the  national  life. —  E.  A.  Chapin. 

Soft  stream  the  sunshine  overhead, 
Green  grow  the  grasses  on  your  graves; 

Heaven  will  remember  you,  though  dead, 
Ungarlanded,   immortal   braves. 

—  Harper's  Magazine. 

Those  who  fought  against  us,  are  now  of  us  and  with  us  reverently  acknowledge 
that  above  all  the  desires  of  men  move  the  majestic  laws  of  God,  evolving  alike 
from  victory  or  defeat  of  nations,  a  substantial  good  for  all  His  children. —  Gen. 
George  A.  Sheridan. 

Sleep  soldiers!  still  in  honored  rest 

Your  truth  and  valor  wearing; 
The  bravest  are  the    tenderest, — 

The  loving  are  the  daring. 

—  Bayard  Taylor. 

We  join  you  in  setting  apart  this  land  as  an  undying  monument  of  peace,  brother- 
hood, and  perpetual  Union.  We  unite  in  the  solemn  consecration  of  these  hallowed 
hills  as  a  holy,  eternal  pledge  of  fidelity  to  the  life,  freedom  and  unity  of  this  cherished 
Republic. —  Gen.  John  B.  Gordon,  Address  on  behalf  of  Confederate  veterans,  Gettys- 
burg, Pa.,  July  3,  1888. 


A  debt  we  ne'er  can  pay 

To  them  is  justly  due, 
And,  to  the  Nation's  latest  day, 
Our  children's  children  still  shall  say, 

"  They  died  for  me  and  you." 

—  Anon. 

By  the  homely  traditions  of  the  fireside,  by  the  headstones  in  the  churchyard 
consecrated  to  those  whose  forms  repose  far  off  in  rude  graves,  or  sleep  beneath  the 
sea,  embalmed  in  the  memory  of  succeeding  generations  of  parents  and  children,  the 
heroic  dead  will  live  on  in  immortal  youth. —  Governor  Andrew,  of  Massachusetts. 

So  close  the  Blue  and  Gray  have  fought, 

So  near  they  lowly  lie, 
God  grant,  that  now  their  life-work  wrought, 

Their  arms   be   linked   on   high 

Peace  blesses  all  our  happy  land, 

One  flag  from  lake  to  sea. 
Great  God!  each  loyal  heart  and  hand, 

And  voice  is  praising  Thee. 

—  D.  H.  Kent. 

To-day  it  is  the  highest  duty  of  all,  no  matter  on  what  side  they  were,  but  above 
all  of  those  who  have  struggled  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union,  to  strive  that  it 
become  one  of  generous  confidence  in  which  all  the  States  shall,  as  of  old,  stand 
shoulder  to  shoulder,  if  need  be,  against  the  world  in  arms. —  Ex-Attorney-General 
Charles  Devens. 


Your  marches,  sieges,  and  battles,  in  distance,  duration,  resolu- 
tion, and  brilliancy  of  results,  dim  the  luster  of  the  world's  past 
military  achievements,  and  will  be  the  patriot's  precedent  in  de- 
fense of  liberty  and  right  in  all  time  to  come.  In  obedience  to 
your  country's  call,  you  left  your  homes  and  families,  and  volunteered 
in  her  defense.  Victory  has  crowned  your  valor,  and  secured  the  pur- 
pose of  your  patriotic  hearts;  and  with  the  gratitude  of  your  country- 
men, and  the  highest  honors  a  great  and  free  nation  can  accord,  you 



will  soon  be  permitted  to  return  to  your  homes  and  families,  conscious 
of  having  discharged  the  highest  duties  of  American  citizens. —  Ulysses 
S.  Grant  (from  his  farewell  to  the  Union  Army). 

The  soldiers  of  the  Republic  were  not  seekers  after  vulgar  glory. 
They  were  not  animated  by  the  hope  of  plunder  or  the  love  of  con- 
quest. They  fought  to  preserve  the  blessings  of  liberty  and  that  their 
children  might  have  peace.  They  were  the  defenders  of  humanity,  the 
destroyers  of  prejudice,  the  breakers  of  chains,  and  in  the  name  of  the 
future  they  slew  the  monster  of  their  time.  All  honor  to  the  Brave! 
They  kept  our  country  on  the  map  of  the  world,  and  our  flag  in  heaven. 
The  soldiers  of  the  Republic  finished  what  the  soldiers  of  the  Revolu- 
tion commenced.  They  relighted  the  torch  that  fell  from  their  august 
hands  and  filled  the  world  again  with  light. —  Robert  G.  Ingersoll. 

Grander  than  the  Greek,  nobler  than  the  Roman,  the  soldiers  of 
the  Republic,  with  patriotism  as  taintless  as  the  air,  battled  for  the 
rights  of  others;  for  the  nobility  of  labor;  fought  that  mothers  might 
own  their  babes;  that  arrogant  idleness  should  not  scar  the  back  of 
patient  toil;  and  that  our  country  should  not  be  a  many-headed  mon- 
ster made  of  warring  states,  but  a  nation,  sovereign,  grand,  and  free. 
Blood  was  water,  money,  leaves,  and  life  was  common  air  until  one 
flag  floated  over  a  Republic,  without  a  master  and  without  a  slave. 
The  soldiers  of  the  Union  saved  the  South  as  well  as  the  North.  They 
made  us  a  nation.  Their  victory  made  us  free  and  rendered  tyranny 
in  every  other  land  as  insecure  as  snow  upon  volcano  lips.  They  rolled 
the  stone  from  the  sepulchre  of  progress,  and  found  therein  two  angels 
clad  in  shining  garments  —  Nationality  and  Liberty. —  Robert  G.  Inger- 

I  share  with  you  all  the  pleasure  and  gratitude  which  Americans 
should  feel  on  this  anniversary  (July  4).  But  I  must  dissent  from  one 
remark  to  the  effect  that  I  saved  the  country  during  the  war.  If  our 
country  could  be  saved  or  ruined  by  the  efforts  of  one  man,  we  should 
not  have  a  country.  If  I  had  never  held  command,  if  I  had  fallen,  if  all 
our  generals  had  fallen,  there  were  ten  thousand  behind  who  would 
have  done  our  work  just  as  well,  and  who  would  have  followed  the 


contest  to  the  end  and  never  surrendered  the  Union.  We  should  have 
been  unworthy  of  our  country  and  of  the  American  name  if  we  had  not 
made  every  sacrifice  to  save  the  Union. —  Ulysses  S.  Grant. 

Sometimes  in  passing  along  the  street,  I  meet  a  man  who,  in  the 
left  lapel  of  his  coat,  wears  a  little,  plain,  modest,  unassuming  bronze 
button.  The  coat  is  often  old  and  rusty;  the  face  above,  seamed  and 
furrowed  by  the  toil  and  suffering  of  adverse  years;  perhaps  beside  it 
hangs  an  empty  sleeve,  and  below  it  stumps  a  wooden  peg.  But  when 
I  meet  the  man  who  wears  that  button,  I  doff  my  hat  and  stand  un- 
covered in  his  presence  —  yea!  to  me  the  very  dust  his  weary  feet  has 
pressed  is  holy  ground;  for  I  know  that  man,  in  the  dark  Hour  of  the 
nation's  peril,  bared  his  breast  to  the  hell  of  battle  to  keep  the  flag  of 
our  country  in  the  Union  sky. 

May  be  at  Donelson,  he  reached  the  inner  trench;  at  Shiloh",  held 
the  broken  line;  at  Chattanooga,  climbed  the  flame-swept  hill;  or 
stormed  the  clouds  on  Lookout  Heights.  He  was  not  born  or  bred 
to  soldier  life.  His  country's  summons  called  him  from  the  plow,  the 
bench,  the  forge,  the  loom,  the  mine,  the  store,  the  office,  the  college, 
the  sanctuary.  He  did  not  fight  for  greed  of  gold,  to  find  adventure, 
or  to  win  renown.  He  loved  the  peace  of  quiet  ways;  and  yet  he  broke 
the  clasp  of  clinging  arms,  turned  from  the  witching  glance  of  tender 
eyes,  left  good-bye  kisses  on  tiny  lips,  to  look  death  in  the  face  on 
desperate  fields.  And  when  the  war  was  over,  he  quietly  took  up  the 
broken  threads  of  love  and  life  as  best  he  could,  a  better  citizen  for 
having  been  so  good  a  soldier. —  John  H.  Thurston. 

The  Minute  Man  of  the  Revolution!  And  who  was  he?  He  was 
the  husband  and  father,  who  left  the  plough  in  the  furrow,  the  hammer 
on  the  bench,  and  kissing  his  wife  and  children,  marched  to  die  or  to 
be  free.  The  Minute  Man  of  the  Revolution!  He  was  the  old,  the 
middle-aged,  the  young.  He  was  Captain  Miles  of  Acton,  who  reproved 
his  men  for  jesting  on  the  march!  He  was  Deacon  Josiah  Haines,  of 
Sudbury,  eighty  years  old,  who  marched  with  his  company  to  South 
Bridge,  at  Concord,  then  joined  in  that  hot  pursuit  to  Lexington,  and 
fell  as  gloriously  as  Warren  at  Bunker  Hill.  This  was  the  Minute  Man 
of  the  Revolution!     The  rural  citizen,  trained  in  the  common  school, 



the  town-meeting,  who  carried  a  bayonet  that  thought,  and  whose  gun, 
loaded  with  a  principle,  brought  down,  not  a  man,  but  a  system! 
Intrenched  in  his  own  honesty,  the  king's  gold  could  not  buy  him; 
enthroned  in  the  love  of  his  fellow-citizens,  the  king's  writ  could  not 
take  him;  and  when,  on  the  morning  at  Lexington,  the  king's  troops 
marched  to  seize  him,  his  sublime  faith  saw,  beyond  the  clouds  of  the 
moment,  the  rising  sun  of  the  America  we  behold,  and  careless  of 
himself,  mindful  only  of  his  country,  he  exultingly  exclaimed:  "  Oh! 
What  a  glorious  morning!  "  —  George  William  Curtis. 

All  honor  to  the  Army  of  the  United  States.  Truly  is  its  muster 
roll  shorter  than  the  list  of  its  achievements.  Yet  amid  all  strictures, 
cavil,  and  carping  it  has  a  place  well  earned  and  warm  in  the  heart  of 
this  people,  for  its  generals  have  never  sought  to  be  dictators,  nor  its 
regiments  pretorian  guards,  and  with  them  the  safety  of  the  country 
and  the  liberties  of  the  people  are  secure.    And  long,  long  may  it  be  so! 

William  E.  Furness. 

Every  mountain  and  hill  shall  have  its  treasured  name,  every  river 
shall  keep  some  solemn  title,  every  valley  and  every  lake  shall  cherish 
its  honored  register;  and  till  the  mountains  are  worn  out  and  the  rivers 
forget  to  flow,  till  the  clouds  are  weary  of  replenishing  springs,  and  the 
springs  forget  to  gush,  and  the  rills  to  sing,  shall  their  names  be  kept 
fresh  with  reverent  honors  which  are  inscribed  upon  the  book  of 
National  Remembrance. —  H.  W.  Beecher. 

Thank  God  for  deeds  of  valor  done! 

Thank  God  for  victories  hardly  won! 

That  such  as  you  need  never  know 

The  anguish  of  those  days  of  woe; 

For  time  and  peace  old  wounds  have  healed, 

And  flowers  now  strew  the  battle-field. 

But  ah!  the  graves  that  no  man  names  or  knows, 
Uncounted  graves,  which  never  can  be  found; 
Graves  of  the  precious  "  missing  "  where  no  sound 

Of  tender  weeping  will  be  heard,  where  goes 
No  loving  step  of  kindred. 
But  nature  knows  her  wilderness, 


There  are  no  "  missing  "  in  her  numbered  ways, 
In  her  great  heart  is  no  forgetfulness, 
Each  grave  she  keeps,  she  will  adorn,  caress; 
We  cannot  lay  such  wreaths  as  Summer  lays, 
And  all  her  days  are  Decoration  Days. 

—  Helen  Hunt. 

The  muffled  drum's  sad  roll  has  beat 

The  soldier's  last  tattoo; 
No  more  on  Life's  parade  shall  meet 

That  brave  and  fallen  few. 
On  Fame's  eternal  camping  ground 

Their  silent  tents  are  spread. 
And  Glory  guards,   with  solemn  round, 

The  bivouac  of  the  dead. 

Rest  on,  embalmed   and  sainted  dead! 

Dear  is  the  blood  you   gave. 
No  impious  footsteps  here  shall  tread 

The  herbage  of  your  grave. 
Nor  shall  your  story  be  forgot 

While   Fame  her  record  keeps, 
Or  Honor  points  the  hallowed  spot 

Where  Valor  proudly  sleeps. 


—  Theodore  O'Hara. 


Allegro  moderate 

Charles  E.  Boyd. 



i.      In  tri    -    umph        ad 

2.  Let       flow'rs      strew      their 

3.  Where      can    -     non       were 


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Sound,  bugles!  sound  again! 
Rouse  them  to  life  again, 

Awake  them  all! 
Here,  where  the  Blue  and  Gray 
Struggled  in  fierce  array, 
Wake  them  in  peace  to-day; 

God  bless  them  all! 

Sound  bugles!  sound  again! 
Sound  o'er  these  hills  again, 

Where  gather  all; 
Those  who  are  left  to-day, 
Left  of  the  battle's  fray, 
Left  of  the  Blue  and  Gray; 

God  bless  them  all! 

Sound  bugles!  sound  again! 
Bid  all  unite  again, 

Like  brothers  all; 
Here,  clasping  hands,  to-day, 
With  love  for  Blue  and  Gray, 
Dead  is  all  hate  to-day; 

God  bless  them  all! 

—  Welle  sky  Bradshaw. 

No  nobler  emotion  can  fill  the  breast  of  any  man  than  that  which 
prompts  him  to  utter  honest  praise  of  an  adversary  whose  convictions 
and  opinions  are  at  war  with  his  own;  and  where  is  there  a  Confederate 
soldier  in  our  land  who  has  not  felt  a  thrill  of  generous  admiration  and 
applause  for  the  pre-eminent  heroism  of  the  gallant  Federal  admiral 
who  lashed  himself  to  the  mainmast,  while  the  tattered  sails  and  frayed 
cordage  of  his  vessel  were  being  shot  away  by  piecemeal  above  his 
head,  and  slowly  but  surely  picked  his  way  through  sunken  reefs  of 
torpedoes,  whose  destructive  powers  consigned  many  of  his  luckless 
comrades  to  watery  graves?  The  fame  of  such  men  as  Farragut,  Stan- 
ley, Hood,  and  Lee,  and  the  hundreds  of  private  soldiers,  who  were 


the  true  heroes  of  the  war,  belongs  to  no  clime  or  section,  but  is  the 
common  property  of  mankind.  They  were  all  cast  in  the  same  grand 
mould  of  self-sacrificing  patriotism,  and  I  intend  to  teach  my  children 
to  revere  their  names  as  long  as  the  love  of  country  is  respected  as  a 
noble  sentiment  in  the  human  breast. —  Lawrence  Sullivan  Ross. 

THE    BLUE    AND    THE    GRAY. 

By  the  flow  of  the  inland  river, 

Whence  the  fleets  of   iron  have  fled, 
Where  the  blades  of  the  grave-grass  quiver, 

Asleep  are  the  ranks  of  the  dead: 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment-day; 
Under  the   one,  the   Blue; 

Under  the  other,  the  Gray. 

These  in  the  robings  of  glory, 

Those  in  the  gloom  of  defeat; 
All  with  the  battle-blood   gory, 

In  the  dusk  of  eternity  meet; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  laurel,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  willow,  the  Gray. 

From  the  silence  of  sorrowful  hours, 

The  desolate  mourners  go, 
Lovingly  laden  with  flowers, 

Alike  for  the  friends  and  the  foe. 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  roses,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  lilies,  the  Gray. 

So,  with  an  equal  splendor, 

The  morning  sun-rays  fall, 
With  a  touch  impartially  tender, 

On  the  blossoms  blooming  for  all. 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Broidered  with  gold,  the  Blue; 

Mellowed  with  gold,  the  Gray. 


So,  when  the  summer  calleth, 

On  forest  and  field  of  grain, 
With  an  equal  murmur  falleth 

The  cooling  drip  of  the  rain; 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Wet  with  the  rain,  the  Blue; 

Wet  with  the  rain,  the  Gray. 

Sadly,  but  not  with  upbraiding, 

The  generous  deed  was  done; 
In  the  storm  of  the  years  that  are  fading 

No  braver  battle  was  won. 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Under  the  blossoms,  the  Blue; 

Under  the  garlands,  the  Gray. 

No  more  shall  the  war-cry  sever, 

Or  the  winding  rivers  be  red; 
They  banish  our  anger  forever 

When  they  laurel  the  graves  of  our  dead. 
Under  the  sod  and  the  dew, 

Waiting  the  judgment  day; 
Love  and  tears  for  the  Blue; 

Tears  and  love  for  the  Gray. 

—  Francis  M.  Finch. 

As  to  the  kind  of  preparation  which  sound  policy  dictates,  the 
navy,  most  certainly,  in  any  point  of  view,  occupies  the  first  place.  It 
is  the  safest,  most  effectual,  and  cheapest  mode  of  defense.  If  the  force 
be  the  safest  and  most  efficient,  which  is  at  the  same  time  the  cheapest, 
on  that  should  be  our  principal  reliance.  We  have  heard  much  of  the 
danger  of  standing  armies  to  our  liberties.  The  objection  cannot  be 
made  to  the  navy.  Generals,  it  must  be  acknowledged,  have  often 
advanced  at  the  head  of  armies  to  imperial  rank;  but  in  what  instance 
has  an  admiral  usurped  the  liberties  of  his  country?  Put  our  strength 
in  the  navy  for  foreign  defense  and  we  shall  certainly  escape  the  whole 
catalogue  of  possible  evils  painted  by  gentlemen  on  the  other  side. 


If  anything  can  preserve  the  country  in  its  most  imminent  dangers 
from  abroad,  it  is  this  species  of  armament.  If  we  desire  to  be  free 
from  future  wars  (as  I  hope  we  may  be),  this  is  the  only  way  to  effect 
it.  We  shall  have  peace  then,  and,  what  is  of  still  higher  moment,  peace 
with  perfect  security. —  John  C.  Calhoun. 


By  the  rude  bridge  that  arched  the  flood, 

Their  flag  to  April's  breeze  unfurled, 
Here  once  the  embattled  farmers  stood, 

And  fired  the  shot  heard  round  the  world. 

The  foe  long  since  in  silence  slept; 

Alike  the  conqueror  silent  sleeps; 
And  Time  the  ruined  bridge  has  swept 

Down  the  dark  stream  which  seaward  creeps. 

On  this  green  bank,  by  this  soft  stream, 

We  set  to-day  a  votive  stone; 
That  memory  may  their  dead  redeem, 

When,  like  our  sires,  our  sons  are  gone. 

Spirit,  that  made  those  heroes  dare 

To  die,  and  leave  their  children  free, 
Bid  Time  and  Nature  gently  spare 

The  shaft  we  raise  to  them  and  thee. 

—  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson. 

No  praise  can  be  too  great  for  the  American  volunteers,  who  passed 
through  days  of  battle,  enduring  fatigue  without  a  murmur,  always  in 
the  right  place  at  the  right  time,  and  emerging  from  the  fiery  ordeal 
a  compact  body  of  veterans,  equal  to  any  task  that  brave  and  disci- 
plined men  can  be  called  upon  to  undertake. —  Gen.  George  McClellan. 

General  Grant  said:  "  We  did  our  work  as  well  as  we  could,  and 
so  did  thousands  of  others.  What  saved  the  Union  was  the  coming 
forward  of  the  young  men  of  the  nation.  They  came  from  their  homes 
and  fields,  as  they  did  in  the  time  of  the  Revolution.  The  humblest 
soldier  who  carried  a  musket  is  entitled  to  as  much  credit  as  those 
who  were  in  command.  So  long  as  our  young  men  are  animated  by 
this  spirit,  there  will  be  no  fear  for  the  Union." 



The  man  who  wears  the  shoulder  straps 

And  has  his  sword  in  hand, 
Who  proudly  strides  along  in  front, 

Looks  good,  and  brave,  and  grand; 
But,  back  there  in  the  ranks  somewhere,— 

Just  which  I  cannot  see, — 
With  his  gun  upon  his  shoulder,  is 

The  soldier  boy  for  me! 

The  man  who  wears  the  shoulder  straps 

Is  handsome,  brave,  and  true, 
But  there  are  other  handsome  boys, 

And  other  brave  ones,  too! 
When  there  are  heights  that  must  be  won 

While  bullets  fill  the  air, 
'Tis  not  the  ofrker  alone 

Who  braves  the  dangers  there. 

The  man  who  wears  the  shoulder  straps 

Is  cheered  along  the  way, 
And  public  honor  dulls  his  dread 

Of  falling  in  the  fray; 
But  there  behind  him  in  the  ranks, 

And  moving  like  a  part 
Of  some  machine,  is  many  a  man 

With  just  as  brave  a  heart. 

The  man  who  wears  the  shoulder  straps 

Deserves  the  people's  praise; 
I  honor  and  applaud  him  for 

The  noble  part  he  plays; 
But,  back  there  in  the  ranks  somewhere, 

Stout-hearted,    is   he, — 
Prepared  to  do,  and  nerved  to  dare, — 

The  soldier  boy  for  me! 

—  i\  E.  Kiser. 





A  cheer  and  salute  for  the  admiral,  and  here's  to  the  captain  bold, 

And  never  forget  the  commodore's  debt  when  the  deeds  of  might  are  told! 

They   stand  to  the  deck  thro'  the   battle's   wreck,   when  the  great  shells  roar  and 

screech, — 
And  never  they  fear  when  the  foe  is  near  to  practise  what  they  preach; 
But  off  with  your  hat,  and  three  times  three  for  Columbia's  true-blue  sons, — 
The  men  below,  who  batter  the  foe, —  the  men  behind  the  guns! 

The  steel  decks  rock  with  the  lightning  shock,  and  shake  with  the  great  recoil, 
And  the  sea  grows  red  with  the  blood  of  the  dead  and  reaches  for  its  spoil, — 
Tut  not  till  the  foe  has  gone  below,  or  turns  his  prow  and  runs. 
Shall  the  voice  of  peace  bring  sweet  release  to  the  men  behind    the  guns! 

—  lohn  James  Rooney. 

At  Grant's  tomb,  when  speaking  of  the  perils,  the  services,  and 
the  heroism  of  the  men  who  made  up  the  Union  armies.  President  Mc- 
Kinley  put  the  matter  none  too  strongly  when  he  said:  "What  is 
true  patriotism?  It  is  an  absolute  consecration  to  country.  It  is  an 
abandonment  of  business;  it  is  turning  away  from  cherished  plans, 
which  have  been  fondly  formed  for  a  life's  career;  it  is  the  surrendering 
of  bright  prospects  and  the  giving  up  of  ambition  in  a  chosen  work; 
it  is  the  sundering  of  ties  of  blood  and  family  and  almost  snapping  of 
the  heartstrings  which  bind  us  to  those  we  love;  it  is  the  surrendering 
of  ourselves  absolutely  to  the  demands  of  country;  it  may  mean  dis- 
ease; it  may  mean  imprisonment,  insanity  or  death;  it  may  mean  hunger, 
thirst,  and  starvation.     In  our  Civil  War  it  meant  all  these." 

The  captains  and  the  armies  who  brought  to  a  close  the  Civil  War 
have  left  us  more  than  a  reunited  realm.  The  material  effect  of  what 
they  did  is  shown  in  the  fact  that  the  same  flag  flies  from  the  Great 
Lakes  to  the  Rio  Grande,  and  all  the  people  of  the  United  States  are 
richer  because  they  are  one  people  and  not  many,  because  they  belong 
to  one  great  nation,  and  not  to  a  contemptible  knot  of  struggling 
nationalities.  But  beside  this,  beside  the  material  results  of  the  Civil 
War,  we  are  all,  North  and  South,  incalculably  richer  for  its  memories. 


We  are  the  richer  for  each  grim  campaign,  for  each  hard-fought  battle. 
We  are  the  richer  for  valor  displayed  by  those  who  fought  so  valiantly 
for  the  right,  and  by  those  who,  no  less  valiantly,  fought  for  what  they 
deemed  the  right.  We  have  in  us  nobler  capacities  for  what  is  great 
and  good,  because  of  the  infinite  woe  and  suffering,  and  because  of  the 
splendid  ultimate  triumph. —  Theodore  Roosevelt,  in  "  American  Ideals." 


Oh,  the  roses  we  plucked  for  the  blue 
And  the  lilies  we  twined  for  the  gray, 

We  have  bound  in  a  wreath, 

And  in  silence  beneath 
Slumber  our  heroes  to-day. 

Over  the  new-turned  sod 

The  sons  of  our  fathers  stand, 
And  the  fierce  old  fight 
Slips  out  of  sight 

In  the  clasp  of  a  brother's  hand. 

For  the  old  blood  left  a  stain 

That  the  new  has  washed  away, 
And  the  sons  of  those 
That  have  faced  as  foes 

Are  marching  together  to-day. 

Oh,  the  blood  that  our  fathers  gave! 

Oh,  the  tide  of  our  mothers'  tears! 
And  the  flow  of  red, 
And  the  tears  they  shed, 

Embittered  a  sea  of  years. 

But  the  roses  we  plucked  for  the  blue. 

And  the  lilies  we  twined  for  the  gray, 
We  have  bound  in  a  wreath, 
And  in  glory  beneath 

Slumber  our  heroes  to-day. 

—  Albert  Bigeloiv  Paine. 




We  have  no  standing  army? 

Nay,  look  around,  and  see! 
The  man  who  ploughs  the  furrow 

The  man  who  fells  the  tree, 
The  statesman  and  the  scholar, 

At  the  first  word  of  fear 
Turn  to  their  country,  breathing, 

"  My  mother,  I  am  here  I  " 

Not  of  a  dumb,  blind  people 

Is  this,  our  army,  made; 
Where  schoolhouse  and  where  steeple 

Have  cast  their  friendly  shade 
Our  army  grows  in  knowledge, 

As  it  to  manhood  grows, 
And,  trained  in  school  and  college, 

Stands  ready  for  its  foes. 

The  brawny  arms  of  gunners 

Serve  minds  alert  and  keen; 
The  sailor's  thought  has  travelled 

To  lands  he  has  not  seen. 
Not  for  the  joy  of  killing, 

Not  for  the  lust  of  strife, 
Have  these  come   forth  with   gladness 

To  offer  up  their  life. 

Behold  our  standing  army  — 

Not,  as  in  other  lands, 
An  army  standing  idle, 

With  empty  minds  and  hands. 
But  each  one  in  his  station; 

And  peaceful  victory 
Is  training  for  the  nation 

Heroes  of  land  and  sea. 

—  Margaret  Vandegrift. 

Mark  Trafton,  D.D. 


John  W.  Tufts. 

^— -^        r     l>  r— 1 , . i 

f  w 




1/  '  r         if         i  W'WI  W~i/ 

i.  Our  martyred  dead!       On  each  low  bed    .     .  Green  be  the  chap-let,fresh  the    ros     - 
2.  Hail,  he- ro      shades!  Your  bat- tie     blades         A     wall  of  steel  our  homes  sur-round 









-A— fV 




3.  No  mar-ble     cold      May  guard  your  mold,     .     But    living  hearts  a-round  are    swell    -   ing; 

4.  Yoursa-cred  dust         Be  the  choice  trust .     .    Of  Freedom's  grateful  sons  and  daugh  -  ters'- 








a — I'-pi    r  '- 




Our  martyred  dead  !      On  each  low   bed  ...    Green  be  thechap-let,  fresh     the    ros      -      es: 
Hail,   he-ro     shades!  Your   bat-tie    blades  A    wall      of       steel  our  homes  sur  -  round  -  ed  ; 


-A— A- 

No   mar-ble  cold 
Your  sa-cred  dust 





Maymarkyour  mold,  But   liv  -  ing    hearts  a  -  round    are    swell   -   ing; 
Be   the  choice  trust    Of  Free-dom's  grate -ful  sons     and  daugh  -  ters; 


-v— v- 





_j — rr3hJN  e 

Oh,  light-ly     rest        On  each  calm  breast    The  turf   where    each    in  peace  re   -  pos    -    es. 
Yourdeeds  have  won     From  sire  to     son.     .    .     Love,joy  and  grat  -  i  -  tude  un  -  bound  -  ed. 




Each  dar-ing    deed     Shallgainthe    meed       Of  praise  from      all  hearts  rich -ly    well    -    ing. 
While  fu-ture  days   Yourfame  shall  raise  From  At-lan  -  tic's        to      Pa-cif-ic's      wa    -    ters. 


*5=tf  1     v — V- 







By  special  permission  Silver,  Bip.dett  &  Co. 



If  those  who  win  battles  and  save  civilization  are  dear  to  the 
hearts  of  men,  how  cherished  will  be  the  memory  of  the  tenacious 
soldier  whom  nothing  could  shake  off  from  success. 

Breaking  up  on  the  Rapidan  in  early  May,  Grant  forced  his  fiery 
way  through  the  Wilderness  and  was  called  a  butcher.  By  one  of  the 
most  masterly  and  daring  of  military  movements,  he  forced  the  enemy 
within  their  capital  and  was  called  incapable.  "  He'll  do  no  more," 
shouted  the  exultant  friends  of  the  rebellion.  They  did  not  know  the 
man.  Undismayed  by  delay,  holding  Richmond  in  both  hands,  he 
ordered  Thomas  to  annihilate  Hood,  and  he  did  it;  he  ordered  Terry 
to  take  Fort  Fisher,  and  he  took  it;  he  ordered  Sheridan  to  sweep  the 
Shenandoah,  and  he  swept  it  clean.  The  terror  of  Sherman's  presence, 
one  hundred  miles  away,  emptied  Charleston  of  troops.  Across 
Georgia,  across  South  Carolina  into  North  Carolina,  he  moved,  scourg- 
ing the  land  with  fire.  Then  the  genius  of  the  great  commander,  by 
the  tireless  valor  of  his  soldiers,  lighted  all  along  the  line,  burst  over 
the  enemy's  works,  crushed  his  ranks,  forced  his  retreat,  and  over- 
whelmed Lee  and  his  army. —  George  William  Curtis. 

By  the  sacrifice  of  the  Union  soldiers,  some  questions  were  settled^ 
never  to  be  reopened,  over  which  politicians,  and  statesmen,  and  philos- 
ophers had  wrangled  a  hundred  years.  No  man  will  ever  after  this 
claim  that  in  politics  a  part  is  greater  than  the  whole,  or  a  state  greater 
than  a  nation,  nor  will  any  have  the  rashness  to  maintain  that  "  E 
Pluribus  Unum  "  means  many  out  of  one. 

The  graves  of  300,000  patriots  are  our  witness  to-day,  that  hence- 
forth, from  the  pine  forests  of  our  cold  northern  border  to  the  orange 
groves  of  the  gulf,  from  the  great  Atlantic  metropolis  of  the  Empire 
State  to  the  golden  gates  of  the  Pacific,  the  stars  and  stripes  will  brook 
no  rival.  On  every  headstone  of  the  graves  decorated  to-day  may  be 
read,  albeit  in  invisible  characters,  yet  unfading  as  though  written  by 
the  hand  of  fate,  "  Liberty,  Union,  Equality;"  "  One  Flag  and  One 
Country."  Such  was  their  contribution  to  their  country,  to  humanity, 
to  posterity.  Do  we  not  justly  enroll  their  names  among  earth's  bene- 
factors, and  garland  their  graves  as  those  of  heroes  and  martyrs?  — - 
Oscar  D.  Robinson. 


At  the  battle  of  Mission  Ridge,  General  Thomas  was  watching  a 
body  of  troops  painfully  pushing  their  way  up  a  steep  hill  against  a 
withering  fire.  Victory  seemed  impossible,  and  the  General,  even  he, 
that  rock  of  valor  and  patriotism,  exclaimed,  "  They  can't  do  it!  They 
will  never  reach  the  top."  His  chief  of  staff,  watching  the  struggle  with 
equal  earnestness,  said  softly,  "Time,  time,  General;  give  them  time;" 
and  presently  the  moist  eyes  of  the  brave  leader  saw  his  soldiers  victo- 
rious upon  the  summit.  They  were  American  soldiers  —  so  are  we. 
They  were  fighting  an  American  battle  —  so  are  we.  They  were  climb- 
ing a  height  —  so  are  we.  Give  us  time,  and  we,  too,  shall  triumph. — 
George  William  Curtis. 

"  Did  you  hear  that  fearful  scream?  "  asked  a  Union  soldier  of  his 
comrade  in  the  early  days  of  the  Civil  War,  as  they  pressed  on  in  the 
deadly  assault  up  the  bloody  slope.  "  Yes;  what  is  it?  "  "  It  is  the  Rebel 
yell.  Does  it  frighten  you?  "  "  Frighten  me!  "  said  the  young  soldier, 
as  he  pressed  more  eagerly  forward,  "  Frighten  me!  "  it  is  the  music  to 
which  I  march!  "  And  they  planted  the  starry  flag  of  victory  upon  the 
enemy's  rampart. 

When  the  enemy's  yell  is  the  music  to  which  the  soldier  marches, 
he  marches  to  victory.  Patience  then,  and  forward. —  George  William 


We  may  not  know 

How  red  the  lilies  of  the  spring  shall  grow; 

What  silver  flood, 

Sea  streaming,  take  the  crimson  tints  of  blood. 

We  may  not  know 

If  victory  shall  make  the  bugles  blow; 

If  still  shall  wave 

The  flag  above  our  freedom  or  our  grave. 

We  only  know 

One  heart,  one  hand,  one  country,  meet  the  foe; 

On  land  and  sea 

Her  liegemen  in  the  battle  of  the  free. 

—  Frank  L.  Stanton. 


The  shot  which  the  embattled  farmers  fired  at  Lexington  echoed 
"  round  the  world,"  and  produced  most  of  those  revolutions  in  all  lands 
by  which  power  has  fallen  from  the  throne  and  been  gained  by  the  peo- 
ple. It  was  the  echo  of  that  shot  which  in  1861  aroused  the  national 
spirit  to  the  protection  of  the  national  life,  and  while  Lexington 
founded  the  Republic,  the  memory  of  Lexington  preserved  it. — 
Chauncey  Mitchell  Depew. 


How  sleep  the  brave,  who  sink  to  rest, 
By  all  their  country's  wishes  blest! 
When  Spring,  with  dewy  ringers  cold, 
Returns  to  deck  their  hallowed  mould, 
She  there  shall  dress  a  sweeter  sod 
Than  Fancy's  feet  have  ever  trod. 

By  fairy  hands  their  knell  is  rung; 
By  forms  unseen  their  dirge  is  sung; 
There  Honor  comes,  a  pilgrim  gray, 
To  bless  the  turf  that  wraps  their  clay; 
And    Freedom    shall   awhile   repair, 
To  dwell  a  weeping  hermit  there. 

—  William  Collins. 

The  great  Civil  War  was  remarkable  for  the  inventive  mechanical 
genius  and  the  resolute  daring  shown  by  the  combatants.  This  was 
especially  true  of  the  navy.  The  torpedo  boat  managed  by  W.  B. 
Cushing  against  the  Confederate  ram,  Albemarle,  was  an  open  launch, 
with  a  spar  rigged  out  in  front,  the  torpedo  being  placed  at  the  end. 
The  crew  consisted  of  fifteen  men.  Cushing  not  only  guided  his  craft, 
but  himself  handled  the  torpedo  by  means  of  two  small  ropes,  one  of 
which  put  it  in  place,  while  the  other  exploded  it.  Cushing  possessed 
reckless  courage,  presence  of  mind,  and  high  ability.  On  the  night  of 
October  2,7,  1864,  ne  left  the  Federal  fleet,  steamed  a  dozen  miles  up 
river,  where  the  great  ram  lay  under  the  guns  of  the  fort,  with  a  regi- 
ment of  guns  to  defend  her.  He  was  almost  upon  her  before  he  was 
discovered.  The  rifle  balls  were  singing  about  him,  and  he  heard  the 
noise  of  the  great  guns  as  they  got  ready.    Still  erect  in  his  little  craft, 


he  brought  the  torpedo  full  against  the  side  of  the  huge  ram  and  ex- 
ploded it  just  as  the  pivot  gun  of  the  ram  was  fired  at  him  not  ten  yards 
off.  At  once  the  ram  settled,  the  launch  sinking  at  the  same  time, 
while  Cushing  and  his  men  swam  for  their  lives. —  Adapted  from  Theo- 
dore Roosevelt. 

Tears  for  the  slave,  when  Nature's  gift 

Of  all  that  man  can  be 
Wastes,  like  the  scattered  spars  that  drift 

Upon  the  unknown  sea. 
Tears  when  the  craven  sinks  at  last, 

No  deed  of  valor  done; 
But  no  tears  for  the  soul  that  passed 

When  Honor's  fight  was  won. 

He  takes  the  hand  of  heavenly  fate 

Who  lives  and  dies  for  truth. 
For  him  the  holy  angels  wait, 

In  realms  of  endless  youth. 
The  grass  upon  his  grave  is  green 

With  everlasting  bloom; 
And  love  and  glory  make  the  sheen 

Of  glory  round  his  tomb. 

—  William  Winter. 

The  American  Republic  was  established  by  the  united  valor  and 
wisdom  of  the  lovers  of  liberty  from  all  lands.  The  Frenchman,  with 
his  gay  disregard  of  danger,  the  German  with  his  steady  courage,  the 
Pole  with  his  high  enthusiasm,  and  the  Irishman  with  all  these  quali- 
ties combined,  were  here  in  the  long  and  bloody  struggle  for  inde- 
pendence. Lafayette,  the  beloved  of  Washington;  Hamilton,  who  rode 
by  his  side,  and  assisted  to  organize  the  government;  Pulaski,  Mont- 
gomery, Steuben,  all  were  born  under  alien  skies,  and  came  to  the  ban- 
quet of  battle  and  of  death  because  of  their  love  for  human  freedom. 
At  every  subsequent  period  of  American  history  the  foreign-born  citi- 
zen, in  council  and  in  the  field,  has  been  faithful  to  the  common  cause 
of  liberty. —  Daniel  IV.  Voorhees. 



Eight  volunteers!  on  an  errand  of  death! 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 
Eight  men  to  go  where  the  cannon's  hot  breath 

Burns  black  the  cheeks. 
Eight  men  to  man  the  old  Merrimac's  hulk; 
Eight  men  to  sink  the  old  steamer's  black  bulk, 
Blockade  the  channel  where  Spanish  ships  skulk  — 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 

"Eight  volunteers!"  said  the  Admiral's  flags! 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 
Who  will  sail  under  El  Morro's  black  crags  — 

Sure  death  he  seeks? 
Who  is  there  willing  to  offer  his  life? 
Willing  to  march  to  this  music  of  strife  — 
Cannon  for  drum  and  torpedo  for  fife? 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 

Eight  volunteers!  on  an  errand  of  death! 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 
Was  there  a  man  who  in  fear  held  his  breath? 

With   fear-paled   cheeks? 
From  ev'ry  warship  ascended  a  cheer! 
From  ev'ry  sailor's  lips  burst  the  word  "Here!" 
Four  thousand  heroes  their  lives  volunteer! 

Eight  men!     Who  speaks? 

—  Lansing  C.  Bailey. 

In  the  midst  of  other  cares,  however  important,  we  must  not  lose 
sight  of  the  fact  that  the  war  power  is  still  our  main  reliance.  Our 
chiefest  care  must  still  be  directed  to  the  army  and  navy,  who  have 
thus  far  borne  their  harder  part  so  nobly  and  well.  And  it  may  be 
esteemed  fortunate  that,  in  giving  the  greatest  efficiency  to  these  indrs- 
pensable  arms,  we  do  also  honorably  recognize  the  gallant  men,  from 
commander  to  sentinel,  who  compose  them,  and  to  whom,  more  than 
to  others,  the  world  must  stand  indebted  for  the  home  of  freedom, 
disenthralled,  regenerated,  enlarged,  and  perpetuated. —  Abraham  Lin- 



The  heart  so  leal  and  the  hand  of  steel 

Are  palsied  aye  for  strife, 
But  the  noble  deed,  and  the  patriot's  meed 

Are  left  of  the  soldier's  life. 

The  bugle  call  and  the  battle  ball 

Again  shall  rouse  him  never; 
He  fought  and  fell,  he  served  us  well; 

His  furlough  lasts  forever. 

—  Samuel  P.  Merrill. 

"  We  bring,  O  brothers  of  the  North,  the  message  of  fellowship 
and  love.  This  message  comes  from  consecrated  ground.  All  around 
my  native  home  are  the  hills  down  which  the  gray  flag  fluttered  to 
defeat,  and  through  which  the  American  soldiers  from  both  sides 
charged  like  demi-gods.  I  could  not  bring  a  false  message  from  those 
old  hills,  witnesses  to-day,  in  their  peace  and  tranquility,  of  the  imper- 
ishable union  of  the  American  States,  and  the  indestructible  brother- 
hood of  the  American  people." — Henry  W.  Grady,  in  New  York. 

At  Gettysburg,  the  world  witnessed  a  battle-field  disfigured  by  no 
littleness  and  spoiled  by  no  treachery.  So  long  as  the  world  lasts  men 
will  differ  about  the  best  strategy  in  war,  and  concerning  the  wisdom 
of  commanders  and  the  quality  of  their  generalship.  But  no  criticism, 
however  clever,  can  at  all  belittle  the  supreme  glory  of  this  day  and 
field.  Here  the  world  saw  a  great  army  confronted  with  a  great  crisis, 
and  dealing  with  it  in  a  great  way.  Here  all  lesser  jealousies  and  rival- 
ries disappeared  in  the  one  supreme  rivalry  how  each  one  should  best 
serve  his  country,  and,  if  need  be,  die  for  her. —  Henry  C.  Potter. 

To  be  cold  and  breathless,  to  feel  not  and  speak  not;  this  is  not 
the  end  of  existence  to  the  men  who  have  breathed  their  spirits  into 
the  institutions  of  their  country,  who  have  stamped  their  characters 
on  the  pillars  of  the  age,  who  have  poured  their  heart's  blood  into 
the  channels  of  the  public  prosperity.  Tell  me,  ye  who  tread  the  sods 
of  yon  sacred  height,  is  Warren  dead?  Can  you  not  still  see  him,  not 
pale  and  prostrate,  the  blood  of  his  gallant  heart  pouring  out  of  his 



ghastly  wound,  but  moving  resplendent  over  the  field  of  honor,  with 
the  rose  of  heaven  upon  his  cheek,  and  the  fire  of  liberty  in  his  eye? 
Tell  me,  ye  who  make  your  pious  pilgrimage  to  the  shades  of  Vernon, 
is  Washington  indeed  shut  up  in  that  cold  and  narrow  house?  That 
which  made  these  men,  and  men  like  these,  cannot  die.  The  hand  that 
traced  the  charter  of  independence  is,  indeed,  motionless;  the  eloquent 
lips  that  sustained  it  are  hushed;  but  the  lofty  spirits  that  conceived, 
resolved,  and  maintained  it,  and  which  alone,  to  such  men  "  make  it 
life  to  live,"  these  cannot  expire: 

These  shall  resist  the  empire  of  decay, 
When  time  is  o'er,  and  worlds  have  passed  away; 
Ccld  in  the  dust  the  perished  heart  may  lie, 
But  that  which  warmed  it  once  can  never  die. 

—  Edward  Everett. 

Whiter,  for  the  fires  that  strove  to  blacken  and  blast  its  fame; 
purer,  for  the  blood  that  watered  its  base;  stronger,  for  the  tramp  of 
armed  men  around  its  assaulted  portals, —  we,  now  and  here,  rejoice 
in  the  rescued  temple  of  our  liberties.  The  credit  and  glory  of  the 
undesecrated  walls  of  that  temple  and  of  its  unmoved  foundations  are 
due  to  the  work  and  hardships  of  the  American  soldier.  It  was  their 
service  which  made  us  to-day  fellow-citizens  enjoying  the  same  rights, 
the  same  chances,  the  same  incalculable  career,  whether  we  hail  from 
the  East  or  from  the  West,  from  the  North  or  from  the  South.  Honor 
then  to  the  American  soldier  now  and  ever!  Honor  him  in  sermon  and 
speech!  Honor  him  in  sonnet,  stanza,  and  epic!  Honor  him  in  the 
unwasting  forms  by  which  art  seeks  to  prolong  his  well-earned  fame! 
Honor  the  volunteer  soldier,  who,  when  his  work  of  devastation  and 
death  was  ended,  put  aside  his  armor,  melting  into  the  sea  of  citizen- 
ship, making  no  ripple  of  disturbance  upon  its  surface!  Honor  the 
citizen  soldier  of  America,  who  never  knew  the  feeling  of  vindictiveness 
or  revenge !  —  John  L.  Swift. 

To-day  the  nation  looks  back  and  thanks  God  that,  in  a  great 
crisis,  the  children  whom  it  had  nurtured  in  peace  and  prosperity  sud- 
denly showed  the  stuff  of  heroes;  they  were  not  afraid  to  dare  and  to 


die  when  the  bugle  rang  clear  across  the  quiet  fields.  Whenever  and 
however  duty  called,  they  answered  with  their  lives.  Let  the  nation 
thank  God  that  it  still  breeds  the  men  who  make  life  great  by  service 
and  sacrifice;  that  time  and  work  and  pleasure  anc,  wealth  have  not 
sapped  the  sources  of  its  inward  strength;  that  it  still  knows  how  to 
dare  all  and  do  all  in  that  hour  when  manhood  alone  counts  and 
achieves. —  The  Outlook. 

On  a  beautiful  May  Day  more  than  thirty  years  ago,  there  gath- 
ered beneath  the  overhanging  boughs  of  a  fruit-bearing  tree,  beside  an 
open  grave,  the  friends  and  kinsmen  of  one  who,  though  a  mere  boy, 
had  smelled  the  smoke  of  battle,  felt  the  sting  of  rebel  lead  and  won 
for  himself  the  golden  crown  of  martyrdom  in  the  military  service  of 
his  country.  There  were  also  gathered  there  a  few  of  his  old  compan- 
ions in  arms  —  bronzed  veterans  —  survivors  of  the  dreadful  carnage 
at  Malvern  Hill  and  the  awful  slaughter  of  Gettysburg,  who  had  come 
to  drop  a  tear  at  a  comrade's  grave  and  breathe  a  prayer  for  the  safety 
of  his  soul.  Just  as  the  solemn  rites  of  burial  were  over  and  the  last 
shovelful  of  earth  had  been  heaped  upon  his  last  resting-place,  God's 
breath  shook  the  overhanging  boughs  and  sweet  and  beautiful  apple 
blossoms  came  gently  down  and  decorated  that  young  hero's  grave; 
and  ever  since,  when  the  pleasant  days  and  fragrant  flowers  of  spring 
come,  the  loyal  people  of  this  country  gladly  follow  the  example  Heaven 
so  graciously  set  and  see  to  it  that  no  veteran's  grave  is  neglected. — 
From  a  Memorial  Day  address  of  Col.  Anson  S.  Wood,  Commander 
Department  of  New  York,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 

Look  to  your  history,  —  that  part  of  it  which  the  world  knows  by 
heart,  and  you  will  find  on  its  brightest  page  the  glorious  achieve- 
ments of  the  American  sailor.  Whatever  his  country  has  done  to  dis- 
grace him  and  break  his  spirit,  he  has  never  disgraced  her.  Man  for 
man,  he  asks  no  odds  and  he  cares  for  no  odds  when  the  cause  of 
humanity  or  the  glory  of  his  country  calls  him  to  the  fight. 

Who,  in  the  darkest  days  of  our  Revolution,  carried  your  flag  into 
the  very  chops  of  the  British  Channel,  bearded  the  lion  in  his  den,  and 
awoke  the  echo  of  old  Albion's  hills  by  the  thunder  of  his  cannon,  and. 


the  shouts  of  his  triumph?  It  was  the  American  sailor;  and  the  names 
of  John  Paul  Jones  and  the  Bon  Homme  Richard  will  go  down  the 
annals  of  time  forever. 

Who  struck  the  first  blow  that  humbled  the  Barbary  flag,  —  which, 
for  a  hundred  years,  had  been  the  terror  of  Christendom,  —  drove  it 
from  the  Mediterranean,  and  put  an  end  to  the  infamous  tribute  it  had 
been  accustomed  to  exact?  It  was  the  American  sailor;  and  the  names 
of  Decatur  and  his  gallant  companions  will  be  as  lasting  as  monumental 

In  your  War  of  1812,  when  your  arms  on  shore  were  covered  by 
disaster,  when  Winchester  had  been  defeated,  when  the  army  of  the 
Northwest  had  surrendered,  and  when  the  gloom  of  despondency  hung 
like  a  cloud  over  the  land,  who  first  relit  the  fires  of  national  glory, 
and  made  the  welkin  ring  with  the  shouts  of  victory?  It  was  the  Ameri- 
can sailor;  and  the  names  of  Hull  and  the  "  Constitution  "  will  be  re- 
membered as  long  as  we  have  a  country  to  love. 

That  one  event  was  worth  more  to  the  Republic  than  all  the  money 
which  has  ever  been  expended  for  a  navy.  Since  that  day  the  navy  has 
had  no  stain  upon  its  national  escutcheon,  but  has  been  cherished  as 
your  pride  and  glory;  and  the  American  sailor  has  established  a  reputa- 
tion throughout  the  world,  in  peace  and  in  war,  in  storm  and  in  battle, 
for  a  heroism  and  prowess  unsurpassed. — Commodore  Stockton,  from 
speech  against  whipping  in  the  navy. 



The  first  great  fight  of  the  war  is  fought! 

And  who  is  the  victor, —  say, — 
Is  there  aught  of  the  lesson  now  left  untaught 

By  the  fight  of  Manila  Bay? 

Two  by  two  were  the  Spanish  ships 

Formed  in  their  battle  line; 
Their  flags  at  the  taffrail  peak  and  fore, 
And  batteries  ready  upon  the  shore, 

Silently  biding  their  time. 

Into  their  presence  sailed  our  fleet, — 

The  harbor  was  fully  mined, — 
With  shotted  guns  and  open  ports 
Up  to  their  ships, —  ay, —  up  to  their  forts; 

For  Dewey  is  danger  blind. 

Signalled  the  flagship,  "  Open  fire," 
And  the  guns  belched  forth  their  death. 

"At  closer  range,"  was  the  order  shown; 

Then  each  ship  sprang  to  claim  her  own, 
And  to  lick  her  fiery  breath. 

Served  were   our  squadron's  heavy  guns 

With  gunners  stripped  to  the  waist, 
And  the  blinding,  swirling,  sulph'rous  smoke 
Enveloped  the  ships,  as  each  gun  spoke, 
In  its  furious,  fearful  haste. 

Sunk  and  destroyed  were  the  Spanish  ships, 

Hulled  by  our  heavy  shot, 
For  the  Yankee  spirit  is  just  the  same, 
And  the  Yankee  grit,  and  the  Yankee  aim, 

And  their  courage,  which  faileth  not. 

—  H.  E.  IV.,  h 


W.  K.  W. 




i.  Re  -  mem-bered,    re   -  mem  -  bered,  re  -  mem   -   bered        are  the}-,  Who   for 

2.  Re  -  mem  -  bered,    re  -   mem-bered,  re  -  mem   -  bered        for  aye  Is     the 








love     of      the       na  -  tion 
band    of      our       he  -  roes 

their      lives         gave      a     -      way;  For  theirdeedsshinefor - 

who        lin      -      ger       to    -    day;  For  though  halt- ing    their 




love     of      our      coun  -  try, 



tion'sdear       life ! 

For  the  Northland    and 

-9-      V- 




ev   -    er  in     mem  -  o  -  ry's         light, 

foot -steps,     and     fail-  ing  their        sight, 

And  their chil -dren  sing       ev  -    er,      "They 
Yet  their  chil  -dren  sing       ev  -    er,      "You 




*   tf 


South-land       are     one     in     their        might,  And  their  chil -dren  sing       ev  -   er,      "We'll 





-=i— u- 


-*— *- 


j-r-j \- 

-i 1 ^- 





fought   a    good  fight!"      And  their  chil-dren    sing     ev  -    er,     "They  fought  a     good  fight!" 
fought  a    good  fight!"      Yet  their  chil-dren    sing     ev  -    er,     "You     fought  a    good  fight!" 








«-*-  -  * 



fight   the   good  fight!"      And  their  chil-dren    sing     ev  -    er,     "We'll    fight  the  good  fight!" 

r;        I         1  = 


-V \- 












(February  22,  1732). 

Selections Song,  Ode  for  Washington's  Birthday. 

Selections Song,  God  Speed  the  Right. 

16  (241) 


iHE   twenty-second   of  February  —  the   day   on   which   George 
Washington  was  born  (1732)  is  a  national  holiday.       When 
it  comes  on  any  one  of  the  five  school-days  of  the  week, 
the    children    are    freed    from    their    books,    and    may    stay 
at  home  or  spend  the  time  as  they  please.       But  in  some 
schools  the  pupils  are    called    together,    their    parents    and    friends 
invited  in,  and  a  patriotic  exercise  is  given  in  which  the  character  and 
career  of  Washington  and  the  stormy  yet  glorious  days  of  the  Ameri- 
can Revolution  are  made  the  subject  of  song,  composition,  and  the 
"  speaking  of  pieces."     This  is  better  far   than  for  children  to  be  idle 
at  home  or  roaming  the  streets,  —  and  it  is  greatly  to  be  wished  that 
the  custom  of  the  few  schools  become  the  custom  of  all.    But  until  that 
sensible  plan  is  adopted,  the  next  best  thing  seems  to  be  to  devote  an 
hour  or  more  of  the  previous  day's  session  to  the  exercise.     Now,  it  is 
clear  to  see  that  the  pupils  of  any  particular  school  will  appreciate  such 
an  exercise  just  in  proportion  to  their  knowledge  of  the  man  and  the 
times.     If,  then,  the  scholars  are  old  enough  and  their  historical  study 
or  reading  has  been  wide  enough,  let  the  program  be  correspondingly 
strong;  if  not,  let  the  teacher  take  pains  to  explain  and  inform,  infusing 
as  much  of  the  historical  as  possible  under  the  guise  of  the  romantic  — 
so  making  appeal  to  the  imagination  and  that  sense  of  admiration  for 
adventure  and  bravery  innate  in  the  minds  of  children.     A  long  pro- 
gram is  herewith  given,  with  the  thought  of  choice  among  the  selec- 
tions, if  the  time  is  very  brief. 




Oh,  Washington!  thou  hero,  patriot,  sage, 
Friend  of  all  climes  and  pride  of  every  age! 

—  Thomas  Paine. 

Washington  is  the  mightiest  name  of  earth. —  Abraliam  Lincoln. 

One  of  the  greatest  captains  of  the  age. —  Benjamin  Franklin. 

The  voice  of  mankind  shall  ascend  in  acclaim, 

And  the  watchword  of  nations  be  Washington's  name. 

—  James   G.   Brooks. 

Washington  is  to  my  mind  the  purest  figure  in  history. —  IVilliam  Ewart  Glad- 

Of  all  great  men  he  was  the  most  virtuous  and  most  fortunate. —  Guizot. 

Columbia's  darling  son, 
The   good,    the   great,   the   matchless    Washington. 

—  IVilliam  Leggett. 

Washington  —  the  greatest  man  of  our  own  or  of  any  age. —  Edward  Everett. 

He  was  invested  with  a  glory  that  shed  a  lustre  on  all  around  him. —  Archbishop 
John  Carroll. 

Washington  hath  left 
His  awful   memory 
A    light    for    after    times. 

—  Robert  Southcy. 

Washington  —  the  ideal  type  of  civic  virtue  to  succeeding  generations. —  James 

The  greatest  man  of  modern  times. —  Sir  Henry  Grattan. 

The  mighty  name  of  Washington 
Is  the  grand  synonym  of  all  we  prize 
Of   great   and    good    in   this    wide    western    world. 

—  Christopher  P.  Cranch. 

No  nobler  figure  ever  stood  in  the  forefront  of  a  nation's  life. —  John  Richard 

In  this  world  the  seal  is  now  put  on  his  greatness. —  Alexander  Hamilton. 

Freedom's  first  and  favorite  son  — 
He    whose   patriotic   valor   universal    homage    won  — 
He   who   gave  the  world  the   Union  —  the   immortal  Washington! 

—  Francis  DeHass  Janvier. 

He  had  every  title  at  command,  but  his  first  victory  was  over  himself. —  Gonver- 
ncur  Morris. 

The  want  of  the  age  is  an  European  Washington. —  Lamartine. 

The  grandest,  purest,  best, 

Of   heroes,    earth   has   known, 
That  man  who  for  his  country's  sake, 
Spurned  from  him  crown  and  throne. 

—  C.   G.  Rosenburg. 

First  in  war,  first  in  peace,  first  in  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen. —  Henry  Lee. 

I  am  not  surprised  at  what  George  has  done,  for  he  was  always  a  good  boy. — 
Mary  Washington,  his  mother. 

For    truth    and    wisdom,    foremost    of    the    brave; 

Him  glory's  idle   glances  dazzled  not; 

Twas  his  ambition,   generous  and  great, 
A  life  to  life's  great  end  to  consecrate. 

—  Percy  Bysshe  Shelley. 

A  pure  and  high-minded  gentleman,  of  dauntless  courage  and  stainless  honor, 
simple  and  stately  of  manner,  kind  and  generous  of  heart. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

Here  indeed  is  a  character  to  admire  and  revere;  a  life  without  a  stain,  a  fame 
without  a  flaw. —  William  Makepeace  Thackeray. 

His  work  well  done,  the  leader  stepped  aside, 
Spurning   a   crown    with    more    than   kingly    pride, 
Content  to  wear  the  higher  crown  of  worth, 
While  time   endures,   "  First  Citizen  of  Earth." 

—  James  J.  Roche. 

George  Washington  —  the  highest  human  personification  of  justice  and  benevo- 
lence.—  William  H.  Seward. 



He  was  great  as  he  was  good;  he  was  great  because  he  was  good. —  Edward 

The  good,  the  brave, 
Whose  mighty  dust  in  glory  sleeps, 
Where  broad  Potomac  swells  and  sweeps, 
And    mourns    and    murmurs    past    his    grave. 

—  Abraham  Coles. 

The  universal  consent  of  mankind  accords  to  Washington  the  highest  place 
among   the  great  men  of  the  race. —  George  F.  Hoar. 

Among  a  world  of  dreamers  he  was  the  only  one  whose  vision  in  the  slightest 
degree  approached  the  great  realities  of  the  future.—  Edward  Everett  Hale. 

He  lives,  ever  lives  in  the  hearts  of  the  free, 
The  wings  of  his  fame  spread  across  the  broad  sea; 
He  lives  where  the  banner  of  freedom  's  unfurled, 
The  pride  of  his  country,  the  wealth  of  the  world. 

—  Alfred  Tennyson. 

His  example  is  complete;  and  it  will  teach  wisdom  and  virtue  to  magistrates, 
citizens  and  men,  not  only  in  the  present  age  but  in  future  generations.—  John 

Washington  — a  fixed  star  in  the  firmament  of  great  names,  shining  without 
twinkling  or  obscuration,  with  clear,  steady,  beneficent  light.—  Daniel  Webster. 

*      *      *      though  often  told, 
The  story  of  thy  deeds  can  ne'er  grow  old, 
Till  no  young  breast  remains  to  be  inspired, 
And  virtue,  valor,   greatness  have   expired. 

—  Hannah   Gould. 

The  fame  of  Washington  stands  apart  from  every  other  in  history,  shining 
with  a  truer  lustre  and  more  benignant  glory. —  Washington  Irving. 

His  memory  will  be  cherished  by  the  wise  and  good  of  every  nation,  and  truth 
will  transmit  his  character  to  posterity  in  all  its  genuine  lustre. —  John  Jay. 

Shortest  month  of  all.  we  greet  thee; 

Bring  us  clouds  or  bring  us  sun, 
Surely  all  will  bid  thee  welcome, 

Month  that   gave   us   Washington! 

—  Emma  C.  Dowd. 


When  the  storm  of  battle  blows  darkest  and  rages  highest,  the  memory  of 
Washington  shall  nerve  every  American  arm  and  cheer  every  American  breast.- 
Rufus  Choate. 

The  anniversary  of  his  birthday  does  not  come  round  too  often  for  us  to 
devote  some  hour  of  it,  whenever  it  returns,  to  meditation  upon  him  and  to  grati- 
tude for  his  spirit  and  his  work.—  Thomas  Starr  King. 

Virginia  gave  us  this  imperial  man, 

Cast  in  the   massive   mold 

Of  those  high-statured  ages  old 
Which  into  grander  forms   our  metal  ran; 
She   gave   us   this   unblemished   gentleman. 

—  James  Russell  Lowell. 

The  more  clearly  Washington's  teaching  and  example  are  understood,  the 
more  faithfully  they  are  followed,  the  purer,  the  stronger,  the  more  glorious'  will 
this  Republic  become.—  Carl  Schurz. 

Sincerely  honoring  him,  we  cannot  become  indifferent  to  those  great  principles 
of  human  freedom,  consecrated  by  his  life,  and  by  the  solemn  act  of  his  last  will 
and  testament.—  Charles  Sumner. 

For  tho'  the  years  their  golden  round 
O'er  all  the  lavish  region  roll, 
And  realm  on  realm,  from  pole  to  pole, 

In  one  beneath  thy  Stars  be  bound, 

The  far-off  centuries  as  they  flow, 

No  whiter  name  than  this  shall  know! 

—  Francis  T.  Palgrave. 

The  filial  love  of  Washington  for  his  mother  is  an  attribute  of  American  man- 
hood, a  badge  which  invites  our  trust  and  confidence  and  an  indispensable  element 
of  American  greatness.—  Grover  Cleveland    (adapted). 

The  majesty  of  that  life  —  whether  told  in  the  pages  of  Marshall  or  Spark?,  of 
Irving  or  Bancroft,  or  through  the  eloquent  utterances  of  Webster,  or  Everett,  or 
Winthrop,  or  the  matchless  poetry  of  Lowell,  or  the  verse  of  Byron  —  never  grows 
old.—  Melville  Fuller,  'Chief  Justice  United  States  Supreme  Court. 




Washington  was  the  only  man  in  the  United  States  who  pos- 
sessed the  confidence  of  all.  There  was  no  other  man  who  was  con- 
sidered as  anything  more  than  a  party  leader.  The  whole  of  his 
character  was  in  its  mass  perfect,  in  nothing  bad,  in  a  few  points  indif- 
ferent. And  it  may  be  truly  said  that  never  did  nature  and  fortune 
combine  more  perfectly  to  make  a  man  great,  and  to  place  him  in  the 
same  constellation  with  whatever  worthies  have  merited  from  man  an 
everlasting  remembrance. —  Thomas  Jefferson. 

If  we  look  over  the  catalogue  of  the  first  magistrates  of  nations, 
whether  they  have  been  denominated  Presidents,  or  Consuls,  Kings  or 
Princes,  where  shall  we  find  one  whose  commanding  talents  and  vir- 
tues, whose  overruling  good  fortune,  have  so  completely  united  all 
hearts  and  voices  in  his  favor?  who  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  admiration 
of  foreign  nations,  and  fellow-citizens,  with  equal  unanimity?  Quali- 
ties so  uncommon  are  no  common  blessing  to  the  country  that  pos- 
sesses them.  By  these  great  qualities,  and  their  benign  effects,  has 
Providence  marked  out  the  head  of  this  nation,  with  a  hand  so  dis- 
tinctly visible  as  to  have  been  seen  by  all  men,  and  mistaken  by  none. — 
John  Adams. 

In  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  when  it  was  thought  the  cause  was 
lost,  men  became  inspired  at  the  very  mention  of  the  name  of  George 
Washington.  In  1812,  when  we  succeeded  once  more  against  the 
mother  country,  men  were  looking  for  a  hero,  and  there  arose  before 
them  that  rugged,  grim,  independent  old  hero,  Andrew  Jackson.  In 
the  last,  and  greatest  of  all  wars,  an  independent  and  tender-hearted 
man  was  raised  up  by  Providence  to  guide  the  helm  of  state  through 
that  great  crisis,  and  men  confidingly  placed  the  destinies  of  this 
great  land  in  the  hands  of  Abraham  Lincoln.  In  the  annals  of  our 
country,  we  find  no  man  whose  training  had  been  so  peaceful,  whose 
heart  was  so  gentle,  whose  nature  was  so  tender,  and  yet    who  was 


called  upon  to  marshal  the  hosts  of  the  masses  of  the  people  during 
four  years  of  remorseless  and  bloody  and  unrelenting-  fratricidal  war.— 
Horace  Porter. 

Nor  must  it  be  supposed  that  Washington  owed  his  greatness 
to  the  peculiar  crisis  which  called  out  his  virtues.  His  more  than 
Roman  virtues,  his  consummate  prudence,  his  powerful  intellect,  and 
his  dauntless  decision  and  dignity  of  character,  would  have  made  him 
illustrious  in  any  age.  The  crisis  would  have  done  nothing  for  him, 
had  not  his  character  stood  ready  to  match  it.  Acquire  his  character,' 
and  fear  not  the  recurrence  of  a  crisis  to  show  forth  its  glory  —  William 

The  name  of  Washington  is  intimately  blended  with  whatever 
belongs  most  essentially  to  the  prosperity,  the  liberty,  the  free  insti- 
tutions, and  the  renown  of  our  country.  That  name  was  of  power  to 
rally  a  nation,  in  the  hour  of  thick-thronging  public  disasters  and 
calamities;  that  name  shone,  amid  the  storm  of  war,  a  beacon  light 
to  cheer  and  guide  the  country's  friends;  it  flamed,  too,  like  a  meteor 
to  repel  her  foes.  That  name,  in  the  days  of  peace,  was  a  loadstone, 
attracting  to  itself  a  whole  people's  confidence,  a  whole  people's  love, 
and  the  whole  world's  respect;  that  name,  descending  with  all  time, 
spreading  over  the  whole  earth,  and  uttered  in  all  the  languages  belong- 
ing to  the  tribes  and  races  of  men,  will  forever  be  pronounced  with 
affectionate  gratitude  by  every  one,  in  whose  breast  there  shall  arise 
an  aspiration  for  human  rights  and  human  liberty.—  Daniel  Webster. 

It  is  the  peculiar  good  fortune  of  this  country  to  have  given 
birth  to  a  citizen  whose  name  everywhere  produces  a  sentiment  of 
regard  for  his  country  itself.  In  other  countries,  whenever  and 
wherever  this  is  spoken  of  to  be  praised,  and  with  the  highest  praise, 
it  is  called  the  country  of  Washington.  Half  a  century  and  more  has 
now  passed  away  since  he  came  upon  the  stage  and  his  fame  first 
broke  upon  the  world;  for  it  broke  like  the  blaze  of  day  from  the  rising 
sun,  almost  as  sudden  and  seemingly  as  universal.  The  eventful  period 
since  that  era  has  teemed  with  great  men,  who  have  crossed  the  scene 
and  passed  off.     Some  of  them  have  arrested  great  attention.     Still 


Washington  retains  his  pre-eminent  place  in  the  minds  of  men,  still 
his  peerless  name  is  cherished  by  them  in  the  same  freshness  of  delight 
as  in  the  morn  of  its  glory. —  AsJwr  Robbins. 

Washington  served  us  chiefly  by  his  sublime  moral  qualities.  To 
him  belonged  the  proud  distinction  of  being  the  leader  in  a  revolution, 
without  awakening  one  doubt  or  solicitude  as  to  the  spotless  purity 
of  his  purpose.  His  was  the  glory  of  being  the  brightest  manifestation 
of  the  spirit  which  reigned  in  this  country,  and  in  this  way  he  became 
a  source  of  energy,  a  bond  of  union,  the  center  of  an  enlightened 
people's  confidence. 

By  an  instinct  which  is  unerring,  we  call  Washington,  with 
grateful  reverence,  The  Father  of  His  Country,  but  not  its 
saviour.  A  people  which  wants  a  saviour,  which  does  not  possess 
an  earnest  and  pledge  of  freedom  in  its  own  heart,  is  not  yet  ready  to 
be  free. —  William  E.  Charming. 

Jefferson  said  of  Washington:  "  His  integrity  was  the  most  pure, 
his  justice  the  most  inflexible  I  have  ever  known,  no  motives  of  inter- 
est, or  consanguinity,  or  hatred  being  able  to  bias  his  decision.  He 
was,  in  every  sense  of  the  words,  a  wise,  a  good,  and  a  great  man." 

As  the  ocean  washes  every  shore,  and,  with  all-embracing  arms, 
clasps  every  land,  while  on  its  heaving  bosom  it  bears  the  products 
of  various  climes,  so  peace  surrounds,  protects  and  upholds  all  other 
blessings.  Without  it,  commerce  is  vain,  the  ardor  of  industry  is 
restrained,  justice  is  arrested,  happiness  is  blasted,  virtue  sickens  and 
dies.  And  peace  has  its  own  peculiar  victories,  in  comparison  with 
which  Marathon  and  Bannockburn  and  Bunker  Hill,  fields  sacred  in 
the  history  of  human  freedom,  shall  lose  their  lustre.  Our  own  Wash- 
ington rises  to  a  truly  heavenly  stature,  not  when  we  follow  him  over 
the  ice  of  the  Delaware  to  the  capture  of  Trenton,  not  when  we  behold 
him  victorious  over  Cornwallis  at  Yorktown,  but  when  we  regard  him, 
in  noble  deference  to  justice,  refusing  the  kingly  crown  which  a  faith- 
less soldiery  proffered,  and,  at  a  later  day,  upholding  the  peaceful  neu- 
trality of  the  country  while  he  received  unmoved  the  clamor  of  the 
people  wickedly  crying  for  war. —  Charles  Sumner. 


I  see  in  Washington  a  great  soldier  who  fought  a  trying  war  to 
a  successful  end,  impossible  without  him;  a  great  statesman,  who  did 
more  than  all  other  men  to  lay  the  foundations  of  a  republic  which  has 
endured  in  prosperity  for  more  than  a  century.  I  find  in  him  a  marvel- 
lous judgment  which  was  never  at  fault,  a  penetrating  vision  which 
beheld  the  future  of  America  when  it  was  dim  to  other  eyes,  a  great 
intellectual  force,  a  will  of  iron,  an  unyielding  grasp  of  facts,  and  an 
unequalled  strength  of  patriotic  purpose.  I  see  in  him,  too,  a  pure 
and  high-minded  gentleman  of  dauntless  courage  and  stainless  honor, 
simple  and  stately  of  manner,  kind  and  generous  of  heart.  Such  he 
was  in  truth.  The  historian  and  the  biographer  may  fail  to  do  him 
justice,  but  the  instinct  of  mankind  will  not  fail.  The  real  hero  needs 
not  books  to  give  him  worshipers.  George  Washington  will  always 
receive  the  love  and  reverence  of  men,  because  they  see  embodied  in 
him  the  noblest  possibilities  of  humanity. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

To  us,  citizens  of  America,  it  belongs,  above  all  others,  to  show 
respect  to  the  memory  of  Washington,  by  the  practical  deference  which 
we  pay  to  those  sober  maxims  of  public  policy  which  he  has  left  us, — 
a  last  testament  of  affection  in  his  Farewell  Address.  Of  all  the  exhor- 
tations which  it  contains,  I  scarce  need  say  to  you  that  none  are  so 
emphatically  uttered,  none  so  anxiously  repeated,  as  those  that  enjoin 
the  preservation  of  the  union  of  these  states.  No  one  can  read  the 
Farewell  Address  without  feeling  that  this  was  the  thought,  and  this 
the  care  which  lay  nearest  and  heaviest  upon  that  noble  heart;  and  if, 
which  Heaven  forbid,  the  day  shall  ever  arrive  when  his  parting  coun- 
sels on  that  head  shall  be  forgotten,  on  that  day,  come  it  soon  or 
come  it  late,  it  may  as  mournfully  as  truly  be  said  that  "  Washington 
has  lived  in  vain."  Then  the  vessels,  as  they  ascend  and  descend  the 
Potomac,  may  toll  their  bells  with  new  significance  as  they  pass 
Mount  Vernon;  they  will  strike  the  requiem  of  constitutional  liberty 
for  us, —  for  all  nations. —  Edward  Everett,  Oration  on  Washington. 

A  great  and  venerated  character  like  that  of  Washington,  which 
commands  the  respect  of  an  entire  population,  however  divided  on 
other  questions,  is  not  an  isolated  fact  in  history  to  be  regarded  with 
barren  admiration;  it  is  a  dispensation  of  Providence  for  good. 



It  was  well  said  by  Mr.  Jefferson,  in  1792,  writing  to  Washington 
to  dissuade  him  from  declining  a  renomination:  "  North  and  South 
will  hang  together  while  they  have  you  to  hang  to." 

Washington  in  the  flesh  is  taken  from  us;  we  shall  never  behold 
him  as  our  Fathers  did;  but  his  memory  remains,  and  I  say,  let  us  hang 
to  his  memory.  Let  us  make  a  national  festival  and  holiday  of  his 
birthday;  and  ever,  as  the  22d  of  February  returns,  let  us  remember 
that,  while  with  these  solemn  and  joyous  rites  of  observance  we  cele- 
brate the  great  anniversary,  our  fellow-citizens  on  the  Hudson,  on  the 
Potomac,  from  the  Southern  plains  to  the  Western  lakes,  are  engaged 
in  the  same  offices  of  gratitude  and  love. —  Edzvard  Everett,  Oration  on 

We  are  met  to  celebrate  the  one  hundred  and  tenth  anniversary 
of  the  birthday  of  Washington. 

Washington  is  the  mightiest  name  on  earth,  long  since  mightiest 
in  the  cause  of  civil  liberty,  still  mightiest  in  moral  reformation. 

On  that  name  a  eulogy  is  expected.  It  cannot  be.  To  add  bright- 
ness to  the  sun  or  glory  to  the  name  of  Washington  is  alike  impos- 
sible.    Let  none  attempt  it. 

In  solemn  awe  pronounce  the  name,  and,  in  its  naked,  deathless 
splendor,  leave  it  shining  on. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 

If  Washington  had  one  passion  more  strong  than  any  other,  it 
was  love  of  country.  The  purity  and  ardor  of  his  patriotism  were 
commensurate  with  the  greatness  of  its  object.  Love  of  country  in 
him  was  invested  with  the  sacred  obligations  of  a  duty,  and  from  the 
faithful  discharge  of  this  duty  he  never  swerved  for  a  moment,  either 
in  thought  or  deed,  throughout  the  whole  period  of  his  eventful  career. 
—  J  area1  Sparks. 

It  has  been  said  Washington  was  not  a  great  soldier;  but  certainly 
he  created  an  army  out  of  the  roughest  materials,  outgeneralled  all 
that  Britain  could  send  against  him,  and,  in  the  midst  of  poverty  and 
distress,  organized  victory.  He  was  not  brilliant  and  rapid.  He  was 
slow,    defensive,    and   victorious.     He    made    "  an   empty    bag   stand 



upright,"  which,  Franklin  says,  is  "  hard."  Some  men  command  the 
world,  or  hold  its  admiration,  by  their  ideas  or  by  their  intellect.  Wash- 
ington had  neither  original  ideas  nor  a  deeply-cultured  mind.  He  com- 
manded by  his  integrity,  by  his  justice.  He  loved  power  by  instinct, 
and  strong  government  by  reflective  choice.  Twice  he  was  made 
Dictator,  with  absolute  power,  and  never  abused  the  awful  and  despotic 
trust.  The  monarchic  soldiers  and  civilians  would  make  him  king. 
He  trampled  on  their  offer,  and  went  back  to  his  fields  of  corn  and 
tobacco  at  Mount  Vernon.  The  grandest  act  of  his  public  life  was 
to  give  up  his  power;  the  most  magnanimous  deed  of  his  private  life 
was  to  liberate  his  slaves.  Cromwell  is  the  greatest  Anglo-Saxon  who 
was  ever  a  ruler  on  a  large  scale.  In  intellect  he  was  immensely 
superior  to  Washington;  in  integrity,  immeasurably  below  him.  For 
one  thousand  years  no  king  in  Christendom  has  shown  such  greatness, 
or  gives  us  so  high  a  type  of  manly  virtue.  He  never  dissembled.  He 
sought  nothing  for  himself.  In  him  there  was  no  unsound  spot, 
nothing  little  or  mean  in  his  character.  The  whole  was  clean  and 
presentable.  We  think  better  of  mankind  because  he  lived,  adorning 
the  earth  with  a  life  so  noble. —  Theodore  Parker. 

In  the  production  of  Washington  it  does  really  appear  as  if  Nature 
was  endeavoring  to  improve  upon  herself,  and  that  all  the  virtues  of 
the  ancient  world  were  but  so  many  studies  preparatory  to  the  patriot 
of  the  new.  Individual  instances,  no  doubt,  there  were:  splendid 
exemplifications  of  some  single  qualification.  Caesar  was  merciful, 
Scipio  was  continent,  Hannibal  was  patient;  but  it  was  reserved  for 
Washington  to  blend  them  all  in  one,  and,  like  the  lovely  masterpiece 
of  the  Grecian  artist,  to  exhibit  in  one  glow  of  associated  beauty  the 
pride  of  every  model  and  the  perfection  of  every  master.  As  a  gen- 
eral, he  marshalled  the  peasant  into  a  veteran  and  supplied  by  disci- 
pline the  absence  of  experience.  As  a  statesman  he  enlarged  the 
policy  of  the  cabinet  into  the  most  comprehensive  system  of  general 
advantage;  and  such  was  the  wisdom  of  his  views  and  the  philosophy 
of  his  counsels  that  to  the  soldier  and  the  statesman  he  almost  added 
the  character  of  the  sage.  A  conqueror,  he  was  untainted  with  the 
crime  of  blood;  a  revolutionist,  he  was  free  from  any  stain  of  treason, 


for  aggression  commenced  the  contest,  and  a  country  called  him  to  the 
command;  liberty  unsheathed  his  sword,  necessity  stained,  victory 
returned  it.  If  he  had  paused  here  history  might  doubt  what  station 
to  assign  him,  whether  at  the  head  of  her  citizens  or  her  soldiers,  her 
heroes  or  her  patriots.  But  the  last  glorious  act  crowned  his  career 
and  banishes  hesitation.  Who,  like  Washington,  after  having  freed 
a  country,  resigned  her  crown  and  retired  to  a  cottage  rather  than 
reign  in  a  capitol!  Immortal  man!  He  took  from  the  battle  its  crime, 
and  from  the  conquest  its  chains;  he  left  the  victorious  the  glory  of 
his  self-denial,  and  turned  upon  the  vanquished  only  the  retribution 
of  his  mercy.  Happy,  proud  America!  The  lightnings  of  heaven 
yielded  to  your  philosophy!  The  temptations  of  earth  could  not  seduce 
your  patriotism. —  Charles  Phillips. 


Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 

Ludwig  van  Beethoven. 
From  the  Ninth  or  Choral  Symphony. 






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to      the 
tale      of 
shad  -  ow 
em  -  pire's 
name  that 

we  whose 


1 — 0 — 


— 1 

*     - 


— * — 

re  - 

in  - 




di    - 
-  ta  - 
her  - 

— 0 — 

-  ing,     Dear  -  er 
ry,      While  of 
al        Marks  the 
tion !     Not    for 
it,         By      the 
gled     With  the 

_     -0-      -0- 

— 1 — n — 

— a e 

still     as 
hour    of 
him     an 
dis -cord 

— 1 

— *-i — 

a     - 
res   - 
dead  - 

r-m-i — 

~W~- — 

0 0— — =1 — 

g — J====d 

ges  flow; 

cued  band, 

lier  strife ; 

-  ly  crown ! 

re  -  call, 

of  shame, — 

— s — %~^z 


l        1 





=t — 

F F-1 — ~ — 

V  r--  - 


*      ^f        ^        *        -0-         •^        :J-    -S-. 

While   the     torch     of       faith      is      burn  -  ing,     Long      as  free  -  dom's     al 

Friend  and      foe       re    -   peat    the      sto    -  ry,     Spread  his  fame    o'er      sea 

Days      of       ter   -  ror,     years    of        tri    -    al,  Scourge    a  na  -    tion       in 

He    whose  sword  has     freed     a        na    -    tion    Strikes  the  of  -  fered  seep 

Cher  -   ish      the      fra    -    ter  -  nal      spir    -    it ;     Love    your  coun  -  try      first 

We,  whose  sires    their    blood  have    min  -  gled      In        the  bat  -  tie's     thun 






tars  glow ! 
and  land, 

to    life, 
tre  down. 

of    all! 
der  flame, — 


See     the      he  -  ro  whom    it 

Where  the     red  cross  fond  -  ly 

Lo,     the    youth  be  -  came    her 

See     the  throne-less  con  -    queror  seat  -  ed,      Rul 
Lis  -  ten      not     to         i     ■    die         ques-tions      If 


gave     us      Slumb'ring 
stream-ing,    Flaps     a     - 

lead  -  er!      All       her 

Gath-'ring  while  this        ho  -  ly  morn  -  ing     Lights  the 



on        a  moth-er's  breast, 

bove     the  frig- ate's  deck, 

baf  -  fled        ty  -  rants  yield  ; 

by        a  peo- pie's  choice; 

bands  may  be      un  -  tied; 

land  from  sea      to      sea, 


— 1— 





For     the  arm     he 

Where  the  gold  -  en 

Through  his  arm    the 

See    the  pa  -  triot's 

Doubt  the  pa  -  triot 

Hear  thy  coun-sel, 


stretched  to     save      us,  Be      its    morn   for   - 

lil   -   ies,  gleam  -  ing,  Star    the  watchtow'rs 

Lord  hath  freed      her ;  Crown  him    on      the 

task  com-plet   -  ed ;  Hear   the        fa-ther's 

whose  sug- ges    -    tions  Strive    a        na  -  tion 

heed    thy  warn  -  ing;  Trust   us,    while   we 






-0-  &- 

er  blest. 
Que -bee. 
ed   field! 
ing  voice! 
di  -vide!" 
or    thee ! 









By  special  arrangement  with  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 



Just  honor  to  Washington  can  only  be  rendered  by  observing  his 
precepts  and  imitating  his  example.  He  has  built  his  own  monu- 
ment. We,  and  those  who  come  after  us,  in  successive  generations, 
are  its  appointed,  its  privileged  guardians.  The  widespread  republic 
is  the  future  monument  to  Washington.  Maintain  its  independence. 
Uphold  its  constitution.  Preserve  its  union.  Defend  its  liberty. 
Let  it  stand  before  the  world  in  all  its  original  strength  and  beauty, 
securing  peace,  order,  equality,  and  freedom  to  all  within  its  bound- 
aries; and  shedding  light,  and  hope,  and  joy  upon  the  pathway  of 
human  liberty  throughout  the  world;  and  Washington  needs  no  other 
monument.  Other  structures  may  fully  testify  our  veneration  for  him: 
this,  this  alone,  can  adequately  illustrate  his  services  to  mankind. 
Nor  does  he  need  even  this.  The  republic  may  perish,  the  wide  arch 
of  our  ranged  Union  may  fall,  star  by  star  its  glories  may  expire,  stone 
by  stone  its  columns  and  its  capitol  may  moulder  and  crumble,  all 
other  names  which  adorn  its  annals  may  be  forgotten,  but  as  long  as 
human  hearts  shall  anywhere  pant,  or  human  tongues  anywhere  plead, 
for  a  true,  rational,  constitutional  liberty,  those  hearts  shall  enshrine 
the  memory,  and  those  tongues  prolong  the  fame,  of  George  Wash- 
ington.—  Robert  C.  Winthrop. 

American  youth  know  that  Washington  captured  Cornwallis, 
made  a  brilliant  retreat  after  the  battle  of  Long  Island  and  worried  and 
fretted  the  British  armies  into  exhaustion  during  a  seven  years'  war. 
They  also  know  that  he  was  President  twice  and  declined  to  become 
President  a  third  time.  There  are  not  many  who  kn6w  that  the  only 
time  tears  were  seen  in  his  eyes  was  at  the  close  of  the  war,  when  his 
army,  encamped  upon  the  banks  of  the  Hudson,  was  about  to  be  dis- 
banded. There  were  men  in  his  army  who  were  fearful  that  the  ambi- 
tions and  jealousies  of  some  of  those  who  had  been  of  influence  during 
the  Revolution  would  attempt  to  gain  great  personal  power.  There 
were  others  who  believed  that  there  would  be  established  in  America 
a  constitutional  monarchy,  modeled  after  that  of  Great  Britain.  The 
nation,  as  we  now  know  it,  was  a  government  yet  to  be  created. 



So  a  company  of  officers  —  men  having  influence  —  having  talked 
this  matter  over,  agreed  to  go  to  Washington,  ask  him  to  accept  .the 
crown  of  empire  and  to  promise  him  the  support  of  the  army  in  thus 
establishing  a  personal  throne.  When  they  approached  Washington, 
he  thought  that  as  friends  they  had  come  to  him  for  counsel.  He 
was  in  a  happy  frame  of  mind  that  morning.  The  war  had  ended 
victoriously,  and  he  had  already  been  in  consultation  with  Hamilton 
respecting  the  form  of  civil  government  which  the  now  free  colonies 
should  undertake. 

They  offered  him  the  crown  in  but  a  single  sentence.  A  few 
years  before,  across  the  river,  Washington,  being  seated  at  breakfast, 
had  been  approached  by  an  officer,  who  told  him  that  Benedict  Arnold 
had  fled  after  an  attempt  to  betray  West  Point  into  the  hands  of  the 
British.  The  news  was  appalling,  for  he  had  admired  Arnold's  splendid 
courage  and  loved  the  man.  Yet  so  great  was  his  self-command,  so 
superb  his  capacity  for  controlling  emotion,  SO'  thoroughly  had  he 
schooled  himself  to  face  adversity  with  calmness,  that  those  about 
him  only  saw  a  look  of  sad  sternness  come  to  his  countenance  as  he 
uttered  the  now  historic  words,  "  Whom  can  we  trust?  " 

But  when  these  officers  proposed  to  him  the  empire,  and  tried 
to  put  the  sceptre  in  his  hand,  Washington  broke  down.  There  was 
sorrow  and  there  was  anger  in  his  countenance  and  in  his  manner. 
Tears  came  to  his  eyes,  and,  when  he  dismissed  them  with  a  sad  gesture 
and  only  a  brief  word,  these  men  realized  that  Washington  had  been 
shocked  and  grieved  that  it  could  have  entered  their  hearts  that  he 
could  for  one  moment  have  regarded  an  empire  as  possible,  or  could 
have  fought  through  those  seven  years  that  he  might  himself  attain  the 
throne.  In  his  action  Washington  not  only  revealed  his  moral  great- 
ness, but  made  it  impossible  that  a  monarchy  could  ever  be  established 
in  the  United  States. 

Fame  was  too  earnest  in  her  joy, 

Too  proud  of  such  a  son 
To  let  a  robe  and  title 

Mask  our  noble  Washington. 

The  fame  of  Washington  stands  apart  from  every  other  in  his- 
tory, shining  with  a  truer  lustre  and  a  more  benignant  glory.     With 


us  his  memory  remains  a  national  property,  where  all  sympathies  meet 
in  unison.  Under  all  dissensions  and  amid  all  storms  of  party,  his  pre- 
cepts and  examples  speak  to  us  from  the  grave  with  a  paternal  appeal; 
and  his  name  —  by  all  revered  —  forms  a  universal  tie  of  brother- 
hood,—  a  watchword  of  our  Union. —  John  Fiske. 

No  nobler  figure  ever  stood  in  the  forefront  of  a  nation's  life. 
Washington  was  grave  and  courteous  in  address;  his  manners  were 
simple  and  unpretending;  his  silence  and  the  serene  calmness  of  his 
temper  spoke  of  perfect  self-mastery;  but  there  was  little  in  his  out- 
ward bearing  to  reveal  the  grandeur  of  soul  which  lifts  his  figure,  with 
all  the  simple  majesty  of  an  ancient  statue,  out  of  the  smaller  passions, 
the  meaner  impulses  of  the  world  around  him.  It  was  only  as  the 
weary  fight  went  on  that  the  colonists  learned,  little  by  little,  the 
greatness  of  their  leader,  his  clear  judgment,  his  heroic  endurance, 
his  silence  under  difficulties,  his  calmness  in  the  hour  of  danger  or 
defeat,  the  patience  with  which  he  waited,  the  quickness  and  hardness 
with  which  he  struck,  the  lofty  and  serene  sense  of  duty  that  never 
swerved  from  its  task  through  resentment  or  jealousy,  that  never, 
through  war  or  peace,  felt  the  touch  of  a  meaner  ambition,  that  knew 
no  aim  save  that  of  guarding  the  freedom  of  his  fellow-countrymen, 
and  no  personal  longing  save  that  of  returning  to  his  own  fireside  when 
their  freedom  was  secured. —  Green's  "  Short  History  of  the  English 

Washington,  from  first  to  last,  inspired  every  one  with  the  idea 
that  he  could  be  trusted.  No  one  ever  suspected  him  for  a  moment, 
as  Caesar,  as  Frederick,  as  Napoleon  were  with  reason  suspected, — 
with  a  design  to  use  the  power  committed  to  him  for  the  furtherance 
of  his  own  ambition.  Here  was  a  man  who  thought  only  of  his  duty, 
who  resigned  power  with  far  more  alacrity  than  he  assumed  it,  and 
who  paid  the  bond  of  patriotism  in  full. —  Henry  M.  Tozvle. 

Of  all  the  great  men  in  history,  Washington  was  the  most  invari- 
ably judicious.  Those  who  knew  him  well  noticed  that  he  had  keen 
sensibilities  and  strong  passions;  but  his  power  of  self-command  never 
failed  him,  and  no  act  of  his  public  life  can  be  traced  to  personal  caprice, 



ambition,  or  resentment.  In  the  despondency  of  long-continued  fail- 
ure, in  the  elation  of  sudden  success,  at  times  when  his  soldiers  were 
deserting  by  hundreds,  and  when  malignant  plots  were  formed  against 
his  reputation,  amid  the  constant  quarrels,  rivalries,  and  jealousies  of 
his  subordinates,  in  the  dark  hour  of  national  ingratitude,  and  in  the 
midst  of  the  most  universal  and  intoxicating  flattery,  he  was  always 
the  same  calm,  wise,  just,  and  single-minded  man,  pursuing  the  course 
which  he  believed  to  be  right,  without  fear,  or  favor,  or  fanaticism; 
equally  free  from  the  passions  that  spring  from  interest  and  from  the 
passions  that  spring  from  imagination.  Washington  never  acted  on 
the  impulse  of  an  absorbing  or  uncalculating  enthusiasm,  and  he  valued 
very  highly  fortune,  position,  and  reputation,  but  at  the  command  of 
duty  he  was  ready  to  risk  and  sacrifice  them  all.  He  was,  in  the 
highest  sense  of  the  words,  a  gentleman  and  a  man  of  honor,  and  he 
carried  into  public  life  the  severest  standard  of  private  morals. — 
William  E.  H.  Lccky,  from  "  The  History  of  England  in  the  Eighteenth 

Arise!  'tis  the  day  of  our  Washington's  glory; 

The  garlands  uplift  for  our  liberties  won. 
O!  sing  in  your  gladness  his  echoing  story, 

Whose  sword  swept  for  freedom  the  fields  of  the  sun. 

Not  with  gold,  nor  with  gems,  but  with  evergreens  vernal, 
And  the  banner  of  stars  that  the  continent  span, 

Crown,  crown  we  the  chief  of  the  heroes  eternal, 
Who  lifted  his  sword  for  the  birthright  of  man. 

—  Hezekiah  Butter  worth. 

When  the  storm  of  battle  blows  darkest  and  rages  highest,  the 
memory  of  Washington  shall  nerve  every  American  arm,  and  cheer 
every  American  heart. —  Rufus  CJwatc. 

It  was  not  character  that  fought  the  Trenton  campaign  and  car- 
ried the  revolution  to  victory.  It  was  military  genius.  It  was  not 
character  that  read  the  future  of  America  and  created  our  foreign 
policy.  It  was  statesmanship  of  the  highest  order.  Without  the  great 
moral  qualities  that  Washington  possessed  his  career  would  not  have 


been  possible;  but  it  would  have  been  quite  as  impossible  if  the  intellect 
had  not  equalled  the  character. 

There  is  no  need  to  argue  the  truism  that  Washington  was  a 
great  man,  for  that  is  universally  admitted.  But  it  is  very  needful 
that  his  genius  should  be  rightly  understood,  and  the  right  under- 
standing of  it  is  by  no  means  universal. 

His  character  has  been  exalted  at  the  expense  of  his  intellect,  and 
his  goodness  has  been  so  much  insisted  upon  both  by  admirers  and 
critics  that  we  are  in  danger  of  forgetting  that  he  had  a  great  mind 
as  well  as  high  moral  worth. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

With  the  sure  sagacity  of  a  leader  of  men,  Washington  at  once 
selected,  for  the  highest  and  most  responsible  stations,  the  three  chief 
Americans  who  represented  the  three  forces  in  the  nation  which  alone 
could  command  success  in  the  institution  of  the  government.  Hamil- 
ton was  the  head,  Jefferson  was  the  heart,  and  John  Jay  was  the  con- 
science. Washington's  just  and  serene  ascendancy  was  the  lambent 
flame  in  which  these  beneficent  powers  were  fused,  and  nothing  less 
than  that  ascendancy  could  have  ridden  the  whirlwind  and  directed  the 
storm  that  burst  around  him.—  George  William  Curtis. 

Washington's  appointments,  when  President,  were  made  with  a 
view  to  destroy  party  and  not  to  create  it,  his  object  being  to  gather 
all  the  talent  of  the  country  in  support  of  the  national  government; 
and  he  bore  many  things  which  were  personally  disagreeable  in  an 
endeavor  to  do  this.—  Paul  Leicester  Ford. 

Men  are  beginning  to  feel  that  Washington  stands  out,  not  only 
as  the  leading  American,  but  as  the  leading  man  of  the  race.  Of  men 
not  named  in  Sacred  Scripture,  more  human  beings  this  day  know 
and  honor  the  name  of  George  Washington  than  that  of  any  other 
of  the  sons  of  men. —  Charles  F.  Deems. 

An  Englishman  by  race  and  lineage,  Washington  incarnated  in  his 
own  person  and  character  every  best  trait  and  attribute  that  have 
made  the  Anglo-Saxon  name  a  glory  to  its  children  and  a  terror  to 
its   enemies  throughout   the  world.     But   he   was   not   so   much   an 


Englishman  that,  when  the  time  came  for  him  to  be  so,  he  was  not 
even  more  an  American;  and  in  all  that  he  was  and  did,  a  patriot  so 
exalted,  and  a  leader  so  wise  and  great,  that  what  men  called  him  when 
he  came  to  be  inaugurated  as  the  first  President  of  the  United  States 
the  civilized  world  has  not  since  then  ceased  to  call  him  —  the  Father 
of  his  Country. —  Right  Rev.  Henry  C.  Potter. 

There  is  Franklin,  with  his  first  proposal  of  Continental  union. 
There  is  James  Otis,  with  his  great  argument  against  Writs  of  Assist- 
ance, and  Samuel  Adams,  with  his  inexorable  demand  for  the  removal 
of  the  British  regiments  from  Boston.  There  is  Quincy,  and  there 
is  Warren,  the  protomartyr  of  Bunker  Hill.  There  is  Jefferson, 
with  the  Declaration  of  Independence  fresh  from  his  pen,  and  John 
Adams  close  at  his  side.  There  are  Hamilton  and  Madison  and  Jay 
bringing  forward  the  Constitution;  but,  towering  above  them  all  is 
Washington,  the  consummate  commander,  the  incomparable  Presi- 
dent, the  world-renowned  patriot. —  Robert  C.  PVinthrop. 


In  their  ragged  regimentals 
Stood  the  old  Continentals, 

Yielding  not, 
When    the    grenadiers    were    lunging, 
And  like  hail  fell  the  plunging 


When  the  files 

Of  the  isles, 
From  the  smoky  night  encampment,  bore  the  banner  of  the  rampant 

And  grummer,  grummer,  grummer  rolled  the  roll  of  the  drummer, 

Through  the  morn! 

Then  with  eyes  to  the  front  all, 
And  with  guns  horizontal, 

Stood  our  sires; 
And    the    balls    whistled    deadly, 
And   in   streams   flashing   redly 

Blazed  the  fires; 

As  the  roar 

On  the  shore, 


Swept  the  strong  battle-breakers  o'er  the  green-sodded  acres 

Of  the  plain; 
And  louder,  .louder,  louder  cracked  the  black  gunpowder, 

Cracked  amain! 

Now  like  smiths  at  their  forges 
Worked  the  red  St.  George's 

And  the  "  villainous  saltpetre  " 
Rung  a  fierce,  discordant  metre 

Round  their  ears; 

As  the  swift 

With  hot  sweeping  anger,  came  the  Horse  Guard's  clangor 

On  our  flanks. 
Then  higher,  higher,  higher  burned  the  old-fashioned  fire 

Through  the  ranks! 

Then  the  old-fashioned  colonel 
Galloped  through  the  white  infernal 

And    his    broadsword    was    swinging, 
And  his  brazen  throat  was  ringing 

Trumpet  loud. 

Then  the  blue 

Bullets  flew, 
And  the  trooper  jackets  redden  at  the  touch  of  the  leaden 

And  rounder,  rounder,  rounder,  roared  the  iron  six-pounder. 

Hurling  death! 

— Guy  Humphrey  McMaster. 
(This  stirring  poem  was  written  when  the  author  was  only  nineteen  years  old.) 


W.   E.    HlCKSON. 


German  Air. 


i — p — ■ — r 

i.  Now        to  heav'n    our 

2.  Be        that  pray'r      a 

3.  Pa    -    tient,  firm,    and 


-& * 





as  - cend    ■ 




re  -  peat    - 



per     - 

se  -  ver    - 



speed  the  right; 
speed  the  right ; 
speed       the      right ; 





■    0 


7T 1— 


— # — 


— . 

1              if 

m    •• 

— •— 

— 1 — 

— 0 

J — 

1 — 





— r 

1 1 ~ 



mf  1 

fv — 1^~ 

— 1 — 



— ? 

— 1 — 

no    - 
■  vent 




-  ing, 



1 — *—. — 

dan   - 

— •— 
'    1/ 

de  - 

— f- 


■  tend 
feat  - 
fear  - 

'   1 

— » 

■  ing, 



1 1 









1 &T-1 


— (2-s 




— W-i — 
— 1- 

— t*- 


— P- 


— ^ 



— « 


n  f  \ 


Y          J 

/f       4'' 

m — 

• — 




1                       •  1 

(\)      ;. 





1                        K              !                    1 














in        1 

tri     - 


— r — 

re     - 





cord    - 
heed   - 




■  ry, 





i»    1 

^     8 

sue  -  cess 
we       fail 
the  strength 

fs          1 
P P 



-   fi— 

?'   J- 

— n 








t? 1= 
















earth      re  -  ward   -  ed,      God        speed       the      right, 

fail     with      glo    -    ry,      God        speed       the      right, 

heav'n    sue  -  ceed   -  ing,     God        speed       the      right, 





the  right, 
the  right, 
the        right. 

-P-  -e>- 

-fi—V = 





(Feb.  12,  1809.) 

Quotations In  Prose  and  Poetry. 

Selections Song,   The  Man  for  Me. 

Selections Song,  Laus  Deo. 



T  is  indeed  necessary  that  children,  in    so    far    as    they    are 

capable,   should  know  the  theory  of  our  government,  and 

the    great    events    that,    like    milestones,    have    marked    its 

course.        But,   after  all,   theories   and   abstract   facts  never 

can   take   such   hold   upon   the    minds    of    children  —  upon 

memory  and  imagination  —  nor  stir  them  to  such  a  sense  of  their 

country's  worth  —  as  can  the  history,  the  life,  of  a  great  man.       It 

will  be  difficult  to  make  the  little  folks  understand  the  causes,  direct 

or  indirect,  which  led  to  the  Civil  War  of  '61.     Indeed,  who  of  us  who 

are  older  and  trained  to  teach   are  competent  to  tell  all  the  influences 

that  ended  in  that  terrible  struggle?     But  what  child  can  fail  to  know 

and  feel  the  real  greatness  of  the  personality  and  life  of  Abraham 

Lincoln?     He  was  what  we  may  call  a  boy's  man  —  having  that  sense 

of  humor,  that  spirit  of  fun  which  appeals  so  irresistibly  to  boys, — 

yes,  even  to  "  boys  of  larger  growth."     Let  much  be  made,  therefore, 

in  any  celebration  of  Lincoln's  birthday,  of  those  incidents,  so  strange, 

so  fascinating,  which  marked  his  early  boyhood  in  his  cabin  home  — 

of  the  trials  which  beset  his  youth-time,  his  wonderful  skill  in  political 

debate  —  his  perilous  journey  to  the  city  of  Washington,  there  to  be 

inaugurated  President  of  the  United  States  —  his  care  for  the  soldiers 

in  the  field  and  the  poor  black  men   in  slavery   in  the  South, —  and,  at 

length,  his  martyr  death.     (Just  here  might  come  in  a  study  of  "  The 

Negro  "  in  our  history.)    Fear  not  to  blend  with  all,  the  stories  which 

made  him  as  well  known  as  his  statesmanship  —  indeed,  which  were, 

many   of   them,    illustrations    of    the    very   spirit    and   philosophy    of 





A  man  born  for  his  time. —  Morrison  R.  Waite. 

Abraham  Lincoln  was  the  genius  of  common  sense. —  Charles  Dudley  Warner. 

His  constant  thought  was  his  country  and  how  to  serve  it. —  Charles  Sumner. 

A   name  that  shall  live  through  all   coming  time, 
Unbounded  by  country,  by  language,  or  clime. 

—  C.  P.   Corliss. 

Washington  was  the  father,  and  Lincoln  the  savior  of  his  country. —  Henry  L. 


The  typical  American,  pure  and  simple. —  Asa  Gray. 

The    plain,    honest,    prudent    man, —  safe    in    council,    wise    in    action,    pure    in 
purpose. —  John  C.  New. 

Patriot,  who  made  the  pageantries  of  kings 
Like  shadows  seem,  and  unsubstantial  things. 

—  R.   IV.  Dale. 

Lincoln  was  the  purest,  the  most  generous,  the  most  magnanimous  of  men. — 
Gen.   IV.   T.   Sherman. 

His  career  closed  at  a  moment  when  its  dramatic  unity  was  complete. —  Governor 
Andreiv,  of  Massachusetts. 

Abraham  Lincoln  was  worthy  to  be  trusted  and  to  be  loved  by  all  his  country- 
men.—  Gen.  Howard. 

He  lives  in  endless  fame, 
All  honor  to   his   patriot  name. 

—  H.  C.  Ballard. 

He  stands  before  us  and  will  so  stand  in  history  as  the  Moses  of  this  Israel  of 
ours. —  Charles  Lowe. 

A   man   of  great  ability,   pure   patriotism,   unselfish  nature,   full  of  forgiveness 
for  his  enemies. —  Ulysses  Simpson  Grant. 


Kind,  unpretending,  patient,  laborious,  brave,  wise,   great  and  good,   such  was 
Abraham  Lincoln. —  Theodore  Frclinghuysen. 

Long  centuries  hence  thy  name  shall  shine  as  one 
No  blame  can  cloud  —  our  second  Washington. 

—  Henry  Peterson. 

Freedom's   great  high-priest,    who  set   apart   his   life,    while   others   sought   but 
gold  or  bread. —  T.  C.  Pease. 

His  career  teaches  young  men  that  every  position  of  eminence  is  open  before 
the  diligent  and  worthy. —  Bishop  Matthew  Simpson. 

The  purity  of  his  patriotism  inspired  him  with  the  wisdom  of  a  statesman  and 
the  courage  of  a  martyr. —  Stanley  Matthews. 

*    *    *     so  true  and  tender, 
The    patriot's    stay,    the    people's    trust, 
The  shield  of  the  offender. 

—  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 

Such  a  life  and  character  will  be  treasured  forever  as  the  sacred  possession  of 
the  American  people    and  of  mankind. —  lames  A.  Garfield. 

A    great    man,    tender    of    heart,    strong    of    nerve,    of    boundless    patience    and 
broadest  sympathy,  with  no  motive  apart  from  his  country. —  Frederick  Douglass. 

The    purest    of   men,    the    wisest    of   statesmen,    the    most    sincere    and    devoted 
patriot,  the  loveliest  character  of  American  statesmen. —  Hon.  Charles  Foster. 

His  country  saved,   his  work  achieved, 

He  boasted  not  of  what  he'd  done, 
But  rather  in  his  goodness,  grieved 

For  all  sad  hearts  beneadi  the  sun, 

—  G.  Martin. 

Under  the  providence  of  God,  he  was,  next  to  Washington,  the  greatest  instru- 
ment for  the  preservation  of  the  Union  and  the  integrity  of  our  country. —  Peter 

Of  all  the  men  I  ever  met  he  seemed  to  possess  more  of  the  elements  of  great- 
ness combined  with  goodness  than  any  other. —  Gen.  W .  T.  Sherman. 


Lincoln,  the  honest  man,  who,  without  personal  ambition,  always  supported  by 
a  strong  perception  of  his  duties,  deserved  to  be  called  emphatically  a  great  citizen.— 
Louis  Phillipe,  Due  D'Orleans. 

All   the  kindly  grace, 
The  tender  love,  the  loyalty  to  truth, 
That  flow  and  mingle  in  the  gentlest  blood, 
Were  met  together  in  his  blameless  life. 

—  Mary  A.  Ripley. 

The  past  century  has  not,  the  century  to  come  will  not  have,  a  figure  so  grand 
as  that  of  Abraham  Lincoln.—  Emilio  Castelar  (Spain). 

The  life  of  Abraham  Lincoln  is  written  in  imperishable  characters  in  the  history 
of  the  great  American   Republic—  John  Bright  (England). 

By  his  fidelity  to  the  True,  the  Right,  the  Good,  he  gained  not  only  favor  and 
applause,   but  what  is  better  than  all,   love.—  W .   D.  Howells. 

The  form  is  vanished  and  the  footsteps  still, 

But  from  the  silence  Lincoln's  answers  thrill; 

"  Peace,   charity  and   love!  "   in   all   the   world's  best  needs 

The  master  stands  transfigured  in  his  deeds. 

—  Kate   M.   B.    Sherwood. 

He  was  a  true  believer  in  the  divinity  of  the  rights  of  man  as  man,  the  civil  as 
well  as  the  religious  hope  of  the  race. —  Sidney  Dyer. 

In  Lincoln  there  was  always  some  quality  that  fastened  him  to  the  people  and 
taught  them  to  keep  time  to  the   music  of  his  heart. —  David  Swing. 

"  You  will  find  the  whole  of  my  early  life,"  said  Lincoln  to  a  friend,  "  in  a  single 
line  of  Gray's  Elegy  " 

"  The  short  and  simple  annals  of  the  poor." 

—  Anon. 

Heroic  soul,  in  homely  garb  half  hid, 

Sincere,   sagacious,   melancholy,    quaint; 
What  he  endured,  no  less  than  what  he  did, 

Has  reared  his  monument  and  crowned  him  saint. 

—  /.   T.  Trowbridge. 

He  was  one  whom  responsibility  educated,  and  he  showed  himself  more  and 
more  nearly  equal  to  duty  as  year  after  year  laid  on  him  ever  fresh  burdens.  God- 
given  and  God-led  and  sustained  we  must  ever  believe  him. — Wendell  Phillips. 


He  was  warm-hearted;  he  was  generous;  he  was  magnanimous;  he  was  most 
truly,  as  he  afterward  said  on  a  memorable  occasion,  "  with  malice  toward  none, 
with  charity  for  all."—  Alexander  H.  Stephens. 

It  is  the  great  boon  of  such  characters  as  Mr.  Lincoln's  that  they  reunite  what 
God  has  joined  together  and  man  has  put  asunder.  In  him  was  vindicated  the 
greatness  of  real  goodness  and  the  goodness  of  real  greatness.—  Bishop  Phillips 

We  rest   in  peace,   where   his   sad   eyes 

Saw  peril,   strife  and  pain; 
His  was  the  awful  sacrifice. 
And  ours  the  priceless  gain. 

—  John  G.  Whittier. 


Let  me  endeavor  to  give  those  in  this  audience  who  never  saw 
Mr.  Lincoln  some  idea  of  his  personal  appearance.  He  was  a  very  tall 
man  _  6  feet  4  inches.  His  complexion  was  dark,  his  eyes  and  hair 
black;  and  though  he  was  of  lean,  spare  habit,  I  should  suppose  he 
must  have  weighed  about  180  pounds.  He  was  a  man  of  fine  fibre, 
and  thus  a  brain  of  superior  power  was  contained  in  a  small,  but  rather 
elongated,  skull.  *  *  *  His  movements  were  rather  angular,  but 
never  awkward;  and  he  was  never  burdened  with  that  frequent  curse 
of  unfortunate  genius,  the  dreadful  oppression  of  petty  self-conscious- 
ness. It  was  a  most  remarkable  character,  that  of  Abraham  Lincoln. 
He  had  the  most  comprehensive,  the  most  judicial  mind;  he  was  the 
least  faulty  in  his  conclusions  of  any  man  that  I  have  ever  known.— 
Charles  A.  Dana,  Lecture  on  "  Lincoln  and  His  Cabinet/'  at  New 
Haven,  March  10,  1896. 

Mr.  Lincoln  was  not  what  you  would  call  an  educated  man.  The 
college  that  he  had  attended  was  that  which  a  man  attends  who  gets 
up  at  daylight  to  hoe  the  corn,  and  sits  up  at  night  to  read  the  best 
book  he  can  find,  by  the  side  of  a  burning  pine  knot.  What  education 
he  had,  he  picked  up  in  that  way.  He  had  read  a  great  many  books; 
and  all'the  books  that  he  had  read,  he  knew.  He  had  a  tenacious  mem- 


ory,  just  as  he  had  the  ability  to  see  the  essential  thing-.  He  never 
took  an  unimportant  point  and  went  off  upon  that;  but  he  always  laid 
hold  of  the  real  thing,  of  the  real  question,  and  attended  to  that  with- 
out attending  to  the  others  any  more  than  was  indispensably  necessary. 
—  Charles  A.  Dana,  Lecture,  "  Lincoln  and  His  Cabinet." 

There,  by  his  courage,  his  justice,  his  even  temper,  his  fertile 
counsel,  his  humanity  (Abraham  Lincoln)  stood  a  heroic  figure  in  the 
centre  of  a  heroic  epoch.  He  is  the  true  history  of  the  American 
people  in  his  time.  Step  by  step  he  walked  before  them;  slow  with 
their  slowness,  quickening  his  march  by  theirs,  the  true  representative 
of  this  continent;  an  entirely  public  man;  father  of  his  country,  the 
pulse  of  twenty  millions  throbbing  in  his  heart,  the  thought  of  their 
minds  articulated  by  his  tongue. —  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson. 

We  can  still  count  as  one  of  ourselves,  with  his  honor  and  his 
sadness,  with  his  greatness  and  his  everyday  homeliness,  with  his  wit 
and  his  logic,  with  his  gentle  chivalry  that  made  him  equal  to  the 
best  born  knight,  and  his  awkward  and  ungainly  way  that  made  him 
one  of  the  plain  people,  our  martyred  President,  our  leader  of  the 
plain  people,  Abraham  Lincoln.  *  *  *  Beyond  the  rulers  of  every 
age,  Lincoln  was  the  leader  of  the  people, —  of  what  he  called  the  plain 
people.  *  *  *  He  knew,  as  no  other  man  did,  as  cabinets  and 
congresses  did  not  know,  the  sentiments  and  feelings  of  the  plain  people 
of  the  Northern  States.  He  knew  that  they  loved,  beyond  every- 
thing else,  the  Union,  and  he  would  move  only  so  fast  as,  over  the 
electric  currents  which  connected  his  heart  and  brain  with  every 
fireside  in  the  land,  came  the  tidings  to  him  that  they  were  ready  for 
another  advance  along  the  lines  of  revolutionary  action  which  would 
preserve  the  Union. —  Chauncey  M.  Dcpezv,  Speech  at  Lincoln  Dinner. 

I  have  often  contemplated  and  described  (Lincoln's)  life.  Born 
in  a  cabin  of  Kentucky,  of  parents  who  could  hardly  read;  born  a  new 
Moses  in  the  solitude  of  the  desert,  where  are  forged  all  great  and 
obstinate  thoughts,  monotonous,  like  the  desert,  and,  like  the  desert, 
sublime;  growing  up  among  those  primeval  forests,  which,  with  their 



fragrance,  send  a  cloud  of  incense,  and,  with  their  murmurs,  a  cloud 
of  prayers,  to  heaven;  a  boatman  at  eight  years,  in  the  impetuous  cur- 
rent of  the  Ohio,  and  at  seventeen  in  the  vast  and  tranquil  waters  of 
the  Mississippi;  later,  a  woodman,  with  axe  and  arm  felling  the  imme- 
morial trees,  to  open  a  way  to  unexplored  regions  for  his  tribe  of 
wandering  workers;  reading  no  other  book  than  the  Bible,  the  book 
of  great  sorrows  and  great  hopes,  dictated  often  by  prophets  to  the 
sound  of  fetters  they  dragged  through  Nineveh  and  Babylon;  a  child 
of  nature,  in  a  word,  by  one  of  those  miracles  only  comprehensible 
among  free  peoples,  he  fought  for  the  country,  and  was  raised  by  his 
fellow-citizens  to  the  Congress  at  Washington,  and  by  the  nation  to 
the  presidency  of  the  Republic;  and,  after  emancipating  three  million 
slaves,  that  nothing  might  be  wanting,  he  dies  in  the  very  moment 
of  victory, —  like  Christ,  like  Socrates,  like  all  redeemers,  at  the  foot 
of  his  work.  His  work!  Sublime  achievement!  over  which  humanity 
shall  eternally  shed  its  tears,  and  God  His  benedictions. —  Emilia 
Castelar  (Spanish  orator). 

From  the  union  of  the  colonists,  Puritans  and  Cavaliers,  from 
the  straightening  of  their  purposes  and  the  crossing  of  their  blood, 
slow  perfecting  through  a  century,  came  he  who  stands  as  the  first 
typical  American,  the  first  who  comprehended  within  himself  all  the 
strength  and  gentleness,  all  the  majesty  and  grace  of  this  republic  — 
Abraham  Lincoln.  He  was  the  sum  of  Puritan  and  Cavalier,  for  in 
his  ardent  nature  were  fused  the  virtues  of  both,  and  in  the  depths 
of  his  great  soul  the  faults  of  both  were  lost.  He  was  greater  than 
Puritan,  greater  than  Cavalier,  in  that  he  was  American,  and  that  in 
his  honest  form  were  first  gathered  the  vast  and  thrilling  forces  of  his 
ideal  government  —  charging  it  with  such  a  tremendous  meaning  and 
so  elevating  it  above  human  suffering,  that  martyrdom,  though 
infamously  aimed,  came  as  a  fitting  crown  to  a  life  consecrated  from 
the  cradle  to  human  liberty.  Let  us  build  with  reverent  hands  to  the 
type  of  this  simple,  but  sublime  life,  in  which  all  types  are  honored. — 
Henry  W.  Grady,  of  Georgia,  from  the  speech  at  the  New  England 
Club,  in  New  York  city,  December  21,  1886. 


If  ever  the  face  of  a  man  writing  solemn  words  glowed  with  holy 
joy,  it  must  have  been  the  face  of  Abraham  Lincoln  as  he  bent  over 
the  Emancipation  Proclamation.  Here  was  an  act  in  which  his  whole 
soul  could  rejoice,  an  act  that  crowned  his  life.  All  the  past,  the  free 
boyhood  in  the  woods,  the  free  youth  upon  the  farm,  the  free  man- 
hood in  the  honorable  citizen's  employment  —  all  his  freedom  gathered 
and  completed  in  this.  And  is  it  any  wonder  that  among  the  swarthy 
multitudes,  ragged,  and  tired,  and  hungry,  and  ignorant,  but  free 
forever  from  anything  but  the  memorial  scars  of  the  fetters  and  the 
whips, —  is  it  any  wonder  there  grew  up  in  camps  and  hovels  a  super- 
stition, which  saw  in  Lincoln  the  image  of  one  who  was  more  than 
man,  and  whom  with  one  voice  they  loved  to  call  "  Father  Abraham?  " 
—  Phillips  Brooks. 

The  nation's  debt  to  these  men  (Washington  and  Lincoln)  is  not 
confined  to  what  it  owes  them  for  its  material  well-being,  incalculable 
though  this  debt  is.  Beyond  the  fact  that  we  are  an  independent  and 
united  people,  with  half  a  continent  as  our  heritage,  lies  the  fact  that 
every  American  is  richer  by  the  noble  deeds  and  noble  words  of  Wash- 
ington and  of  Lincoln.  Each  of  us  who  reads  the  Gettysburg  speech 
or  the  second  inaugural  address  of  the  greatest  American  of  the  nine- 
teenth century,  or  who  studies  the  long  campaigns  and  lofty  states- 
manship of  that  other  American  who  was  even  greater,  cannot  but 
feel  within  him  that  lift  toward  things  higher  and  nobler  which  can 
never  be  bestowed  by  the  enjoyment  of  mere  material  prosperity. — 
From  "  American  Ideals,"  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

On  the  day  of  his  death,  this  simple  Western  attorney,  who,  accord- 
ing to  one  party,  was  a  vulgar  joker,  and  whom  some  of  his  own  sup- 
porters accused  of  wanting  every  element  of  statesmanship,  was  the 
most  absolute  ruler  in  Christendom,  and  this  solely  by  the  hold  his 
good-humored  sagacity  had  laid  on  the  hearts  and  understandings  of 
his  countrymen.  Nor  was  this  all,  for  it  appeared  that  he  had  drawn 
the  great  majority,  not  only  of  his  fellow-citizens,  but  of  mankind 
also,  to  his  side.  So  strong  and  persuasive  is  honest  manliness,  with- 
out a  single  quality  of  romance  or  unreal  sentiment  to  help  it!  A 
civilian  during  times  of  the  most  captivating  military  achievements, 


awkward,  with  no  skill  in  the  lower  technicalities  of  manners,  he  left 
behind  him  a  fame  beyond  that  of  any  conqueror,  the  memory  of  a 
grace  higher  than  that  of  outward  person,  and  of  gentlemanliness 
deeper  than  mere  breeding.  Never  before  that  startled  April  morn- 
ing did  such  multitudes  of  men  shed  tears  for  the  death  of  one  they 
had  never  seen,  as  if  with  him  a  friendly  presence  had  been  taken 
away  from  their  lives,  leaving  them  colder  and  darker.  Never  was 
funeral  panegyric  so  eloquent  as  the  silent  look  of  sympathy  which 
strangers  exchanged  when  they  met  on  that  day.  Their  common 
manhood  had  lost  a  kinsman. —  James  Russell  Lozvell. 

To  Horace  Greeley,  the  greatest  of  American  editors,  his  party 
associate  and  a  stinging  thorn  in  his  flesh,  Lincoln  wrote:  "  If  there  be 
those  who  would  not  save  the  Union  unless  they  could  at  the  same 
time  save  slavery,  I  do  not  agree  with  them."  "  If  there  be  those  who 
would  not  save  the  Union  unless  they  could  at  the  same  time  destroy 
slavery,  I  do  not  agree  with  them." 

"  My  paramount  object  is  to  save  the  Union,  and  not  either  to  save 
or  destroy  slavery."  "  If  I  could  save  the  Union  without  freeing  any 
slave,  I  would  do  it  — if  I  could  do  it  by  freeing  all  the  slaves,  I  would 
do  it  —  and  if  I  could  do  it  by  freeing  some  and  leaving  others  alone, 
I  would  also  do  that."  "  What  I  do  about  slavery  and  the  colored 
race,  I  do  because  I  believe  it  helps  to  save  the  Union,  and  what  I  for- 
bear, I  forbear  because  I  do  not  believe  it  would  help  to  save  the 

From  the  hour  of  that  touching  farewell  speech  to  his  neighbors 
in  the  Springfield  depot,  down  to  the  fatal  night  in  Ford's  Theatre,  his 
life  was  consecrated  to  the  restoration  of  a  dissevered  country. 

Walking  in  the  busy  streets  of  the  city  of  Atlanta,  not  long  since, 
I  came  upon  a  fine  statue  of  Henry  W.  Grady.  Beneath  the  bronze 
figure  of  the  young  orator,  whose  early  death  has  been  so  widely 
regretted,  was  the  legend:  "He  died  while  literally  loving  a  nation 
into  peace." 

Even  more  suggestive  than  his  cheering  words  was  the  act  of  the 
Southern  masses,  which  placed  this  monument  in  their  busiest 
thoroughfare,  a  witness  of  their  satisfaction  at  the  sentiments  which 



had  distinguished  him.  No  traveler  in  the  South  can  doubt  that  there 
is  a  "  New  South."  The  industries  are  growing  and  the  schools  are 
multiplying.  There  is  a  healthier  sentiment  upon  sociological  and 
economic  questions,  because  the  slave  system  is  no  longer  there  to 
throttle  it.  *  *  *  The  South  has  a  new  feeling  towards  the 
North.  As  we  understand  each  other  better,  we  love  each  other  more. 
The  roads  are  being  broken  out.  Beaten  paths  are  being  made. 
Commercial  intercourse  has  commenced  and  fraternal  regard  is  grow- 
ing. The  Ohio  river  no  longer  separates  two  opposing  peoples,  who 
merely  sustain  diplomatic  relations  with  each  other;  there  is  a  chemical 
affinity  in  progress;  we  are  amalgamating.  The  bitterness  of  a  century 
of  controversy  is  well-nigh  gone.  The  wounds  torn  by  the  rough 
hoof  of  war  have  almost  healed.  The  soldiers  of  the  two  armies,  and 
the  young  men  and  women  of  the  new  generation,  who  "  look  forward 
and  not  back,"  have  attained  this  magnificent  result.  The  Union  is 
stronger,  safer,  because  it  stood  the  shock  of  battle.  The  people  are 
more  homogeneous  because  more  free.  A  hundred  millions  of  united, 
industrious,  frugal,  educated  Christian  people,  under  a  free  flag,  stand 
in  a  place  so  high  among  the  nations  that  they  can  command  anything 
that  is  right  by  the  force  and  dignity  of  their  position,  and  without 
resort  to  war.  And  the  work  of  Abraham  Lincoln  is  accomplished. — 
President  Andrezv  S.  Draper,  University  of  Illinois,  Lincoln's  Birthday, 

While  we  say  that  Mr.  Lincoln  was  an  uneducated  man,  unedu- 
cated in  the  sense  that  we  recognize  in  any  college  town,  he  yet  had  a 
singularly  perfect  education  in  regard  to  everything  that  concerns  the 
practical  affairs  of  life.  His  judgment  was  excellent,  and  his  informa- 
tion was  always  accurate.  He  knew  what  the  thing  was.  He  was  a 
man  of  genius,  and,  contrasted  with  men  of  education,  genius  will 
always  carry  the  day.  I  remember  very  well  going  into  Mr.  Stanton's 
room  in  the  War  Department  on  the  day  of  the  Gettysburg  celebration, 
and  he  said:  "  Have  you  seen  these  Gettysburg  speeches?"  "  No," 
said  I,  "I  didn't  know  you  had  them."  He  said:  'Yes;  and  the 
people  will  be  delighted  with  them.  Edward  Everett  has  made  a 
speech  that  will  make  three  columns  in  the  newspapers,  and  Mr.  Lincoln 


has  made  a  speech  of  perhaps  forty  or  fifty  lines.  Everett's  is  the 
speech  of  a  scholar,  polished  to  the  last  possibility.  It  is  eloquent  and 
it  is  learned;  but  Lincoln's  speech  will  be  read  by  a  thousand  men 
where  one  reads  Everett's,  and  will  be  remembered  as  long  as  any- 
body's speeches  are  remembered  who  speaks  in  the  English  language." 
That  was  the  truth.  If  you  will  take  those  two  speeches  now, 
you  will  get  an  idea  how  superior  genius  is  to  education;  how  superior 
that  intellectual  faculty  is  which  sees  the  vitality  of  a  question  and 
knows  how  to  state  it;  how  superior  that  intellectual  faculty  is  which 
regards  everything  with  the  fire  of  earnestness  in  the  soul,  with  the 

relentless  purpose  of  a  heart  devoted  to  objects  beyond  literature. 

Charles  A.  Dana,  Lecture  on  "  Lincoln  and  His  Cabinet." 

Another  interesting  fact  about  Abraham  Lincoln  was  that  he 
developed  into  a  great  military  man,  that  is  to  say,  a  man  of  supreme 
military  judgment.  I  do  not  risk  anything  in  saying  that  if  you  will 
study  the  records  of  the  war  and  study  the  writings  relating  to  it,  you 
will  agree  with  me  that  the  greatest  general  we  had,  greater  than 
Grant  or  Thomas,  was  Abraham  Lincoln.  It  was  not  so  at  the  begin- 
ning; but  after  three  or  four  years  of  constant  practice  in  the  science 
and  art  of  war,  he  arrived  at  this  extraordinary  knowledge  of  it,  so 
that  Von  Moltke  was  not  a  better  general  or  an  abler  planner  or 
expounder  of  a  campaign  than  President  Lincoln  was.  He  was,  to 
sum  it  up,  a  born  leader  of  men.  He  knew  human  nature;  he  knew 
what  chord  to  strike,  and  he  was  never  afraid  to  strike  it  when  he 
believed  that  the  time  had  arrived. —  Cliarlcs  A.  Dana,  Lecture  on 
"  Lincoln  and  His  Cabinet." 

Another  remarkable  peculiarity  of  Mr.  Lincoln's  was  that  he 
seemed  to  have  no  illusions.  He  had  no  freakish  notions  that  things 
were  so  or  might  be  so,  when  they  were  not  so.  All  his  thinking  and 
all  his  reasoning,  all  his  mind,  in  short,  was  based  continually  on  actual 
facts,  and  upon  facts  of  which,  as  I  said,  he  saw  the  essence.  I  never 
heard  him  say  anything  that  was  not  so.  I  never  heard  him  foretell 
things.  He  told  what  they  were.  But  I  never  heard  him  intimate 
that  such  and  such  consequences  were  likely  to  happen,  without  the 


consequences  following.  I  should  say,  perhaps,  that  his  greatest  qual- 
ity was  wisdom.  And  that  is  something  superior  to  talent,  superior 
to  education.  I  do  not  think  it  can  be  acquired.  He  had  it.  He  was 
wise;  he  was  not  mistaken;  he  saw  things  as  they  were.  All  the 
advice  that  he  gave  was  wise;  it  was  judicious;  and  it  was  always  timely. 
This  wisdom,  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  add,  had  its  animating  phil- 
osophy in  his  own  famous  words:  "With  charity  toward  all;  with 
malice  toward  none/' — Charles  A.  Dana,  Lecture  on  "Lincoln  and 
His  Cabinet." 

Not  long  since,  as  I  sat  in  a  crowded  courtroom,  there  came  to 
the  witness  stand  a  venerable,  white-haired  negro.  Born  a  slave,  he 
had  stood  upon  the  auction  block  and  been  sold  to  the  highest  bidder. 
Now,  he  came  into  a  court  of  Justice  to  settle,  by  the  testimony  of  his 
black  lips,  a  controversy  between  white  men.  When  asked  his  age,  he 
drew  himself  proudly  up,  and  said:  "  For  fifty  years  I  was  a  chattel. 
On  the  first  day  of  January,  1863,  Uncle  Abe  Lincoln  made  me  a  man." 

The  act  which  set  that  old  man  free  was  the  crowning  glory  of 
Lincoln's  life,  for  by  it  he  not  only  saved  his  country,  but  emancipated 
a  race.  We  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  tongue  are  justly  proud  of  the  Magna 
Charta.  We  are  justly  proud  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  of 
the  right  of  government  by  the  people.  True  it  is  that  the  genesis  of 
American  Liberty  was  in  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  but  the 
gospel  of  its  new  testament  was  written  by  Abraham  Lincoln  in  the 
Emancipation  Proclamation. —  John  M.  Thurston,  New  York,  Lincoln's 
Birthday,  1895. 

Mr.  Lincoln  had  many  amiable  and  lovable  personal  qualities, 
but  the  great  thing  was  the  fact  that  he  succeeded;  that  the  Civil  War 
was  ended  under  his  rule.  He  succeeded,  with  the  forces  of  the  anti- 
slavery  states,  in  putting  down  a  rebellion  in  which  twelve  millions  of 
people  were  concerned,  determined  people,  educated  people,  fighting 
for  their  ideas  and  their  property,  fighting  to  the  last,  fighting  to  the 
death.  I  don't  think  there  is  anything  else  in  history  to  compare  with 
that  achievement.     How  did  he  do  it? 

In  the  first  place,  he  never  was  in  haste.  As  I  said,  he  never  took 
a  step  too  soon,  and  also  he  never  took  a  step  too  late.     When  the 


whole  northern  country  seemed  to  be  clamoring  for  him  to  issue  a 
proclamation  abolishing  slavery,  he  didn't  do  it.  Deputation  after 
deputation  went  to  Washington.  I  remember  once,  a  hundred  gentle- 
men came,  dressed  in  black  coats,  mostly  clergymen,  from  Massachu- 
setts. They  appealed  to  him  to  proclaim  the  abolition  of  slavery.  But 
he  didn't  do  it.  He  allowed  Mr.  Cameron  and  General  Butler  to 
execute  their  great  idea  of  treating  slaves  as  contraband  of  war,  and  of 
protecting  those  who  had  got  into  our  lines  against  being  recaptured 
by  their  Southern  owners.  But  he  would  not  prematurely  make  the 
proclamation  that  was  so  much  desired.  Finally  the  time  came;  and 
of  that  he  was  the  judge.  Nobody  else  decided  it;  nobody  commanded 
it;  the  proclamation  was  issued  as  he  thought  best;  and  it  was  effi- 
cacious. The  people  of  the  North,  who  during  the  long  contest  over 
slavery  had  always  stood  strenuously  by  the  compromises  of  the  Con- 
stitution, might  themselves  have  become  half  rebels  if  this  proclama- 
tion had  been  issued  too  soon.  They  at  last  were  tired  of  waiting, 
tired  of  endeavoring  to  preserve  even  a  show  of  regard  for  what  were 
called  the  compromises  of  the  Constitution,  when  they  believed  that 
the  Constitution  itself  was  in  danger.  Thus  public  opinion  was  ripe 
when  the  proclamation  came,  and  that  was  the  beginning  of  the  end. 
This  unerring  judgment,  this  patience  which  waited  and  which  knew 
when  the  right  time  had  arrived  —  those  were  intellectual  qualities, 
which  I  do  not  find  exercised  upon  any  such  scale  by  any  other  man  in 
history,  and  with  such  unerring  precision.  This  proves  Abraham  Lin- 
coln to  have  been  intellectually  one  of  the  greatest  of  rulers. —  Charles 
A.  Dana,  Lecture  on  "  Lincoln  and  His  Cabinet." 

Abraham  Lincoln  was  the  grandest  figure  of  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury. With  a  giant  intellect,  a  boundless  love  of  his  kind,  and  an 
irrevocable  determination  that  right  should  triumph,  he  stood  before 
the  people  of  the  world,  and  so  conducted  himself  that  all  criticism  was 
disarmed,  and  all  oppressors  put  to  shame.  Sensitive  as  a  child,  firm 
as  a  rock,  he  lifted  up  the  lowly,  restrained  the  arrogant,  and,  with  a 
foresight  that  was  almost  inspiration,  made  possible  and  certain  the 
union  of  the  states.    He  was  neither  appalled  by  disaster  nor  elated  by 


the  grandest  successes.  Devoid  of  self-esteem,  unconscious  of  his 
mighty  ability,  he  aimed  at  and  attained  results  because  he  believed 
eternal  justice  demanded  them.  With  the  growth  of  centuries,  the 
name  of  Abraham  Lincoln  will  be  more  highly  honored,  and  the  value 
of  his  work  more  fully  appreciated. —  George  W.  Ray. 

Abraham  Lincoln  cannot  be  compared  with  any  man.  He  stands 
alone.  More  and  more,  as  time  goes  on,  does  his  work  impress  itself 
upon  the  world.  His  genius  was  fitted  exactly  to  the  circumstances 
under  which  he  lived  and  labored.  He  is  the  conspicuous  example  of 
the  truth  that  an  all-wise  Providence  provides  the  man  for  the  emer- 
gency. And  then  what  an  inspiration  he  has  become  to  every  ambi- 
tious, struggling  young  American!  By  his  sterling  integrity  to 
thought  and  conviction,  by  untiring  industry,  and  by  his  large  common 
sense,  he  rose  from  obscurity  to  the  first  place  in  the  nation,  and  has 
become  the  priceless  heritage  of  every  American. —  James  S.  Sherman. 

The  chief  characteristics  of  Lincoln  were  his  integrity  and  com- 
mon sense.  Many  of  his  contemporaries  excelled  him  in  eloquence,  in 
learning,  and  in  culture,  but  in  the  quality  that  is  stronger  and  higher 
than  either,  the  quality  that  inspires  confidence  and  courage  in  times 
of  crisis,  he  surpassed  them  all.  He  was  fortunate  in  his  career  while 
living,  and  fortunate  in  his  sad  and  tragic  death.  Hardly  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  human  race  has  a  ruler  died  whose  loss  seemed  to  the  people 
so  near  a  personal  grief,  and  the  power  of  his  name  increases  steadily. 
He  was  neither  orator,  soldier  nor  scholar,  but  a  leader,  trusted  and 
loved  as  few  had  ever  been.  In  the  historic  struggle  in  which  his  is  the 
great  name,  his  countrymen  felt  that  other  leaders  might  be  right,  but 
he  was  sure  to  be  right. —  Frank  S.  Black. 

The  glory  of  Abraham  Lincoln  is  a  masterful  mind  forever  loyal 
to  the  majesty  and  power  of  a  great  thought.  That  great  thought  was 
the  supremacy  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  loyalty  to 
which  is  the  first  and  last  duty  of  an  American  citizen,  higher  than  all 
personal  considerations,  and  superior  to  all  sectional  interests.  Like  a 
heavenly  enchantment  it  allured  him  to  duty,  and  like  a  perennial 


inspiration  it  was  his  courage  in  danger,  fortitude  in  adversity,  and 
faith  in  the  certainty  of  the  future. 

From  earliest  manhood,  he  had  been  the  patient  student  of  this 
great  instrument  of  our  political  economy  (the  Constitution),  and  to 
maintain  the  supreme  authority  thereof  over  every  citizen  and  over  every 
inch  of  our  national  domain  was  the  larger  purpose  of  all  his  state 
papers,  of  every  act  of  his  administration,  and  of  the  war  measures  he 
approved.  Himself  the  gentlest  of  souls  and  the  sincerest  of  men,  he 
loved  peace  but  he  loved  the  Union  more,  and  called  upon  his  country- 
men to  die  with  him  for  the  right.  He  hated  slavery,  but  he  hated 
rebellion  more,  and  he  would  suppress  rebellion  with  slavery  or  without 
slavery;  and,  when  the  time  came  to  suppress  the  one  by  the  destruction 
of  the  other,  the  sword  of  Grant  and  the  pen  of  Lincoln  were  the  chosen 
instruments  of  Providence  to  scatter  the  rebels  and  emancipate  the 
slaves.  —  John  P.  Newman. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  place  a  correct  estimate  upon  the  character  of 
Lincoln.  He  was  the  greatest  man  of  his  time,  especially  approved  of 
God  for  the  work  He  gave  him  to  do.  History  abundantly  approves 
his  superiority  as  a  leader,  and  establishes  his  constant  reliance  upon 
a  higher  power  for  guidance  and  support.  The  tendency  of  this  age 
is  to  exaggeration,  but  of  Lincoln,  certainly  none  have  spoken  more 
highly  than  those  who  knew  him  best. 

A  distinguished  orator  of  to-day  has  said:  "Lincoln  surpassed 
all  orators  in  eloquence;  all  diplomatists  in  wisdom;  all  statesmen  in 
foresight;  and  the  most  ambitious  in  fame." 

This  is  in  accord  with  the  estimate  of  Stanton,  who  pronounced 
him  "  the  most  perfect  ruler  of  men  the  world  had  ever  seen." 

Seward,  too,  declared  Lincoln  "  a  man  of  destiny,  with  character 
made  and  moulded  by  Divine  power  to  save  a  nation  from  perdition." 

Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  characterized  him  as  "the  true  represen- 
tative of  this  continent;  an  entirely  public  man;  father  of  his  country; 
the  pulse  of  twenty  millions  throbbing  in  his  heart,  the  thought  of  their 
minds  articulated  by  his  tongue." 



Bancroft  wisely  observed:  "  Lincoln  thought  always  of  mankind 
as  well  as  of  his  own  country,  and  served  human  nature  itself;  he 
finished  a  work  which  all  time  cannot  overthrow." 

Sumner  said  that  in  Lincoln  "  the  West  spoke  to  the  East,  plead- 
ing for  human  rights  as  declared  by  our  fathers." 

Horace  Greeley,  in  speaking  of  the  events  which  led  up  to  and 
embraced  the  Rebellion,  declared:  "  Other  men  were  helpful  and  nobly 
did  their  part;  yet,  looking  back  through  the  lifting  mists  of  those 
seven  eventful,  tragic,  trying,  glorious  years,  I  clearly  discern  the  one 
providential  leader,  the  indispensable  hero  of  the  great  drama,  Abraham 

James  Russell  Lowell  was  quick  to  perceive  and  proclaim  Lincoln's 
greatness.  In  December,  1863,  in  a  review  of  the  "  President's  Policy," 
in  the  Atlantic  Monthly,  he  said:  "  Perhaps  none  of  our  presidents 
since  Washington  has  stood  so  firm  in  the  confidence  of  the  people  as 
Lincoln,  after  three  years'  stormy  administration.  *  *  *  A  pro- 
found common  sense  is  the  best  genius  for  statesmanship.  Hitherto 
the  wisdom  of  the  President's  measures  have  been  justified  by  the  fact 
that  they  have  always  resulted  in  more  firmly  uniting  public  opinion." 
—  William  McKinlcy,  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday,  1895. 

What  were  the  traits  of  character  that  made  him  leader  and  master, 
without  a  rival  in  the  greatest  crisis  in  our  history?  What  gave  him 
such  mighty  power?  Lincoln  had  sublime  faith  in  the  people.  He 
walked  with  and  among  them.  He  recognized  the  importance  and 
power  of  an  enlightened  public  sentiment  and  was  guided  by  it.  Even 
amid  the  vicissitudes  of  war,  he  concealed  little  from  public  inspection. 
In  all  that  he  did,  he  invited  rather  than  evaded  public  examination  and 
criticism.  He  submitted  his  plans  and  purposes,  as  far  as  practicable, 
to  public  consideration  with  perfect  frankness  and  sincerity.  There 
was  such  homely  simplicity  in  his  character,  that  it  could  not  be  hedged 
in  by  the  pomp  of  place,  nor  the  ceremonials  of  high  official  station. 
He  was  so  accessible  to  the  public  that  he  seemed  to  take  the  whole 
people  into  his  confidence.  Here,  perhaps,  was  one  secret  of  his  power. 
Bancroft,  the  historian,  alluding  to  this  characteristic,  which  was  never 
so  conspicuously  manifested  as  during  the  darkest  hours  of  the  war, 


beautifully  illustrated  it  in  these  memorable  words:  "  As  a  child  in  a 
dark  night,  on  a  rugged  way,  catches  hold  of  the  hand  of  its  father  for 
guidance  and  support,  Lincoln  clung  fast  to  the  hand  of  the  people,  and 
moved  calmly  through  the  gloom."  —  William  McKinley,  at  Albany, 
N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday,  1895. 

Lincoln  was  an  orator.  We  hear  in  these  days  that  the  power  of 
the  orator  has  passed;  that  the  spoken  word  will  soon  be  a  thing  of 
the  past.  The  people  can  read  all  that  the  orator  can  tell  them,  and 
that  soon  the  orator  will  be  among  the  things  that  are  the  history  of  a 
country.  Abraham  Lincoln  became  President  of  the  United  States, 
not  because  he  served  in  the  legislature  —  he  was  a  nobody  there;  not 
because  he  served  in  Congress  —  for  he  was  unknown  there;  not  be- 
cause he  was  a  lawyer,  for  he  had  only  a  state  reputation.  He  became 
President  because  of  the  stump  and  the  platform.  He  never  left  them 
without  leaving  the  impression  that  a  great  soul,  a  great  mind,  had 
made  itself  known,  and  that  a  man  who  ought  to  be  a  leader  of  the 
people  had  spoken  to  them  —  a  man  who  it  was  intended  should  carry 
the  torch. —  Chauncey  M.  Depezv,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday, 

During  the  whole  of  the  struggle,  he  was  a  tower  of  strength  to 
the  Union.  Whether  in  defeat  or  victory,  he  kept  right  on,  dismayed 
at  nothing,  and  never  to  be  diverted  from  the  pathway  of  duty.  Al- 
ways cool  and  determined,  all  learned  to  gain  renewed  courage,  calm- 
ness, and  wisdom  from  him,  and  to  lean  upon  his  strong  arm  for  sup- 
port. The  proud  designation  of  "  Father  of  his  Country  "  was  not 
more  appropriately  bestowed  upon  Washington  than  the  affectionate 
title,  "  Father  Abraham,"  was  given  to  Lincoln  by  the  soldiers  and 
loyal  people  of  the  North. 

The  crowning  glory  of  Lincoln's  administration,  and  the  greatest 
executive  act  in  American  history,  was  his  immortal  Proclamation  of 
Emancipation.  Perhaps  more  clearly  than  any  one  else,  Lincoln  had 
realized,  years  before  he  was  called  to  the  Presidency,  that  the  country 
could  not  continue  half  slave  and  half  free.  He  declared  it  before 
Seward  declared  the  "  Irrepressible  conflict."     The  contest   between 


freedom  and  slavery  was  inevitable;  it  was  written  in  the  stars.  The 
nation  must  either  be  all  slave  or  all  free.  Lincoln,  with  almost  super- 
natural prescience,  foresaw  it.  His  prophetic  vision  is  manifested 
through  all  his  utterances,  notably  in  the  great  debate  between  him- 
self and  Douglass.  To  him  was  given  the  duty  and  responsibility  of 
making  that  great  classic  of  liberty,  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  no 
longer  an  empty  promise,  but  a  glorious  fulfillment. —  William  McKin- 
Icy,  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday,  1895. 

A  man  of  great  ability,  pure  patriotism,  unselfish  nature,  full  of 
forgiveness  to  his  enemies,  bearing  malice  toward  none,  he  proved  to 
be  the  man  above  all  others  for  the  struggle  through  which  the  nation 
had  to  pass  to  place  itself  among  the  greatest  in  the  family  of  nations. 
His  fame  will  grow  brighter  as  time  passes  and  his  great  work  is  better 
understood. —  U.  S.  Grant. 

Lincoln  was  a  man  of  moderation.  He  was  neither  an  autocrat 
nor  a  tyrant.  If  he  moved  slowly  sometimes,  it  was  because  it  was 
better  to  move  slowly,  and  he  was  only  waiting  for  his  reserves  to  come 
up.  Possessing  almost  unlimited  power,  he  yet  carried  himself  like  one 
of  the  humblest  of  men.  He  weighed  every  subject.  He  considered 
and  reflected  upon  every  phase  of  public  duty.  He  got  the  average 
judgment  of  the  plain  people.  He  had  a  high  sense  of  justice,  a  clear 
understanding  of  the  rights  of  others,  and  never  heedlessly  inflicted 
an  injury  upon  any  man.  He  always  taught  and  enforced  the  doctrine 
of  mercy  and  charity  on  every  occasion.  Even  in  the  excess  of  rejoic- 
ing, he  said  to  a  party  who  came  to  serenade  him  a  few  nights  after  the 
Presidential  election  in  November,  1864:  "  Now  that  the  election  is 
over,  may  not  all  having  a  common  interest  re-unite  in  common  effort 
to  save  our  country?  So  long  as  I  have  been  here,  I  have  not  willingly 
planted  a  thorn  in  any  man's  bosom.  While  I  am  deeply  sensible  to  the 
high  compliment  of  a  re-election,  and  duly  grateful,  as  I  trust,  to 
Almighty  God,  for  having  directed  my  countrymen  to  a  right  con- 
clusion, as  I  think,  for  their  own  good,  it  adds  nothing  to  my  satisfac- 
tion that  any  other  man  may  be  disappointed  or  pained  by  the  result." 
—  William  McKinlcy,  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday,  1895. 


The  South  was  shocked  inexpressibly  by  the  foul  assassination  of 
Mr.  Lincoln.  The  world  has  never  held  the  South  responsible  for  the 
act  of  the  madman.  Yet,  horrified  as  they  were,  and  stirred  as  were 
their  generous  sympathies  at  the  cruel  fate  of  their  greatest  antagonist, 
the  Southern  people  knew  not  how  much  of  hope  for  them,  how  much 
of  love,  how  much  of  helpfulness  in  their  hour  of  sorest  need,  lay  buried 
in  the  coffin  of  Abraham  Lincoln.  As  he  had  been  the  mainstay  of  the 
Union,  he  could  have  gone  further  than  any  other  man  in  the  North 
would  have  dared  to  do  in  the  way  of  kindness  and  forgiveness  to  his 
foes.  As  he  was  truly  great,  he  knew  the  constraining  power  of  such 
magnanimity.  As  he  was  truly  good,  its  exercise  would  have  been  to 
him  the  sweetest  guerdon  of  his  great  endeavors  and  triumph.  Yet 
fate  decreed  otherwise.  The  curse  of  his  assassination  was  added  to  the 
calamity  of  defeat  in  the  full  cup  of  bitterness  which  was  commended 
to  the  lips  of  the  South  during  the  long  and  humiliating  years  of  recon- 
struction. Year  by  year  she  is  learning  to  know  Lincoln  as  he  was, 
and  not  as  she  has  pictured  him.  She  is  learning  to  realize  that  his 
devotion  to  the  Union  and  his  advocacy  of  emancipation  were  as  natural 
to  him  as  the  contrary  views  entertained  by  her  own  people.  She  is 
learning,  above  all,  to  realize  that,  strong  and  true  to  his  convictions 
as  he  was,  he  was  struck  down  at  the  very  hour  when  he  would  have 
proved  himself  her  friend,  and  that,  whether  viewed  as  a  friend  or  as  a 
foe,  candor  must  class  him  among  the  wisest,  truest,  simplest  and 
greatest  men  that  America  ever  produced. —  Ex-Governor  George  D. 
Wise,  of  Virginia. 

Lincoln  was  an  immense  personality  —  firm  but  not  obstinate. 
Obstinacy  is  egotism  —  firmness,  heroism.  He  influenced  others  with- 
out effort  —  unconsciously;  and  they  submitted  to  him  as  men  submit  to 
nature  —  unconsciously.  He  was  severe  with  himself,  and  for  that 
reason  lenient  with  others. 

He  appeared  to  apologize  for  being  kinder  than  his  fellows. 

He  did  merciful  things  as  stealthily  as  others  committed  crimes. 

Almost  ashamed  of  tenderness,  he  said  and  did  the  noblest  words 
and  deeds  with  that  charming  confusion,  that  awkwardness,  that  is  the 
perfect  grace  of  modesty. 



He  wore  no  official  robes  either  on  his  body  or  his  soul.  He  never 
pretended  to  be  more  or  less,  or  other,  or  different,  from  what  he  really 


He  was  neither  tyrant  nor  slave.    He  neither  knelt  nor  scorned. 
With  him  men  were  neither  great  nor  small  —  they  were  right  or 


Through  manners,  clothes,  titles,  rags  and  race  he  saw  the  real  — 
that  which  is.  Beyond  accident,  policy,  compromise  and  war  he  saw 
the  end. 

He  was  patient  as  Destiny,  whose  undecipherable  hieroglyphs  were 
so  deeply  graven  on  his  sad  and  tragic  face. —  Robert  G.  Ingersoll,  at 
Dinner  on  Lincoln's  Birthday. 

It  is  the  glory  of  Lincoln  that,  having  almost  absolute  power,  he 
never  abused  it,  except  on  the  side  of  mercy. 

Wealth  could  not  purchase,  power  could  not  awe,  this  divine,  this 
loving  man. 

He  knew  no  fear  except  the  fear  of  doing  wrong.  Hating  slavery, 
pitying  the  master  —  seeking  to  conquer,  not  persons,  but  prejudices  — 
he  was  the  embodiment  of  self-denial,  the  courage,  the  hope,  and  the 
nobility  of  a  Nation. 

He  spoke  not  to  inflame,  not  to  upbraid,  but  to  convince. 

He  raised  his  hands,  not  to  strike,  but  in  benediction. 

He  loved  to  see  the  pearls  of  joy  on  the  cheeks  of  a  wife  whose 
husband  he  had  rescued  from  death. 

Lincoln  was  the  grandest  figure  of  the  fiercest  Civil  War.  He  is 
the  gentlest  memory  of  our  world.—  Robert  G.  Ingersoll,  at  Dinner  on 
Lincoln's  Birthday. 

THE    MAN    FOR    ME. 

Air,  "The  Rose  that  All  are  Praising." 

i.  Oh,      he         is    not      the      man      for    me,    Who   buys      or      sells 

2.  He     sure        is    not      the      man      for    me,  Whose  spir   -    it      will 

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loves       a  -  like      each     hu  -    man  form —  Oh,   that's  the  man 

man's      e  -    ter    -    nal       e    -   qual  right,    Oh,   that's  the  man 

head,     and  heart,    and     voice,  and  vote —  Oh,   that's  the  man 





me,  .  .  .  Oh, 
me,  .  .  .  Oh, 
me,  .  .  .         Oh, 


o  captain!  my  captain! 


O  Captain!     My  Captain!     Our  fearful  trip  is  done, 
The  ship  has  weathered  every  rack,  the  prize  we  sought  is  won; 
The  port  is  near,  the  bells  I  hear,  the  people  all  exulting, 
While  follow  eyes,  the  steady  keel,  the  vessel  grim  and  daring; 
But,  O  heart!  heart!  heart! 

O  the  bleeding  drops  of  red, 
Where  on  the  deck  my  Captain  lies 
Falien,   cold  and  dead. 

O  Captain!  My  Captain!  rise  up  and  hear  the  bells; 
Rise  up  —  for  you  the  flag  is  flung  —  for  you  the  bugle  trills  — 
For  you  bouquets  and  ribboned  wreaths  —  for  you  the  shores  a-crowding; 
For  you  they  call,  the  swaying  mass,  their  eager  faces  turning; 
Here,  Captain!  dear  father! 

This  arm  beneath  your  head! 
It  is  some  dream  that,  on  the  deck, 
You've  fallen  cold  and  dead! 

My  Captain  does  not  answer,  his  lips  are  pale  and  still; 
My  father  does  not  feel  my  arm,  he  has  no  pulse  nor  will; 
The  ship  is  anchored  safe  and  sound,  its  voyage  closed  and  done; 
From  fearful  trip,  the  victor  ship  comes  in,  with  object  won; 
Exult,  O  shores!  and  ring,  O  bells! 

But  I,  with  mournful  tread, 
Walk  the  deck  my  Captain  lies 
Fallen,  cold,  and  dead. 

—  Walt  Whitman. 

This  man  whose  homely  face  you  look  upon, 

Was  one  of  Nature's  masterful,  great  men; 
Born  with  strong  arms  that  unfought  victories  won, 

Direct  of  speech  and  cunning  with  the  pen, 
Chosen  for  large  designs,  he  had  the  art 

Of  winning  with  his  humor,  and  he  went 
Straight  to  his  mark,  which  was  the  human  heart; 

Wise,  too,  for  what  he  could  not  break,  he  bent. 
Upon  his  back,  a  more  than  Atlas'  load, 

The  burden  of  the  Commonwealth  was  laid: 
He  stooped,  and  rose  up  with  it,  though  the  road 

Shot  suddenly  downwards,  not  a  whit  dismayed. 
Hold,  warriors,   councilors,  kings!     All  now  give  place 

To  this  dead  Benefactor  of  the  Race! 

—  Richard  Henry  Stoddard. 



Here-  was  a  type  of  the  true  elder  race, 

One  of  Plutarch's  men  talked  with  us  face  to  face; 

I  praise  him  not;  it  were  too  late; 

And  some  innative  weakness  there  must  be 

In  him  who  condescends  to  victory 

Such  as  the  present  gives,  and  cannot  wait, 

Safe  in  himself  as  in  a  fate. 

So  always,  firmly,  he; 

He  knew  to  bide  his  time, 
And  can  his  fame  abide, 

Still  patient  in  his  simple  faith  sublime, 
Till  the  wise  years  decide. 

Great  captains,   with  their  guns  and  drums, 
Disturb  our  judgment  for  the  hour, 
But  at  last  silence  comes. 

These  are  all  gone,  and,  standing  like  a  tower, 

Our  children  shall  behold  his  fame, 
The  kindly,   earnest,   brave,  foreseeing  man, 

Sagacious,  patient,  dreading  praise,  not  blame, 
New  birth  of  our  new  soil,  the  first  American. 

—  James  Russell  Lowell. 

He  was  the  North,  the  South,  the  East,  the  West, 

The  thrall,  the  master,  all  of  us  in  one; 
There  was  no  section  that  he  held  the  best; 

His  love  shone  as  impartial  as  the  sun; 
And  so,  Revenge  appealed  to  him  in  vain, 

He  smiled  at  it,  as  at  a  thing  forlorn, 
And  gently  put  it  from  him,  rose  and  stood 
A   moment's   space   in   pain, 

Remembering  the  prairies  and  the  corn 
And  the  glad  voices  of  the  field  and  wood. 

And  then  when  Peace  set  wing  upon  the  wind 
And,  northward  flying,  fanned  the  clouds  away, 

He  passed  as  martyrs  pass.     Ah,  who  shall  find 
The  chord  to  sound  the  pathos  of  that  day! 

Mid-April   blowing   sweet  across   the   land, 
New  bloom  of  freedom  opening  to  the  world, 

Loud  paeans  of  the  homeward-looking  host, 
The  salutations  grand 
From  grimy  guns,  the  tattered  flags  unfurled; 

But  he  must  sleep,  to  all  the  glory  lost! 

—  Maurice  Thompson. 


All  days  which  are  notable  should  be  remembered.  The  world 
does  well  to  mark  its  sense  of  the  importance  of  such  days,  for  one 
of  the  most  fatal  diseases  of  the  mind  is  indifference.,  and  hence  every- 
thing which  tends  to  rouse  men  out  of  their  indifference  is  beneficial. 
The  life  of  Lincoln  should  never  be  passed  by  in  silence  by  young  or 
old.  He  touched  the  log  cabin  and  it  became  the  palace  in  which  great- 
ness was  nurtured.  He  touched  the  forest  and  it  became  to  him  a 
church  in  which  the  purest  and  noblest  worship  of  God  was  observed. 
His  occupation  has  become  associated  in  our  minds  with  the  integrity 
of  the  life  he  lived.  In  Lincoln  there  was  always  some  quality  that 
fastened  him  to  the  people,  and  taught  them  to  keep  time  to  the 
music  of  his  heart.  Instances  are  given  of  his  honesty,  but  there  are 
tens  of  thousands  of  men  as  honest  as  he.  The  difference  is  that  they 
are  not  able  to  concentrate  the  ideal  of  honor  as  he  did.  He  reveals 
to  us  the  beauty  of  plain  backwoods  honesty.  He  grew  up  away  from 
the  ethics  of  the  colleges,  but  he  acquired  a  sense  of  honesty  as  high 
and  noble  as  the  most  refined  of  the  teachers  of  ethics  could  compre- 
hend.—  David  Swing. 

Of  Mr.  Lincoln's  general  character  I  need  not  speak.  He  was 
warm-hearted;  he  was  generous;  he  was  magnanimous;  he  was  most 
truly,  as  he  afterwards  said  on  a  memorable  occasion,  "  with  malice 
toward  none,  with  charity  for  all."  He  had  a  native  genius  far  above 
his  fellows.  Every  fountain  of  his  heart  was  overflowing  with  the 
"  milk  of  human  kindness."  From  my  attachment  to  him,  so  much 
deeper  was  the  pang  in  my  own  breast,  as  well  as  of  millions,  at  the 
horrible  manner  of  his  "  taking  off."  This  was  the  climax  of  our 
troubles,  and  the  spring  from  which  came  unnumbered  woes.  But  of 
those  events,  no  more,  now.  Let  not  history  confuse  events.  Emanci- 
pation was  not  the  chief  object  of  Mr.  Lincoln  in  issuing  the  Proclama- 
tion. His  chief  object,  the  ideal  to  which  his  whole  soul  was  devoted, 
was  the  preservation  of  the  Union.  Pregnant  as  it  was  with  coming 
events,  initiative  as  it  was  of  ultimate  emancipation,  it  still  originated, 
in  point  of  fact,  more  from  what  was  deemed  the  necessities  of  war,  than 
from  any  purely  humanitarian  view  of  the  matter.  Life  is  all  a  mist, 
and  in  the  dark  our  fortunes  meet  us!     This  was  evidently  the  case 


with  Mr.  Lincoln.  He,  in  my  opinion,  was,  like  all  the  rest  of  us.  an 
instrument  in  the  hands  of  that  Providence  above  us,  that  "  Divinity 
which  shapes  our  ends,  rough-hew  them  how  we  will." — Alexander 
Hamilton  Stephens,  of  Georgia. 

The  month  of  February  contains  two  great  days,  —  days  that  com- 
memorate the  two  most  thrilling  and  imperial  figures  in  our  American 
history.  There  could  not  possibly  be  two  more  opposite  and  dissimilar 
types;  the  one  with  all  the  advantages  of  high  station,  culture  and  fine 
breeding,  refinement  and  gracious  surroundings;  unspoiled,  as  gracious 
as  the  humblest  among  us  all. 

And,  then,  that  other;  that  singular  and  incomparable  character, 
of  whom,  when  anybody  tells  something  more  about  his  young  life,  you 
get  a  sense  of  how  fine  and  high,  amid  all  his  poverty  and  hardship,  it 
was;  how  truly  noble  that  other  was  —  our  own  Lincoln. 

What  was  it  that  made  these  two  men  great;  one  with  inheritances 
to  make  greatness  of  an  external  kind;  the  other  with  only  the  simple 
ruggedness  of  a  great  character?  What  but  this:  That  each  one  held 
himself,  first  of  all,  as  a  servant  of  the  Power  above  him,  and,  sitting  in 
the  high  chair  of  state,  sat  there  remembering  always  that  he  was  a 
servant  of  the  people,  and  only  that  because  he  was  the  servant  of 
God. —  Right  Rev.  Henry  C.  Potter. 

An  anecdote,  showing  Lincoln's  merciful  nature  in  a  touching 
light,  and  related  by  Mr.  L.  E.  Chittenden  in  his  "  Recollections  of 
President  Lincoln  and  His  Administration/'  from  authentic  sources,  is 
the  one  of  the  sleeping  sentinel,  William  Scott,  the  Vermont  boy,  whose 
life  Lincoln  saved  after  he  had  been  condemned  to  be  shot.  Lincoln 
personally  saw  Scott  and  talked  with  him  a  long  time.  Scott  would 
not  talk  to  his  comrades  of  the  interview  afterward  until  one  night, 
when  he  had  received  a  letter  from  home,  he  finally  opened  his  heart  to 
a  friend  in  this  wise: 

"  The  President  was  the  kindest  man  I  had  ever  seen.  I  was  scared 
at  first,  for  I  had  never  before  talked  with  a  great  man.  But  Mr.  Lin- 
coln was  so  easy  with  me,  so  gentle,  that  I  soon  forgot  my  fright. 
*     *     *     He  stood  up,  and  he  says  to  me,  '  My  boy,  stand  up  here  and 


look  me  in  the  face.'  I  did  as  he  bade  me.  '  My  boy,'  he  said,  '  you 
are  not  going  to  be  shot  to-morrow.  I  am  going  to  trust  you  and  send 
you  back  to  your  regiment.  I  have  come  up  here  from  Washington, 
where  I  have  a  great  deal  to  do,  and  what  I  want  to  know  is  how  you 
are  going  to  pay  my  bill.'  There  was  a  big  lump  in  my  throat.  I  could 
scarcely  speak.  But  I  got  it  crowded  down  and  managed  to  say:  '  There 
is  some  way  to  pay  you,  and  I  will  find  it  after  a  little.  There  is  the 
bounty  in  the  savings  bank.  I  guess  we  could  borrow  some  money  on 
a  mortgage  on  the  farm.'  I  was  sure  the  boys  would  help,  so  I  thought 
we  could  raise  it,  if  it  wasn't  more  than  $500  or  $600.  '  But  it  is  a 
great  deal  more  than  $500  or  $600,'  he  said.  Then  I  said  I  didn't  see 
how,  but  I  was  sure  I  would  find  some  way  —  if  I  lived.  Then  Mr. 
Lincoln  put  his  hands  on  my  shoulders  and  looked  into  my  face  as  if  he 
were  sorry,  and  said :  '  My  boy,  my  bill  is  a  very  large  one.  Your 
friends  cannot  pay  it,  nor  your  bounty,  nor  your  farm,  nor  all  your 
comrades.  There  is  only  one  man  in  all  the  world  who  can  pay  it,  and 
his  name  is  William  Scott.  If  from  this  day  William  Scott  does  his 
duty,  so  that  if  I  was  there  when  he  comes  to  die  he  can  look  me  in  the 
face  as  he  does  now,  and  can  say:  "  I  have  kept  my  promise  and  I  have 
done  my  duty  as  a  soldier!  "  then  my  debt  will  be  paid.  Will  you  make 
that  promise  and  try  to  keep  it?  '  I  said  I  would  make  the  promise 
and  with  God's  help  I  would  keep  it.  He  went  away  out  of  my  sight 
forever.  I  know  I  shall  never  see  him  again,  but  may  God  forget  me  if 
I  ever  forget  his  kind  words  or  my  promise." —  JVashington  Star. 

Years  pass  away,  but  Freedom  does  not  pass; 

Thrones    crumble,    but    man's    birthright    crumbles    not; 
And,  like  the  wind  across  the  prairie  grass 

A  whole   world's  aspirations   fan  this  spot 
With    ceaseless   pantings   after   liberty, 

One  breath  of  which  would  make  even  Russia  fair, 

And  blow  sweet  summer  through  the  exile's  care 
And  set  the  exile  free; 

For  which  I  pray,  here,  in  the  open  air 
Of  Freedom's  morning-tide,  by  Lincoln's  grave. 

—  Maurice   Thompson. 



We  all  recognize  two  characters  in  the  annals  of  American  his- 
tory that  will  ever  be  inseparably  associated  with  the  great  War  of  the 
Rebellion,  with  the  heroic  age  of  the  country  —  Abraham  Lincoln  and 
Ulysses  S.  Grant.  One  the  Commander-in-Chief,  the  other  the  Gen- 
eral-in-Chief of  that  immortal  Union  Army,  baptized  in  blood,  con- 
secrated in  tears,  hallowed  in  prayers,  an  army  whose  memory  will 
remain  green  in  the  hearts  of  a  grateful  people  as  long  as  manly  courage 
is  talked  of  or  heroic  deeds  are  honored.  Both  possessed  in  a  remark- 
able degree  that  most  uncommon  of  all  virtues,  common  sense.  With 
them  there  was  no  posing  for  effect;  no  indulgence  in  mock  heroics;  no 
mawkish  sentimentality  —  possessions  of  the  heart  of  the  demagogue. 
Each  was  possessed  of  as  brilliant  an  intellect  as  ever  wore  the  mantle 
of  mortality.  The  mind  of  each  was  one  great  storehouse  of  useful 
information.  Neither  laid  any  claim  to  knowledge  he  did  not  possess. 
Each  seemed  to  feel  that  vaunted  learning  is,  like  hypocrisy,  a  form  of 
knowledge  without  the  power  of  it.  Even  where  their  characteristics 
were  unlike,  they  only  served  to  supplement  each  other,  but  added  to 
that  united  power  wielded  for  the  welfare  and  safety  of  a  republic. 
Both  entered  public  life  from  the  same  great  state;  both  were  elected 
for  a  second  time  to  the  highest  office  in  the  gift  of  the  people.  One 
fell  a  victim  to  an  assassin's  bullet,  the  other  to  the  most  dreaded  form 
of  fell  disease,  so  that  both  may  be  crowned  with  the  sublimity  of  mar- 
tyrdom.—  General  Horace  Porter,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's  Birthday, 


His  towering  figure,  sharp  and  spare, 

Was  with  such  nervous  tension  strung, 

As   if  on  each   strained  sinew  swung 
The  burden  of  a  people's  care. 

His  changing  face  what  pen  can  draw? 

Pathetic,  kindly,  droll,  or  stern; 

And  with  a  glance  so  quick  to  learn 
The  inmost  truth  of  all  he  saw. 

—  Charles  G.  H alpine. 


John  Greenleaf  Whittier. 



Arranged  from  Jonathan  Battishill. 



It  is  clone!  Clang  of  bells  and         roar 

Ring,  O  bells !  Every  stroke  ex  -       ult 

It  is  done!  In  the  circuit              of 

Ring  and  swing,  Bells  of  joy !     On          morn 




Send  the 

Of  the 

Shall  the 

Send  the 




— s> 







crime  ; 
forth  ; 
broad  ! 


How  the  belfries 
Loud  and  long  that 

It  shall  bid  the 
With  a  sound  of 



reel ! 



i — n — j- 


How  the  great  guns,  peal  on  peal,  Fling  the      joy 
Ring  for  every  listening  ear  of  e      -        ter 
It  shall  give  the  dumb  a  voice,  It  shall      belt 
Tell  the  nations  that  He  reigns,  Who  a  -   lone 



from  town 
ni       -      ty 

with  joy   . 

is  Lord 

to  town ! 

and  time! 

the  earth ! 

and  God ! 



By  special  arrangement  with  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co. 



JUNE   14TH. 

Quotations Song,  The  American  Flag. 

Selections Song,  Our  Flag. 

Selections Song,  Flag  of  the  Free. 

Selections Song,  America. 



£HIS    clay,    June  fourteenth,  —  more     cheerful     always    in    its 
associations   than   Memorial   Day,   even   as   the   weather   is 
fairer  in  mid-June  than  at  the  last  of  May,  —  more  wide- 
spread in  its   significance   than   "the   glorious   Fourth,"   or 
the    birthday    of   Washington    or    Lincoln,    since    the    flag 
is  the  symbol  of  every  great  deed  or  event  of  patriotism,  and  not  of 
any  one  man  or  fact  alone,  —  is  not  yet  generally  observed  as  a  national 
holiday.     But  the  signs  are  many  that  the  time  will  come  when  the 
jubilee  of  the  flag  will  be  kept  with  a  display  of  waving  colors  — the 
blending  of  the  matchless  Red,  White  and  Blue  —  such  as  will  gladden 
the  eyes  of  every  American,  young  and  old,  and  fan  to  a  brighter  flame 
the  fire  of  patriotism  in  every  heart.     In  this  deepening  and  extending 
honor  to  the  flag    it  is  natural  and  possible  for  children  to  take  the 
lead.     And  wherever  and  whenever  they  lead  the  way,  the  rest  of  us 
will  fall  into  line.     When  the  G.  A.  R.  held  its  annual  reunion  in  Buf- 
falo a  few  years  ago,  there  was  no  sight  "  half  so  fine,"  so  "  never-to- 
be-forgotten  "  as  the  "  Living  Shield  "  of  red,  white  and  blue,  composed 
of  school   children,   several   thousand   in   number,    suitably   arranged. 
When  Syracuse  kept  the  semi-centennial  of  its  life  as  a  city   there  was 
nothing  that  so  drew  and  held  the  gaze  of  the  thronging  crowds  as  the 
sight  of  four  hundred  high-school  girls  arranged  in  the  semblance  and 
colors  of  a  "Living  Fla  g  "  —  the  boys  meanwhile  making  the  streets 
alive  with  color,  as  they  marched  in  procession  with  waving  banners. 
But  of  course  it  is  not  always  possible,  never  necessary,  to  use  such 
elaborate  means  in  celebrating.     At  slight  expense,  let  each  boy  and 
girl  in  a  school  be  provided  with  a  flag,  and  there  is  nothing  rhythmic 
in  speech  or  song  for  which  they  cannot  easily  supply  an  accompani- 
ment of  waving  flags;  no  march  whose  movement  they  cannot  "  time  " 
with  moving  banners.     And  out  of  each  Flag-day  exercise,  whether 
annual  or  oftener,  there  should  come  a  better  appreciation  of  the  worth 
of  the  flag  and  the  meaning  of  true  patriotism.    Moreover,  the  exercises 
may  be  greatly  varied  by  the  use  of  any  number  among  the  forty  pro- 
grams   which  this  book  contains -for  all  the  forty  subjects,  like  a 

chorus  of  voices,  "  Rally  'Round  the  Flag." 





Our   glory's   path   by   stars   it  shows, 
And  crimson  stripes  for  Freedom's  foes. 

—  Henry  P.  Beck. 

God  bless    each  precious  fold, 
Made  sacred  by  the  patriot  hands   that  now  are  still  and  cold. 

—  Jennie  Gould. 

Let  all  the  ends  thou  aim'st  at  be  thy  Country's, 
Thy  God's  and  Truth's. 

—  William  Shakespeare. 

One  flag,   one  land,   one  heart,  one  hand, 
One  nation,  evermore. 

—  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 

Bear  that  banner  proudly  up,  young  warriors  of  the  land, 

With  hearts  of  love,  and  arms  of  faith  and  more  than  iron  hand. 

— Thomas  Williams. 

Waves   from    sea   to    mountain   crag, 
Freedom's  starry  Union  flag. 

—  Frederic  Dennison 

Let  it  float  undimmed  above, 

Till    over   all    our   vales    shall    bloom 
The  sacred  colors  that  we  love. 

—  Phoebe  Cary. 


Joseph  Rodman  Drake. 
In  Unison  or  in  Parts 

John  W.  Tufts. 

V      V      V 
When  Freedom  from  her  mountain  height  Unfurled  her  standard    to    the   air,    Shetore     the  az  -  ure 

Flag  of  the  free  heart's  hope  and  home.By   an  -  gelhandsto      val  -  or  given,Thy  stars  have  lit    the 


Forever  float  that  standard  sheet !  Where  breathes  the  foe  but  falls  before  us,  With  Freedom's  soil   be  - 


^-*— ^ 







■V— V- 



cres.  molto  e  rit. 

-p-7^3^3: 3: 

~  ~  cres.  mono  e  rit.  /. 

j — "- — * — ^ — ^ — « — •    y    C »-^ ■, Y^ 1 -J 1 -A 

robe  of  night,    And  set     the  stars  of  glo  -  ry      there—  And  set     the  stars  of  glo  -  ry      there  ! 
wel- kin  dome,  And  all     thy  hues  were  born  in  heaven — And  all     thy  hues  were  born  in     heaven. 
~====—p        P        cres.  f  f  cres.  molto  e  rit.       sf  z^==~ 






4  -j> 

-c  .  -5-  -•-  -•-    •#■ 

neath  our  feet,  And  Freedom's  banner  streaming  o'er  us — And  Freedom's  bannerstreamingo'er  us. 

— ___=_^  /        cres.                                    f                      f  _        <rr^.  jnolto  e  rit.       sf  zz=_ 






By  permission  Silver,  Burdett  &  Co. 



It  was  no  holiday  flag,  emblazoned  for  gayety,  or  for  vanity.  It 
was  a  solemn  national  signal.  When  that  banner  first  unrolled  to  the 
sun,  it  was  the  symbol  of  all  those  holy  truths  and  purposes  which 
brought  together  the  Colonial  American  Congress!  Our  flag  means, 
then,  all  that  our  fathers  meant  in  the  Revolutionary  War;  it  means 
all  that  the  Declaration  of  Independence  meant;  it  means  all  that  the 
Constitution  of  our  people,  organizing  for  justice,  for  liberty,  and  for 
happiness,  meant.  Our  flag  carries  American  ideas,  American  history, 
and  American  feelings.  Beginning  with  the  colonies,  and  coming  down 
to  our  time,  in  its  sacred  heraldry,  in  its  glorious  insignia,  it  has  gath- 
ered and  stored  chiefly  this  supreme  idea  —  divine  right  of  liberty  in 
man.  Every  color  means  liberty;  every  thread  means  liberty;  every 
form  of  star  and  beam  or  stripe  of  light  means  liberty;  not  lawlessness, 
not  license;  but  organized  institutional  liberty,  —  liberty  through  law, 
and  laws  for  liberty. —  Henry  Ward  Bcccher. 

Behold  it!  Listen  to  it!  Every  star  has  a  tongue;  every  stripe  is 
articulate.  "  There  is  no  language  or  speech  where  their  voices  are 
not  heard."  There  is  magic  in  the  web  of  it.  It  has  an  answer  for 
every  question  of  duty.  It  has  a  solution  for  every  doubt  and  per- 
plexity. It  has  a  word  of  good  cheer  for  every  hour  of  gloom  or  of 
despondency.  Behold  it!  Listen  to  it!  It  speaks  of  earlier  and  of  later 
struggles.  It  speaks  of  victories,  and  sometimes  of  reverses,  on  the  sea 
and  on  the  land.  It  speaks  of  patriots  and  heroes  among  the  living  and 
the  dead.  But  before  all  and  above  all  other  associations  and  memories, 
whether  of  glorious  men,  or  glorious  deeds,  or  glorious  places,  its 
voice  is  ever  of  Union  and  Liberty,  of  the  Constitution  and  the  Laws. — 
Robert  C.  Winthrop. 

All  hail  to  our  glorious  ensign !  Courage  to  the  heart,  and  strength 
to  the  hand  to  which,  in  all  time,  it  shall  be  entrusted!  May  it  ever  wave 
in  honor,  in  unsullied  glory,  and  patriotic  hope,  on  the  dome  of  the 
capitol,  on  the  dome  of  the  country's  stronghold,  on  the  tented  plain, 




on  the  wave-rocked  topmast.  Wherever,  on  the  earth's  surface,  the 
eye  of  the  American  shall  behold  it,  may  he  have  reason  to  bless  it!  On 
whatsoever  spot  it  is  planted,  there  may  freedom  have  a  foothold, 
humanity  a  brave  champion,  and  religion  an  altar.  Though  stained 
with  blood  in  a  righteous  cause,  may  it  never,  in  any  cause,  be  stained 
with  shame.  Alike,  when  its  gorgeous  folds  shall  wanton  in  lazy  holiday 
triumphs  on  the  summer  breeze,  and  its  tattered  fragments  be  dimly 
seen  through  the  clouds  of  war,  may  it  be  the  joy  and  the  pride  of  the 
American  heart.  First  raised  in  the  cause  of  right  and  liberty,  in  that 
cause  alone,  may  it  forever  spread  its  streaming  blazonry  to  the  battle 
and  the  storm.  Having  been  borne  victoriously  across  the  continent, 
and  on  every  sea,  may  virtue,  and  freedom,  and  peace  forever  follow 
where  it  leads  the  way. —  Edward  Everett. 

For  myself,  in  our  Federal  relations,  I  know  but  one  section,  one 
union,  one  flag,  one  government.  That  section  embraces  every  state; 
that  union  is  the  union  sealed  with  blood  and  consecrated  by  the  tears 
of  the  Revolutionary  struggle;  that  flag  is  the  flag  known  and  honored 
on  every  sea  under  heaven;  which  has  borne  off  glorious  victory  from 
many  a  bloody  battlefield,  and  yet  stirs  with  warmer  and  quicker  pulsa- 
tions the  heart's  blood  of  every  true  American  when  he  looks  upon 
the  stars  and  stripes.  I  will  sustain  that  flag  wherever  it  waves  —  over 
the  sea  or  over  the  land.  And  when  it  shall  be  despoiled  and  dis- 
figured, I  will  rally  around  it  still,  as  the  star-spangled  banner  of  my 
fathers  and  my  country ;  and,  so  long  as  a  single  stripe  can  be  discovered, 
or  a  single  star  shall  glimmer  from  the  surrounding  darkness,  I  will 
cheer  it  as  the  emblem  of  a  nation's  glory  and  a  nation's  hope. —  Daniel 
S.  Dickinson. 

There  is  the  national  flag!  He  must  be  cold,  indeed,  who  can 
look  upon  its  folds,  rippling  in  the  breeze,  without  pride  of  country. 
If  he  be  in  a  foreign  land,  the  flag  is  companionship,  and  country  itself, 
with  all  its  endearments.  Who,  as  he  sees  it,  can  think  of  a  state 
merely?  Whose  eye,  once  fastened  on  its  radiant  trophies,  can  fail  to 
recognize  the  image  of  the  whole  nation?  It  has  been  called  a  "  float- 
ing piece  of  poetry;  "  and  yet  I  know  not  if  it  has  any  intrinsic  beauty 


beyond  other  ensigns.  Its  highest  beauty  is  in  what  it  symbolizes.  It 
is  because  it  represents  all,  that  all  gaze  at  it  with  delight  and  reverence. 
It  is  a  piece  of  bunting  lifted  in  the  air;  but  it  speaks  sublimely,  and 
every  part  has  a  voice.  Its  stripes,  of  alternate  red  and  white,  pro- 
claim the  original  union  of  thirteen  States  to  maintain  the  Declaration 
of  Independence.  Its  stars,  white  on  a  field  of  blue,  proclaim  that 
union  of  States,  constituting  our  national  constellation,  which  receives 
a  new  star  with  every  new  State.  The  two,  together,  signify  union, 
past  and  present.  The  very  colors  have  a  language,  which  was  officially 
recognized  by  our  fathers.  White  is  for  purity,  red  for  valor,  blue 
for  justice;  and  all  together, —  bunting,  stripes,  stars,  and  colors  blaz- 
ing in  the  sky, —  make  the  flag  of  our  country,  to  be  cherished  by  all 
of  our  hearts,  to  be  upheld  by  all  our  hands. —  Charles  Sumner. 

I  have  recently  returned  from  an  extended  tour  of  the  States,  and 
nothing  so  impressed  and  so  refreshed  me  as  the  universal  display  of 
this  banner  of  beauty  and  glory.  It  waved  over  the  schoolhouses;  it 
was  in  the  hands  of  the  school  children.  As  we  speeded  across  the 
sandy  wastes,  at  some  solitary  place  a  man,  a  woman,  a  child  would 
come  to  the  door  and  wave  it  in  loyal  greeting.  Two  years  ago,  I 
saw  a  sight  that  has  ever  been  present  in  my  memory.  As  we  were 
going  out  of  the  harbor  of  Newport,  about  midnight  on  a  dark  night, 
some  of  the  officers  of  the  torpedo  station  had  prepared  for  us  a 
beautiful  surprise.  The  flag  at  the  depot  station  was  unseen  in  the 
darkness  of  the  night,  when  suddenly  electric  searchlights  were  turned 
on  it,  bathing  it  in  a  flood  of  light.  All  below  the  flag  was  hidden, 
and  it  seemed  to  have  no  touch  with  earth,  but  to  hang  from  the 
battlements  of  heaven.  It  was  as  if  heaven  was  approving  the  human 
liberty  and  human  equality  typified  by  that  flag. —  Benjamin  Harrison. 

It  is  on  such  an  occasion  as  this  that  we  can  reason  together  — 
reaffirm  our  devotion  to  the  country  and  the  principles  of  the  Decla- 
ration of  Independence.  Let  us  make  up  our  mind  that  when  we  do 
put  a  new  star  upon  our  banner  it  shall  be  a  fixed  one,  never  to  be 
dimmed  by  the  horrors  of  war,  but  brightened  by  the  contentment  and 
prosperity  of  peace.     Let  us  go  on  to  extend  the  area  of  our  useful- 



ness,  add  star  upon  star,  until  their  light  shall  shine  upon  five  hundred 
millions  of  a  free  and  happy  people.—  Abraham  Lincoln,  on  raising  a 
new  flag  over  Independence  Hall,  Philadelphia,  February  22,  1861. 


O  Star  Spangled  Banner!     The  flag  of  our  pride! 
Though  trampled  by  traitors  and  basely  defied, 
Fling  out  to  the  glad  winds  your  red,   white  and  blue, 
For  the  heart  of  the  Northland  is  beating  for  you! 
And  her  strong  arm  i«  nerving  to  strike  with  a  will, 
Till  the  foe  and  his  boastings  are  humbled  and  still! 
Here's  welcome  to  wounding  and  combat  and  scars 
And  the  glory  of  death,  for  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars! 

From  prairie,  O  ploughman!  speed  boldly  away, 
There's  seed  to  be  sown  in  God's  furrows  to-day! 
Row  landward,  lone  fisher!  stout  woodman,  come  homel 
Let  smith  leave  his  anvil,  and  weaver  his  loom, 
And  hamlet  and  city  ring  loud  with  the  cry: 
"  For  God  and  our  country  we'll  fight  till  we  die! 
Here's  welcome  to  wounding  and  combat  and  scars 
And  the  glory  of  death,  for  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars!  " 

Invincible  banner!  the  flag  of  the  free, 
Oh,   where   treads  the   foot  that  would   falter  for  thee? 
Or  the  hands  to  be  folded  till  triumph  is  won 
And  the  eagle  looks  proud,  as  of  old,  to  the  sun? 
Give  tears  for  the  parting,  a  murmur  of  prayer, 
Then  forward!  the  fame  of  our  standard  to  share! 
With  welcome  to  wounding  and  combat  and  scars 
And  the  glory  of  death,  for  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars! 

O  God  of  our  fathers!  this  banner  must  shine 
Where  battle  is  hottest,  in  warfare  divine! 
The  cannon  has  thundered,   the  bugle  has  blown, 
We  fear  not  the  summons,  we  fight  not  alone! 
O  lead  us,  till  wide  from  the  gulf  to  the  sea 
The  land  shall  be  sacred  to  freedom  and  Thee! 
With  love  for  oppression;  with  blessing  for  scars, 
One  Country,  one  Banner,  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars! 

—  Edna  Dean  Proctor. 


In  the  ceremonies  at  Philadelphia,  I  was,  for  the  first  time,  allowed 
the  privilege  of  standing  in  old  Independence  Hall.  *  *  *  My 
friends  there  had  provided  a  magnificent  flag  of  the  country.  They 
had  arranged  it  so  that  I  was  given  the  honor  of  raising  it  to  the  head 
of  its  staff.  And  when  it  went  up.  I  was  pleased  that  it  went  up  to 
its  place  by  the  strength  of  my  own  feeble  arm.  When,  according 
to  the  arrangement,  the  cord  was  pulled,  and  it  floated  gloriously  to 
the  wind  without  an  accident,  in  the  light,  glowing  sunshine  of  the 
morning,  I  could  not  help  hoping  that  there  was  in  the  entire  success 
of  that  beautiful  ceremony  at  least  something  01  an  omen  of  what  is 
to  come.  How  could  I  help  feeling  then,  as  I  often  have  felt,  in  the 
whole  of  that  proceeding  I  was  a  very  humble  instrument? 

I  had  not  provided  the  flag;  I  had  not  made  the  arrangements  for 
elevating  it  to  its  place.  I  had  applied  but  a  very  small  portion  of 
my  feeble  strength  in  raising  it.  In  the  whole  transaction,  I  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  people  who  had  arranged  it.  And,  if  I  can  have  the 
same  generous  co-operation  of  the  people  of  the  nation,  I  think  the 
flag  of  our  country  may  still  be  kept  flaunting  gloriously. —  Abraham 
Lincoln,  Address  to  the  Legislature,  Harrisburg,  February  22,  1861. 


Hail,  brightest  banner  that  floats  on  the  gale! 
Flag  of  the  country  of  Washington,  hail! 
Red  are  thy  stripes  with  the  blood  of  the  brave; 
Bright  are  thy  stars  as  the  sun  on  the  wave; 
Wrapt  in  thy  folds  are  the  hopes  of  the  free. 
Banner  of  Washington!  blessings  on  thee! 

Traitors  shall  perish,   and  treason  shall  fail: 
Kingdoms  and  thrones  in  thy  glory  grow  pale! 
Thou  shalt  live  on,  and  thy  people  shall  own 
Loyalty's  sweet,  when  each  heart  is  thy  throne: 
Union  and  Freedom  thine  heritage  be. 
Country  of  Washington!  blessings  on  thee! 

—  William  E.  Robinson. 




Our  flag  is  there,  our  flag  is  there, 

We'll  hail  it  with  three  loud  huzzas. 
Our  flag  is  there,  our  flag  is  there, 

Behold  the   glorious   Stripes  and  Stars. 
Stout  hearts  have  fought  for  that  bright  flag, 

Strong   hands   sustained  it  mast-head  high, 
And,  oh,  to  see  how  proud  it  waves, 

Brings  tears  of  joy  in  every  eye. 

That  flag  has  stood  the  battle's  roar, 

With  foemen   stout,  with  foemen  brave; 
Strong  hands  have  sought  that  flag  to  lower, 

And   found  a  speedy  watery  g^ave. 
That  flag  is  known  on  every  shore, 

The  standard  of  a  gallant  band: 
Alike  unstained  in  peace  or  war, 

It  floats  o'er  Freedom's  happy  land. 

—  American  Naval  Officer,  1812. 


Wm.  A.  Montgomery. 
With  animation. 
Solo  or  Duet. 

Hamlin  E.  Cogswell. 

i.    Oh,      flag 

2.  Thy       red 

3.  Thy      blue 

of  a  res  -  o  -  lute  na 
is  the  deep  crim-son  life 
is      the    na  -  tion's  en  -  dur 

tion,       Oh,    flag        of 

stream,  Which  flowed  on 

ance,      And  points     to 

the  strong     and 
the  bat    -    tie 
the  blue        a 



hal  -  low  thy  col 
leav  -  ing  no  ser 
type         of  our  Fa 



ors  three ; 

vile         stain, 
ther's      love. 




Three  proud,    float-ing     em  -   blems  of 
Thy      white        is      a       proud     peo-ple's 
Thy      stars        are  God's  wit    -    ness  of 

|— I F=^=ni i    fj        Tl      J         y-l-— H— 1=3=--        I        I       =faj 


By  permission  of  The  John  Church  Company. 



Our       guide 
Kept       spot 
And      smile 

for  the      com 

less  and     clear 

at   the      foe 

T — 

ing  time; 

as  light ; 

man's  frown ; 



^f— =t 

-dr+d. 3 




I *4-*=t 









-— 1 — 

red,  white  and  blue,     in     their  beau-  ty,       Love  gives  them      a  mean-ing     sub -lime, 
pledge    of      un-fal  -    ter  -  ing  jus  -  tice,       A     sym   -    bol  of    truth   and  right, 

spar  -  kle     and  gleam  in     their  splen-dor,  Bright  gems      in     the  great    world's    crown. 





-^ * 




Oh,     flat 





T       <i 

of        a    res   -    o  -  lute    na 




-1-.  -a-         -d-  -J-.  *  -S>-. 

tion,        Oh,      flag     of       the  strong  and  the    free; 








-^    ^ 


-#"    N 

The    cher  -  ished    of  true    heart -ed    mil -lions,     We 


»-  "{/>- 




hal  -  low    thy     col     -     ors      three. 
•   ff+- 


■v — f- 





Let  it  idly  droop,  or  sway 

To  the  wind's  light  will: 
Furl   its   stars,   or  float   in   day, 

Flutter,   or  be  still! 
It  his  held  its  colors  bright, 

Through  the  war-smoke  dun: 
Spotless  emblem  of  the  right, 

Whence  success  was  won. 

In  the  gathering  hosts  of  hope, 

In  the  march  of  man, 
Open  for  it  place  and  scope, 

Bid  it  lead  the  van. 
Till  beneath  the  searching  skies 

Martyr-blood  be   found, 
Purer  than  our  sacrifice, 

Crying  from  the  ground. 

Till  :i  flag  with  some  new  light 

Oit  of  Freedom's  sky, 
Kindles  through  the  gulfs   of  night 

Holier  blazonry. 
Let  it  glow,  the   darkness  drown! 

Give  our  banner  sway, 
Till  its  joyful  stars  go  down 

In  undreamed-of  Day! 

—  Lucy  Larcom. 


O  Columbia,  the  gem  of  the  ocean, 

The  home  of  the  brave  and  the  free, 
The  shrine  of  each  patriot's  devotion, 

A  world  offers  homage  to  thee. 
Thy  mandates  make  heroes  assemble, 

When  Liberty's  form  stands  in  view; 
Thy  barners  make  tyranny  tremble, 

When  borne  by  the  Red,  White  and  Blue. 

Chorus:  When  borne  by  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue, 

When  borne  by  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue, 

Thy  banners  make  tyranny  tremble 
When  borne  by  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue. 



When  war  winged  its  wide  desolation, 

And  threatened  the  land  to  deform, 
The  ark  then  of  Freedom's  foundation, 

Columbia,  rode  safe  through  the  storm, 
With  the  garlands  of  victory  around  her, 

When  so  proudly  she  bore  her  brave  crew, 
With  her  flag  proudly  floating  before  her, 

The  boast  of  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue. 

—  David  T.  Shaw. 

O'er  the  high  and  o'er  the  lowly 
Floats  that  banner  bright  and  holy, 

In  the  rays  of  Freedom's  sun, 
In  the  nation's  heart  imbedded, 
O'er  our  Union  newly  wedded, 

One  in  all,  and  all  in  one. 

Let  that  banner  wave  forever, 
May  its  lustrous  stars  fade  never, 

Till  the  stars  shall  pale  on  high: 
While  there's  right  the  wrong  defeating, 
While   there's    hope    in    true    hearts    beating, 

Truth  and  freedom  shall  not  die. 

As  it  floated  long  before  us, 
Be  it  ever  floating  o'er  us, 

O'er  our  land  from  shore  to  shore: 
There  are  freemen  yet  to  wave  it, 
Millions  who  would  die  to  save  it, 

Wave  it,  save  it,  evermore! 

—  Dexter  Smith. 

All  nature  sings  wildly  the  song  of  the  free, 

The  Red,  White,  and  Blue  float  o'er  land  and  o'er  sea: 

The  White,  in  each  billow  that  breaks  on  the  shore, 

The  Blue,  in  the  arching  that  canopies  o'er 

The  land  of  our  birth  in  its  glory  outspread, 

And  sunset  dyes  deepen  and  glow  into  red: 

Day  fades  into  night  and  the  red  stripe  retires, 

But  stars  o'er  the  blue  light  their  sentinel  fires; 

And  though  night  be  gloomy,  with  clouds  overspread, 

Each  star  holds  its  place  in  the  field  overhead. 

When  scatter  the  clouds  and  the  tempest  is  through, 

We  count  every  star  in  the  field  of  the  blue. 

—  Anonymous. 


It  is  the  flag  of  history.  Those  thirteen  stripes  tell  the  story  of 
our  colonial  struggle,  of  the  clays  of  '76.  They  speak  of  the  savage 
wilderness,  of  old  Independence  Hall,  of  Valley  Forge,  and  Yorktown. 
Those  stars  tell  the  story  of  our  nation's  growth,  how  it  has  come 
from  weakness  to  strength,  until  its  gleam,  in  the  sunrise  over  the 
forests  of  Maine,  crimsons  the  sunset's  dying  beams  on  the  golden 
sands  of  California. —  5.  L.  Watcrbury. 

The  stars  of  our  morn  on  our  banner  borne, 

With  the  iris  of  Heaven  are  blended, 
The  hands  of  our  sires  first  mingled  those  fires, 

By  us  they  shall  be  defended! 
Then  hail  the  true,  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue, 

The  flag  of  the  "  Constellation:  " 
It  sails  as  it  sailed,  by  our  forefathers  hailed, 

O'er  battles  that  made  us  a  nation. 

Peace,  peace  to  the  world,  is  our  motto  unfurled, 

Tho'  we  shun  not  a  field  that  is  gory: 
At  home  or  abroad,  fearing  none  but  our  God; 

We  will  carve  out  our  pathway  to  glory  1 

—  Thomas  Buchanan  Read. 

In  radiance  heavenly  fair, 

Floats  on  the  peaceful  air 
That  flag  that  never  stooped  from  victory's  pride: 

Those  stars  that  softly  gleam, 

Those  stripes  that  o'er  us  stream, 
In  war's  grand  agony  were  sanctified: 

A  holy  standard,  pure  and  free 
To  light  the  home  of  peace,   or  blaze  in  victory. 

—  F.  Marion  Crawford. 

Washed  in  the  blood  of  the  brave  and  the  blooming, 

Snatched  from  the  altars  of  insolent  fees, 
Burning  with  star  fires,  but  never  consuming, 

Flash  its  broad  ribbons  of  lily  and  rose. 


God  bless  the  flag  and  its  loyal  defenders, 

While  its  broad  folds  ever  the  battle-field  wave, 
Till  the  dim  star-wreath  rekindle  its  splendors, 

Washed  from  its  stains  in  the  blood  of  the  brave! 

—  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 



When   Freedom,   from  her  mountain  height, 

Unfurled  her  standard  to  the  air, 
She  tore  the  azure  robe  of  Night, 

And  set  the  stars  of  glory  there. 
She  mingled  with  its  gorgeous  dyes 
The  milky  baldric  of  the  skies, 
And  striped  its  pure,  celestial  white, 
With  streakings  of  the  morning  light: 
Then,  from  his  mansion  in  the  sun, 
She  called  her  eagle  bearer  down, 
And  gave  into  his  mighty  hand 
The  symbol  of  her  chosen  land. 

Flag  of  the  free  heart's  hope  and  home! 

By  angel  hands  to  valor  given! 
Thy  stars  have  lit  the  welkin  dome, 

And  all  thy  hues  were  born  in  Heaven. 
Forever  float  that  standard  sheet! 

Where  breathes  the  foe  but  falls  before  us, 
With  Freedom's  soU  beneath  our  feet, 

And  Freedom's  banner  streaming  o'er  us? 

—  7.  Rodman  Drake. 

Thou  lofty  ensign  of  the  free. 

May  every  land  thy  glory  know, 
And  every  freeman  cling  to  thee, 

While  breezes  'mid  thy  folds  shall  flow. 
May  hand,  and  heart,  and  hopes,  and  zeal, 

Be  ever  by  thy  form  inspired, 
And,  should  it  shake  the  commonweal, 

May  every  soul  by  thee  be  fired, 
Each    patriot    heart   discern    amid    thy    form, 
A  beacon  star  in  the  battle  storm. 

—  I.  C.  Pray,  Jr. 



Steady  time. 

— N- 

i.  Flag 
2.  Flag 





of      the     free, 
of      the   brave 



From  "  Lohengrin." 


est      to 
may      it 

Borne       thro'    the  strife     and    the 
Cho    -    sen      of     God    while  His 




der       of       war ; 
we        a   -  dore; 

Ban    -    ner      so    bright  with      star  -  ry      light, 

In        lib     -     er  -   ty's      van         for     man  -  hood     of      man, 




D.s.   While    thro1  the      sky 


loud  rings    the      cry, 



Float      ev  -   er    proud-  ly    from    moun- tain      to     shore.          Em  -  blem  of      free  -  dom, 

Sym  -  bol      of     right     thro'    the     years    pass  -  ing      o'er!        Pride     of  our    coun  -  try, 

±.  A. 
-9-:    -•-       *-        - .     -P-       » 

Uii  -   ion     and     lib 

ty  !     One       ev  -  er  -  more ! 

hope        to      the     slave,      Spread  thy     fair      folds    but      to      shield    and 
hon    -  or'd       a   -    far,  Scat  -  ter    each     cloud    that  would   dark  -  en 







From  Levermore's  "  Academy  Song  Book."     Published  by  Ginn  &  Co.     By  permission. 


Every  nation  has  its  flag.  Every  ship  in  foreign  waters  is  known 
by  the  colors  she  shows  at  her  peak.  When  we  were  colonies  of  Eng- 
land, we  sailed  and  fought  under  her  flag.  We  finally  rebelled ;  it  was 
nothing  less;  and  to  England  our  George  Washington  was  merely  a 
leading  rebel.  We  were  thirteen  little  States,  fringed  along  on  the 
Atlantic  coast,  with  the  unbroken  forest  behind  us,  and  among  the 
great  family  of  nations  we  had  neither  place  nor  name.  We  had  to 
fight  to  obtain  due  respect  from  all  the  great  old  nations  who  were 
looking  on.  Of  course,  we  had  no  flag;  we  had  to  earn  that  too. 
Our  army  at  Cambridge  celebrated  New  Year's  Day,  January  i,  1776, 
by  unfurling  for  the  first  time  in  an  American  camp  the  flag  of  thirteen 
stripes.  On  the  14th  of  June,  1776,  Congress,  which  met  then  in 
Philadelphia,  settled  upon  our  style  of  flag.  "  It  shall  have,"  said 
they,  "thirteen  stripes,  alternate  red  and  white;  and  the  union  of  the 
States  shall  be  indicated  by  thirteen  stars,  white,  in  a  blue  field,  repre- 
senting a  new  constellation."  They  followed  up  the  adoption  of  a 
flag  by  a  Declaration  of  Independence;  and  then  we  went  to  fighting 
harder  than  ever,  and  France  acknowledged  our  independence,  and 
helped  us  to  make  England  acknowledge  it.  Afterward  it  was  decided 
to  add  another  star  for  every  new  State  as  it  joined  the  Union.  So 
that  the  constellation,  as  it  is  now,  with  forty-five  stars  in  it,  has  grown 
a  good  deal  from  the  original  thirteen.  But  the  stripes  still  remain 
the  same  in  number,  to  remind  us  of  the  first  little  band  of  States 
"  who  fought  it  out  "  against  Great  Britain. —  Kate  Foote. 

Stream,   Old   Glory,   bear  your   stars 

High   among   the    seven; 
Stream   a   watchfire   on   the   dark, 

And  make  a  sign  in   Heaven! 
Out  upon  the  four  winds  blow, 

Tell  the  world  your  story: 
Thrice  in  heart's  blood  dipped  before 

They  called  your  name  Old  Glory! 

When  from  sky  to  sky  you  float, 

Far  in  wide  savannas, 
Vast  horizons  lost  in  light 

Answer  with  hosannas. 



Symbol  of  unmeasured  power, 

Blessed  promise  sealing, 
All  your  hills  are  hills  of  God, 

And  all  your  founts  are  healing. 

Still  to  those,  the  wronged  of  earth, 

Sanctuary  render: 
For  hope,   and   home,   and   Heaven   they  see 

Within  your  sacred  splendor! 
Stream,  Old  Glory,  bear  your  stars 

High    among   the    seven: 
Stream  a  watchfire  on  the  dark, 

And  make  a  sign  in  Heaven! 

—  Harriet  Prescott  Spofford. 


Oh,  say,  can  you  see  by  the  dawn's  early  light 
What  so  proudly  we  hailed  at  the  twilight's  last  gleaming, 

Whose  broad  stripes  and  bright  stars,  through  the  perilous  fight, 
O'er  the  ramparts  we  watched  were  so  gallantly  streaming? 

And  the  rocket's  red  glare,  the  bombs  bursting  in  air, 

Gave  proof  through  the  night  that  our  flag  was  still  there: 

Oh,  say,  does  that  star-spangled  banner  yet  wave 

O'er  the  land  of  the  free,  and  the  home  of  the  brave? 

On  that  shore,  dimly  seen  through  the  mists  of  the  deep, 
Where  the  foe's  haughty  host  in  dread  silence  reposes, 
What  is  that  which  the  breeze,  o'er  the  towering  steep, 

As  it  fitfully  blows,  now  conceals,  now  discloses? 
Now  it  catches  the  gleam  of  the  morning's  first  beam, 
In  full  glory  reflected,  now  shines  on  the  stream: 
Tis  the  star-spangled  banner  —  Oh,  long  may  it  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free  and  the  home  of  the  brave! 
Oh,  thus  be  it  ever,  when  freemen  shall  stand 

Between  their  loved  homes  and  the  war's  desolation! 
Blest  with  victory  and  peace,  may  the  heaven-rescued  land 

Praise  the   Power  that  hath  made  and  preserved  us  a  nation. 
Then  conquer  we  must,  when  our  cause  it  is  just; 
And  this  be  our  motto:     "  In  God  is  our  trust;  " 
And  the  star-spangled  banner  in  triumph  shall  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free,  and  the  home  of  the  brave! 

—  Francis  Scott  Key. 




Off  with  your  hat    as  the  flag  goes  by! 

And  let  the  heart  have  its  say: 
You're  man  enough  for  a  tear  in  your  eye 

That  you  will  not  wipe  away. 

You're  man  enough  for  a  thrill  that  goes 

To  your  very  finger  tips  — 
Ay!  the  lump  just  then  in  your  throat  that  rose, 

Spoke  more  than  your  parted  lips. 

Lift  up  your  boy  on  your  shoulder  high, 

And  show  him  the  faded  shred; 
Those  stripes  would  be  red  as  the  sunset  sky 

If  death  could  have  dyed  them  red. 

Off  with  your  hat  as  the  flag  goes  by! 

Uncover  the  youngster's  head; 
Teach  him  to  hold  it  holy  and  high 

For  the  sake  of  its  sacred  dead. 

—  H.   C.  Bunner. 


She's  up  there, —  Old  Glory, —  where  lightnings  are  sped; 

She  dazzles  the  nations  with  ripples  of  red; 

And  she'll  wave  for  us  living,  or  droop  o'er  us  dead, — 

The  flag  of  our  country  forever! 
She's  up  there, —  Old  Glory, —  how  bright  the  stars  stream! 
And  the  stripes,  like  red  signals  of  liberty,  gleam! 
And  we  dare  for  her,  living,  or  dream  the  last  dream, 

'Neath  the  flag  of  our  country  forever! 
She's  up  there, —  Old  Glory, —  no  tyrant-dealt  scars, 
No  blur  on  her  brightness,  no  stain  on  her  stars! 
The  brave  blood  of  heroes  hath  crimsoned  her  bars. 

She's  the  flag  of  our  country  forever. 

—  Frank  L.  Stanton. 

We'll  never  have  a  new  flag,  for  ours  is  the  true  flag, 
The  true  flag,  the  true  flag,  the  Red,  White,  and  Blue  flag. 
Hurrah!  boys,  hurrah!  we  will  carry  to  the  wars 
The  old  flag,  the  free  flag,  the  Banner  of  the  stars! 
And  what  tho'  its  white  shall  be  crimsoned  with  our  blood? 

And  what  tho'  its  stripes  shall  be  shredded  in  the  storms? 
To  the  torn  flag,  the  worn  flag,  we'll  keep  our  promise  good, 

And  we'll  bear  the  starry  blue  flag    with  gallant  hearts  and  arms. 

2i  — R-  IV.  Raymond. 


The  flag  of  a  nation  is  the  sign  of  its  sovereignty.  The  American 
flag  is  but  the  historic  parallel  of  older  nations,  and  yet  it  stands  alone 
in  this  —  that  from  the  day  it  was  first  unfurled  in  the  breeze  it  has 
stood  for  manly  independence  and  a  people's  government.  It  has 
never  been  sullied  by  ignoble  conquests,  and  it  has  been  glorified  by 
the  proudest  possible  service  in  the  cause  of  human  freedom. 

And  it  is  a  curious  fact  that  it  is  the  oldest  flag  among  the  great 
nations  of  the  world  in  its  characteristic  present  form.  Most  of  the 
older  nations  have  modified  the  design  of  their  flags  within  a  hundred 
years,  while  ours  remains  unchanged. 

What  splendid  memories  cluster  about  this  beautiful  flag!  What 
heroic  deeds  have  made  immortal  the  gallant  volunteer  heroes  who 
have  defended  it  through  ail  its  perils  and  triumphs  of  over  120  years, 
as  it  has  floated  in  the  van  of  the  march  of  American  progress  and 
civilization  on  this  continent! — Albert  D.  Shaw,  Commander-in-Chief 
(1899- 1 900)  G.  A.  R. 

The  history  of  our  country  is  grandly  illustrated  in  our  Stars  and 
Stripes.  New  stars  have  been  added  to  its  field  of  blue  as  new  States 
have  been  admitted  into  our  Union.  It  had  its  origin  in  the  era  of 
Washington,  when  our  republic  was  established,  and  it  had  its  greatest 
trial  in  the  epoch  of  Lincoln,  when  the  mightiest  civil  war  of  the  world 
tested  its  power  and  vindicated  its  supreme  control  and  command  over 
the  discordant  elements  arrayed  in  deadly  and  brave  attempt  to  destroy 
it.  To-day  this  flag  stands  for  no  one  party  or  section,  but  floats  over 
the  whole  country,  one  and  undivided,  without  sectional  hates,  united 
in  the  bonds  of  universal  liberty  and  in  the  sentiments  of  an  inspiring 
American  civilization.  It  is  the  proud  sign  of  peace  among  ourselves 
and  with  all  the  world. —  Albert  D.  Shaw. 

Our  beautiful  flag  is  surrounded  by  touching  memories  and  asso- 
ciations. Its  bright  stripes  and  fair  stars  are  perishable,  but  the  senti- 
ments it  teaches,  like  the  spirit  of  liberty,  can  never  die.  "  These  shall 
resist  the  Empire  of  decay,  when  time  is  o'er  and  worlds  have  passed 
away."     Let  it  be  treasured  as  one  of  the  greatest  inspiring  factors  in 


the  blessed  work  of  science  and  art  here  devoted  to  the  uplifting  of  the 
youth  of  our  land  along  the  plane  of  peace  and  happiness,  and  may  it 
inspire  coming  generations  to 

Stand  by  the  flag!     Its  folds  have  streamed  in  glory, 

To  foes  a  fear,  to  friends  a  festal  robe; 
And  spread  in  rhythmic  lines  the  sacred  story, 

Of  Freedom's  triumphs  over  all  the  globe. 

Stand  by  the  flag!     On  land  and  ocean  billow, 

By  it  our  fathers  stood,  unmoved  and  true; 
Living,   defended;  dying,  for  their  pillow, 

With  their  last  blessing,  passed  it  on  to  you. 

Stand  by  the  flag!     All  doubt  and  treason  scorning, 

Believe,  with  courage  firm  and  faith  sublime, 
That  it  will  float  until  the  eternal  morning 

Pales  in  its  glories  all  the  lights  of  time. 

—  Extract  from  address  presenting  flag  to  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of 
Arts  and  Sciences,  from  Albert  D.  Shaw. 


Hats  off! 

Along  the  street  there  comes 

A  blare  of  bugles,  a  ruffle  of  drums, 

A  flash  of  color  beneath  the  sky: 
Hats  off! 

The  flag  is  passing  by! 

Blue  and  crimson  and  white  it  shines, 

Over  the  steel-tipped,  ordered  lines. 

Hats  off! 

The  colors  before  us  fly; 

But  more  than  the  flag  is  passing  by. 

Sea-fights  and  land-fights,  grim  and  great, 
Fought  to  make  and  to  save  the  State; 
Weary  marches  and  sinking  ships; 
Cheers  of  victory  on  dying  lips; 



Days  of  plenty  and  years  of  peace, 
March  of  a  strong  land's  swift  increase: 
Equal  justice,  right  and  law, 
Stately  honor  and  reverent  awe; 

Sign  of  a  nation,  great  and  strong 

To  ward  her  people  from  foreign  wrong; 

Pride  and  glory  and  honor,  all 

Live  in  the  colors  to  stand  or  fall. 

Hats  off! 

Along  the  street  there  comes 

A  blare  of  bugles,  a  ruffle  of  drums; 

And  loyal  hearts  are  beating  high: 
Hats  off! 

The   flag  is  passing  by! 

—  H.  H.  Bennett. 


We  were  not  many,  we  who  stood 
Before  the  iron  sleet  that  day; 
Yet  many  a   gallant  spirit  would 
Give  half  his  years  if  but  he  could 
Have  been  with  us  at  Monterey. 

Mow  here,  now  there,  the  shot  it  hailed 

In   deadly  drifts  of  fiery  spray, 
Yet  not  a  single  soldier  quailed 
When  wounded  comrades  round  them  wailed 

Their  dying  shout  at  Monterey. 

And  on,  still  on  our  column  kept 

Through  walls  of  flame  its  withering  way; 
Where   fell  the  dead,  the  living  stept, 
Still   charging   on  the  guns   which   swept 
The  slippery  streets  of  Monterey. 

The  foe  himself  recoiled  aghast, 

When,  striking  where  he  strongest  lay, 
We  swooped  his  flanking  batteries  past, 
And  braving  full  their  murderous  blast, 
Stormed  home  the  towers  of  Monterey. 


Our  banners  on  those  turrets  wave, 

And  there  our  evening  bugles  play; 
Where  orange-boughs  above  their  grave, 
Keep  green  the  memory  of  the  brave 

Who  fought  and  fell  at  Monterey. 

We  are  not  many,  we  who  pressed 

Beside  the  brave  who  fell  that  day; 
But  who  of  us  has  not  confessed 
He'd  rather  share  their  warrior  rest 

Than  not  have  been  at  Monterey? 

—  Charles  Fenno  Hoffman. 


On  leaving  England  a  few  years  ago  Miss  Willard  saw  from  the 
hansom  in  which  she  was  riding  along  Piccadilly  the  London  omnibus, 
with  its  English  flag  at  the  front,  whereupon  there  came  into  her  mind 
the  words:  "  With  its  red  for  love,  and  its  white  for  law,  and  its  blue 
for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw  of  a  larger  liberty."  This  was  pen- 
ciled at  the  moment,  and  on  the  train  en  route  for  Southampton  to 
take  the  steamship  for  New  York,  Miss  Willard  wrote  the  accompany- 
ing lines,  leaving  them  as  a  goodbye  tribute  in  the  hand  of  her  friend, 
Lady  Henry  Somerset: 

The  eyes  that  follow  thee,  old  flag,  are  fond, 

A  Western  heart  leaps  up  thy  folds  to  greet, 
A  Saxon's  eyes  confess  the  sacred  bond 

As  England's  standard  flutters  down  the  street, 
With  its  red  for  love,  and  its  white  for  law, 

And  its  blue  for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw 
Of  a  larger  liberty. 

Thou  art  the  mother  flag  of  destiny, 

Our  banner  of  the  spangled  stars  is  trine; 

Cromwell  was  sire  of  Washington  and  we 

Claim  the  same  cross  that  blazons  thy  ensign. 

With   its  red  for  love,   and  its  white  for  law, 
And  its  blue  for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw 
Of  a  larger  liberty. 


O,  holy  flags,  bright  with  one  household  glow, 

Together  light  the  highway  of  our  God 
Till  the  dear  cross  of  Christ  to  men  shall  show 

That   stripes  and  stars  both   mark   the  path   he   trod, 
With  their  red  for  love,  and  their  white  for  law, 

And  their  blue  for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw 
Of  a  larger  liberty. 

The  long  march  of  the  nations  shall  be  led 

By  these  two  flags  —  till  war  and  tumult  cease 
Along  the  happy  highway  where  shall  tread 

The  brotherhood  of  labor  and  of  peace, 
With  their  red  for  love,  and  their  white  for  law, 
And  their  blue  for  the  hope  that  our  fathers  saw 
Of  a  larger  liberty. 

—  Miss  Frances  E.  Willard. 

Wherever  civilization  dwells,  or  the  name  of  Washington  is  known, 
it  bears  on  its  folds  the  concentrated  power  of  armies  and  navies,  and 
surrounds  the  votaries  with  a  defense  more  impregnable  than  a  battle- 
ment of  wall  or  tower.  Wherever  on  earth's  surface  an  American 
citizen  may  wander,  called  by  pleasure,  business,  or  caprice,  it  is  a 
shield,  securing  him  against  wrong  and  outrage. —  Galusha  A.  Grow. 


Samuel  Francis  Smith. 

Air,  "God  Save  the  King.': 


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f.   H.  QILSON   COM 







Patriotism.  Liberty. 

Declaration  of  Independence.  Union. 

Constitution     of     the     United  Citizenship. 

The  Nobility  of  Labor. 


0  efforts  to  cultivate  the  spirit  of  loyalty  and  patriotism 
can,  we  believe,  be  more  beneficial  in  their  influence  or 
lasting  in  their  results  than  those  which  are  directed  to- 
wards the  rising  generation  which  is  preparing  for  the 
duties  of  citizenship.  Whatever  can  be  done  to  create  in 
the  minds  of  the  young  an  enthusiastic  devotion  to  their  country 
will  contribute  much  to  the  well-being  of  the  republic.  We  believe 
that  the  cultivation  of  this  spirit  should  form  a  necessary  part  of  every 
system  of  education.  But  it  seems  especially  fitting  that  efforts  of 
this  kind  should  be  made  in  connection  with  that  part  of  our  educational 
system  which  is  supported  by  the  public.  Our  public  schools  are  an 
essential  part  of  the  American  system.  In  them  are  being  trained  the 
reserve  forces  of  our  country;  and  they  afford  the  best  field,  not  only 
for  diffusing  an  intelligent  knowledge  of  our  institutions,  but  also  for 
cultivating  that  deep,  patriotic  impulse  without  which  no  nation  can 
long  exist. —  From  Report  of  Committee,  New  York  Department,  G.  A.  R., 
on  "The  Teachings  of  Civics  and  History."  —  Prof.  W.  C.  Morey, 

The  one  who  would  appreciate  the  greatness  and  true  significance 
of  American  civilization  must  understand  the  sources  of  its  develop- 
ment, the  conditions  of  its  growth,  and  the  process  of  its  evolution. 
He  must  imbibe  the  spirit  of  liberty,  which  in  great  measure  prompted 
the  colonization  of  this  land.  He  must  study  the  foundations  of  our 
local  governments  as  they  were  laid  by  the  early  colonists,  and  follow 
these  pioneers  of  the  new  world  through  the  vicissitudes  of  their  indus- 
trial, religious  and  political  life.  He  must  understand  the  nature  of 
those  constitutional  rights  to  which  they  tenaciously  clung  and  from 
which  arose  the  majestic  fabric  of  our  free  institutions.     He  must  be 

translated  to  the  days  of  1776  and  comprehend  the  great  questions 



involved  in  the  War  of  Independence.  He  must  enter  into  the  strug- 
gles which  attended  the  formation  of  the  Constitution.  He  must 
understand  the  terrific  issues  which  culminated  in  the  Civil  War,  and 
the  political  principles  which  by  that  war  became  established.  He 
must,  in  fine,  see  in  the  successive  stages  of  our  history  the  progressive 
growth  of  a  great  republic,  stretching  from  ocean  to  ocean,  which  is 
at  once  democratic,  representative  and  federative,  "  an  indissoluble 
Union  of  indestructible  States."  To  eliminate  emotion  from  the  study 
of  our  country's  history  would  be  as  difficult  as  to  repress  the  feeling 
of  awe  when  contemplating  the  grandeur  of  its  natural  scenery.  There 
are  elements  of  greatness  and  sublimity  in  the  expanding  life  of  our 
nation  which  cannot  fail  to  touch  the  soul  of  any  sympathetic  student. 
—  Report,  G.  A.  R.,  as  above. 

The  kind  of  patriotism  which  we,  as  survivors  of  the  Civil  War, 
would  seek  to  promote  and  foster  in  the  young  is  not  a  spirit  born 
of  discord  and  strife,  but  a  sentiment  inspired  by  the  love  of  our  com- 
mon country,  and  a  desire  that  all  its  citizens  may  be  bound  together 
by  the  possession  of  common  rights  and  the  recognition  of  common 
duties.  It  was  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union  and  the  integrity  of 
American  institutions  that  we  once  fought,  and  it  is  for  the  same 
objects  that  we  would  still  continue  to  labor.  We  are  proud  of  the 
records  of  the  war  for  the  Union,  but  we  are  more  proud  of  the  Union 
which  that  war  made  perpetual.  Not  in  the  humiliation  of  the  men 
who  were  defeated,  but  in  the  vindication  of  the  principles  which  were 
triumphant,  do  we  most  sincerely  rejoice.  "  With  malice  towards 
none,  but  with  charity  for  all,"  we  would  maintain  the  unity  and  the 
honor  of  our  great  republic,  the  supremacy  of  its  laws,  and  the  spirit 
of  absolute  loyalty  which  must  everywhere  form  an  element  of  the 
truest  citizenship.  With  all  due  respect  for  the  bonds  of  local  interest 
and  the  obligation  of  party  ties,  we  believe  in  a  patriotism  which  is  not 
confined  to  any  section  or  to  any  party,  but  which  is  as  broad  as  the 
boundaries  of  our  great  nation,  and  which  comprehends  in  its  scope 
the  highest  welfare  of  the  whole  American  people. —  Report,  G.  A.  R., 
as  above. 


The  power  that  guided  our  fathers  across  the  water  and  planted 
their  feet  on  Plymouth  Rock;  the  power  that  gave  victory  against  the 
mother  country,  and  assured  our  independence;  the  power  that  kept 
our  Union  from  being  torn  asunder  in  civil  strife,  and  freed  the  slave, 
and  made  us  in  fact,  as  in  name,  a  nation;  the  power  that  gave  us 
Manila  Bay  and  Santiago  Harbor,  and  the  fertile  island  of  Porto  Rico, 
with  loss  of  life  so  small  that  the  story  seems  like  the  record  of  a 
miracle  in  the  far  Judean  age:  that  selfsame  power  will  keep  and  guide 
our  flag  in  its  goings  across  the  Pacific  seas,  if  we  go,  not  for  conquest, 
but  for  humanity,  for  civilization,  and  for  liberty. —  Stewart  L.  Wood- 
ford, Speech  at  New  England  Dinner,  in  New  York. 

We  cannot  honor  our  country  with  too  deep  a  reverence;  we 
cannot  love  her  with  an  affection  too  pure  and  fervent;  we  cannot 
serve  her  with  an  energy  of  purpose  or  a  faithfulness  of  zeal  too  stead- 
fast and  ardent.  And  what  is  our  country?  It  is  not  the  East,  with 
her  hills  and  her  valleys,  with  her  countless  sails,  and  the  rocky  ram- 
parts of  her  shore.  It  is  not  the  North,  with  her  thousand  villages, 
and  her  harvest-home,  with  her  frontiers  of  the  lake  and  the  ocean. 
It  is  not  the  West,  with  her  forest-sea  and  her  inland  isles,  with  her 
luxuriant  expanses,  clothed  in  the  verdant  corn,  with  her  beautiful 
Ohio,  and  her  majestic  Missouri.  Nor  is  it  yet  the  South,  opulent 
in  the  mimic  snow  of  the  cotton,  in  the  rich  plantations  of  the  rustling- 
cane,  and  in  the  golden  robes  of  the  rice-field.  What  are  these  but 
the  sister  families  of  one  greater,  better,  holier  family,  our  country? 
Be  assured  that  we  cannot,  as  patriot  scholars,  think  too  highly  of  that 
country,  or  sacrifice  too  much  for  her. —  Thomas  S.  Grimkc. 

With  malice  toward  none,  with  charity  for  all,  with  firmness  in  the 
right,  as  God  gives  us  to  see  the  right,  let  us  strive  on  to  finish  the 
work  we  are  in,  to  bind  up  the  nation's  wounds,  to  care  for  him  who 
shall  have  borne  the  battle,  and  for  his  widow  and  his  orphans  —  to 
do  all  which  may  achieve  and  cherish  a  just  and  lasting  peace  among 
ourselves  and  with  all  nations. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 


A  man's  country  is  not  a  certain  area  of  land,  but  it  is  a  principle, 
and  patriotism  is  loyalty  to  that  principle.  So,  with  passionate  hero- 
ism of  which  tradition  is  never  weary  of  tenderly  telling,  Arnold  von 
Winkelried  gathers  into  his  bosom  the  sheaf  of  foreign  spears.  So 
Nathan  Hale,  disdaining  no  service  his  country  demands,  perishes 
untimely,  with  no  other  friend  than  God  and  a  satisfied  sense  of  duty. 
So  George  Washington,  at  once  comprehending  the  scope  of  the 
destiny  to  which  his  country  was  devoted,  with  one  hand  puts  aside 
the  crown,  and  with  the  other  sets  his  slaves  free.  So,  through  all 
history,  from  the  beginning,  a  noble  army  of  martyrs  has  fought  fiercely, 
and  fallen  bravely  for  that  unseen  mistress,  their  country.  So,  through 
all  history  to  the  end,  as  long  as  men  believe  in  God,  that  army  must 
still  march,  and  fight  and  fall, —  recruited  only  from  the  flower  of 
mankind,  cheered  only  by  their  own  hope  of  humanity,  strong  only 
in  their  confidence  in  their  cause. —  George  William  Curtis. 

Observe  good  faith  and  justice  toward  all  nations;  cultivate  peace 
and  harmony  with  all.  Religion  and  morality  enjoin  this  conduct; 
and  can  it  be  that  good  policy  does  not  equally  enjoin  it?  It  will  be 
worthy  of  a  free,  enlightened,  and,  at  no  distant  period,  a  great  nation, 
to  give  to  mankind  the  magnanimous  and  too  novel  example  of  a 
people  always  guided  by  exalted  justice  and  benevolence.  Who  can 
doubt  that,  in  the  course  of  time  and  things,  the  fruits  of  such  a  plan 
would  richly  repay  any  temporary  advantages  which  might  be  lost  by 
a  steady  adherence  to  it?  Can  it  be  that  Providence  has  not  connected 
the  permanent  felicity  of  a  nation  with  its  virtue?  The  experiment, 
at  least,  is  recommended  by  every  sentiment  which  ennobles  human 
nature. —  George  Washington. 

Is  patriotism  a  narrow  affection  for  the  spot  where  a  man  was 
born?  Are  the  very  clods  where  we  tread  entitled  to  this  ardent 
preference  because  they  are  greener?  No,  this  is  not  the  character 
of  the  virtue,  and  it  soars  higher  for  its  object.  It  is  an  extended  self- 
love,  mingling  with  all  the  enjoyments  of  life,  and  twisting  itself  with 
the  minutest  filaments  of  the  heart.     It  is  thus  we  obey  the  laws  of 



society,  because  they  are  the  laws  of  virtue.  In  their  authority  we  see, 
not  the  array  of  force  and  terror,  but  the  venerable  image  of  our  coun- 
try's honor.  Every  good  citizen  makes  that  honor  his  own,  and 
cherishes  it,  not  only  as  precious  but  as  sacred.  He  is  willing  to  risk 
his  life  in  its  defense,  and  is  conscious  that  he  gains  protection  while 
he  gives  it. —  Fisher  Ames. 

What  is  it  to  be  an  American?  Putting  aside  all  the  outer  shows 
of  dress  and  manners,  social  customs  and  physical  peculiarities,  is  it 
not  to  believe  in  America,  and  in  the  American  people?  Is  it  not  to 
have  an  abiding  and  moving  faith  in  the  future  and  in  the  destiny  of 
America?  —  something  above  and  beyond  the  patriotism  and  love 
which  every  man  whose  soul  is  not  dead  within  him  feels  toward  the 
land  of  his  birth?  Is  it  not  to  be  national,  and  not  sectional,  inde- 
pendent, and  not  colonial?  Is  it  not  to  have  a  high  conception  of 
what  this  great  new  country  should  be,  and  to  follow  out  that  ideal 
with  loyalty  and  truth? — Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

And  how  is  the  spirit  of  a  free  people  to  be  formed  and  animated 
and  cheered,  but  out  of  the  storehouse  of  its  historic  recollections? 
Are  we  to  be  eternally  ringing  the  changes  upon  Marathon  and  Ther- 
mopylae; and  going  back  to  read  in  obscure  texts  of  Greek  and  Latin 
of  the  exemplars  of  patriotic  virtue?  I  thank  God  that  we  can  find 
them  nearer  home,  in  our  own  country,  on  our  own  soil;  that  strains 
of  the  noblest  sentiment  that  ever  swelled  in  the  breast  of  man  are 
breathing  to  us  out  of  every  page  of  our  country's  history,  in  the  native 
eloquence  of  our  native  tongue;  that  the  colonial  and  provincial  coun- 
cils of  America  exhibit  to  us  models  of  the  spirit  and  character  which 
gave  Greece  and  Rome  their  name  and  their  praise  among  nations. 
Here  we  may  go  for  our  instruction;  the  lesson  is  plain,  it  is  clear,  it 
is  applicable. —  Edward  Everett. 

Have  we  not  learned  that  not  stocks  nor  bonds  nor  stately  houses 
nor  lands  nor  the  product  of  the  mill  is  our  country?  It  is  a  spiritual 
thought  that  is  in  our  minds.     It  is  the  flag  and  what  it  stands  for. 


It  is  its  glorious  history.  It  is  the  fireside  and  the  home.  It  is  the 
high  thoughts  that  are  in  the  heart,  born  of  the  inspiration  which 
conies  by  the  stories  of  their  fathers,  the  martyrs  to  liberty;  it  is  the 
graveyards  into  which  our  careful  country  has  gathered  the  uncon- 
scious dust  of  those  who  have  died.  Here,  in  these  things,  is  that 
which  we  love  and  call  our  country,  rather  than  in  anything  that  can 
be  touched  or  handled. —  Benjamin  Harrison. 

I  was  born  an  American;  I  live  an  American;  I  shall  die  an 
American;  and  I  intend  to  perform  the  duties  incumbent  upon  me 
in  that  character  to  the  end  of  my  career.  I  mean  to  do  this  with 
absolute  disregard  of  personal  consequences.  What  are  personal  con- 
sequences? What  is  the  individual  man,  with  all  the  good  or  evil  that 
may  betide  him,  in  comparison  with  the  good  or  evil  which  may  befall 
a  great  country,  and  in  the  midst  of  great  transactions  which  concern 
that  country's  fate?  Let  the  consequences  be  what  they  will,  I  am 
careless.  No  man  can  suffer  too  much,  and  no  man  can  fall  too  soon, 
if  he  suffer,  or  if  he  fall  in  the  defense  of  the  liberties  and  constitution 
of  his  country. —  Daniel  Webster. 

I  have  seen  my  countrymen,  and  I  have  been  with  them,  a  fellow- 
wanderer,  in  other  lands;  and  little  did  I  see  or  feel  to  warrant  the  appre- 
hension, sometimes  expressed,  that  foreign  travel  would  weaken  our 
patriotic  attachments.  One  sigh  for  home  —  home,  arose  from  all 
hearts.  And  why,  from  palaces  and  courts,  why,  from  galleries  of  the 
arts,  where  the  marble  softened  into  life,  and  painting  shed  an  almost  liv- 
ing presence  of  beauty  around  it,  why,  from  the  mountain's  awful  brow, 
and  the  lonely  valleys  and  lakes  touched  with  the  sunset  hues  of  old 
romance,  why,  from  those  venerable  and  touching  ruins  to  which  our 
very  heart  grows,  why,  from  ail  these  scenes,  were  they  looking  beyond 
the  swellings  of  the  Atlantic  wave,  to  a  dearer  and  holier  spot  on 
earth, —  their  own  country?  Doubtless,  it  was,  in  part,  because  it  is 
their  country!  But  it  was  also,  as  everyone's  experience  will  testify, 
because  they  knew  that  there  was  no  oppression,  no  pitiful  exaction 
of  petty  tyranny;  because  that  there  they  knew  was  no  accredited  and 


irresistible  religious  domination;  because  that  there  they  knew  they 
should  not  meet  the  odious  soldier  at  every  corner,  nor  swarms  of 
imploring  beggars,  the  victims  of  misrule;  that  there  no  curse  cause- 
less did  fall,  and  no  blight  worse  than  plague  and  pestilence  did  descend 
amidst  the  pure  dews  of  heaven;  because,  in  fine,  that  there  they  knew 
was  liberty  —  upon  all  the  green  hills  and  amidst  all  the  peaceful  vil- 
lages—  liberty,  the  wall  of  fire  around  the  humblest  home;  the  crown 
of  glory,  studded  with  her  ever-blazing  stars,  upon  the  proudest  man- 
sion.—  Orville  Dewey. 

Here  in  this  sylvan  seclusion,  amid  the  sunshine  and  the  singing  of 
birds,  we  raise  the  statue  of  the  Pilgrim,  that  in  this  changeless  form 
the  long  procession  of  the  generations  which  shall  follow  us  may  see 
what  manner  of  man  he  was  to  the  outward  eye,  whom  history  and 
tradition  have  so  often  flouted  and  traduced,  but  who  walked  undis- 
mayed the  solitary  heights  of  duty  and  of  everlasting  service  to  man- 
kind. Here  let  him  stand,  the  soldier  of  a  free  church,  calmly  defying 
the  hierarchy,  the  builder  of  a  free  state  serenely  confronting  the  con- 
tinent which  he  shall  settle  and  subdue.  The  unspeaking  lips  shall 
chide  our  unworthiness,  the  lofty  mien  exalt  our  littleness,  the  unbundl- 
ing eye  invigorate  our  weakness,  and  the  whole  poised  and  firmly 
planted  form  reveal  the  unconquerable  moral  energy  —  the  master 
force  of  American  civilization.  So  stood  the  sentinel  on  Sabbath 
morning,  guarding  the  plain  house  of  prayer  while  wife  and  child  and 
neighbor  worshipped  within.  So  mused  the  Pilgrim  in  the  rapt  sun- 
set hour  on  the  New  England  shore,  his  soul  caught  up  into  the  daz- 
zling vision  of  the  future,  beholding  the  glory  of  the  nation  that  should 
be.  And  so  may  that  nation  stand,  forever  and  forever,  the  mighty 
guardian  of  human  liberty,  of  godlike  justice,  of  Christlike  brother- 
hood.—  George  William  Curtis,  from  oration  on  "The  Pilgrim." 

Fourscore  and  seven  years  ago,  our  fathers  brought  forth  on  this 
continent  a  new  nation,  conceived  in  liberty,  and  dedicated  to  the 
proposition  that  all  men  are  created  equal.  Now  we  are  engaged  in 
a  great  civil  war,  testing  whether  that  nation  or  any  nation  so  con- 




ceived  and  so  dedicated  can  long  endure.  We  are  met  on  a  great 
battlefield  of  that  war.  We  have  come  to  dedicate  a  portion  of  that 
field  as  a  final  resting-place  for  those  who  here  gave  their  lives  that 
that  nation  might  live.  It  is  altogether  fitting  and  proper  that  we 
should  do  this.  But,  in  a  larger  sense,  we  cannot  dedicate,  we  cannot 
consecrate,  we  cannot  hallow  this  ground.  The  brave  men,  living  and 
dead,  who  struggled  here,  have  consecrated  it,  far  above  our  poor 
power  to  add  or  detract.  The  world  will  little  note,  nor  long  remem- 
ber, what  we  say  here,  but  it  can  never  forget  what  they  did  here. 
It  is  for  us,  the  living,  rather,  to  be  dedicated  here  to  the  unfinished 
work  which  they  who  fought  here  have  thus  far  so  nobly  advanced. 
It  i«  rather  for  us  to  be  here  dedicated  to  the  great  task  remaining 
before  us,  that  from  these  honored  dead  we  take  increased  devotion 
to  that  cause  for  which  they  gave  the  last  full  measure  of  devotion; 
that  we  here  highly  resolve  that  these  dead  shall  not  have  died  in  vain, 
that  this  nation,  under  God,  shall  have  a  new  birth  of  freedom,  and 
that  government  of  the  people,  by  the  people,  for  the  people,  shall 
not  perish  from  the  earth. —  Abraham  Lincoln,  Speech  at  Gettysburg. 

Believe  in  your  country, —  be  Americans.  Give  what  you  can  of 
your  time  and  thought  to  your  country's  service.  Give  as  much  as 
you  can,  but  in  any  event  take  an  interest  in  public  affairs  and  do 
something.  Whether  partisan  or  independent,  strive  to  be  just,  and 
to  see  things  as  they  are.  The  men  who  are  doing  the  work  of  the 
world  are  not  perfect,  and  their  work  is  not  perfect,  but  it  is  under 
their  impulse  that  the  world  moves. 

Live  the  life  of  your  time,  and  take  your  share  in  its  battles.  You 
will  be  made,  thereby,  not  only  more  effective,  but  more  manly  and 
more  generous. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

I  believe  in  that  old-fashioned  patriotism  which  places  America 
before  all  the  world  beside.  I  believe  that  the  man  who  is  the  best 
father  of  a  family  is  the  best  citizen,  that  a  man  who  is  the  best  patriot 
does  the  best  service  to  his  fellow-man. 

I  remember  reading,  a  short  time  ago,  a  little  story  about  a  Celtic 
regiment  called  the  "  Black  Watch,"  which  had  been  gone  from  home 



for  many  years,  and  when  it  landed  upon  the  shores  again  the  men 
sprang  irom  the  boats  and  immediately  kneeled  down  and  kissed  the 
sands  of  Galway.  That's  the  kind  of  patriotism  we  want  nowadays. 
The  patriotism  that  loves  the  soil  upon  which  we  tread,  that  loves  the 
air  that  surrounds  us  here  in  America,  that  loves  tlu  Stars  and  Stripes 
because  ihey  represent  this  great  republic.  The  patriotism  that  not 
only  seeks  to  defend  our  institutions,  but  which  seeks  to  elevate  our 
manhood  and  womanhood.  The  institutions  under  which  we  live  are, 
after  all,  but  men.  Our  institutions  are  but  the  hearts,  intelligence  and 
conscience  of  the  American  people,  and  their  permanence  depends  upon 
the  quality  of  American  manhood. —  Hon.  Charles  T.  Saxton,  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of  the  State  of  New  York,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Lincoln's 
Birthday,  1895. 

Patriotism  has  come  rather  generally  to  be  interpreted  as  a  will- 
ingness to  fight  and  die  for  one's  country  and  its  institutions.  That 
answers  very  well  for  a  definition  of  patriotism  during  times  of  war, 
but  is  generally  deficient  in  that  it  allows  no  room  for  patriotism  in 
times  of  peace. 

If  a  man  loves  his  country,  and  is  true  to  her  institutions,  and 
affectionately  concerned  for  their  quality  and  permanence,  there  will 
be  something  which  he  will  be  all  the  time  doing  in  her  behalf.  Shoot- 
ing our  national  enemies  is  only  a  small  and  accidental  part  of  the 
matter.  What  our  country  needs  most  is  men  who  will  live  for  her 
rather  than  die  for  her,  but  live  for  her  while  there  is  no  shooting 
to  be  done. —  Rev.  Charles  H.  Parkhurst. 

And  for  your  country,  boy,  and  for  that  flag,  never  dream  but  of 
serving  her  as  she  bids  you.  No  matter  what  happens  to  you,  no 
matter  who  flatters  you  or  abuses  you,  never  look  at  another  flag, 
never  let  a  night  pass  but  you  pray  God  to  bless  that  flag.  Remem- 
ber, that  behind  all  these  men  you  have  to  do  with,  behind  officers,  and 
government,  and  people  even,  there  is  the  Country  Herself,  your 
Country,  and  that  you  belong  to  Her  as  you  do  belong  to  your  own 
mother.  Stand  by  her  as  you  would  stand  by  your  own  mother. — 
Edward  Everett  Hale,  in  "  The  Man  without  a  Country." 



O  beautiful,  my  country!  Ours  once  more! 
Smoothing  thy  gold  of  war-dishevelled  hair, 
O'er  such  sweet  brows  as  never  other  wore, 

And  letting  thy  set  lips, 

Freed  from  wrath's  pale  eclipse, 
The  rosy  edges  of  thy  smile  lay  bare. 
What  words  divine  of  lover  or  of  poet 
Could  tell  our  love  and  make  thee  know  it, 
Among  the  nations  bright  beyond  compare? 
What  were  our  lives  without  thee? 
What  all  our  lives  to  save  thee? 
We  reck  not  what  we  gave  thee; 
We  will  not  dare  to  doubt  thee; 
But  ask  whatever  else,  and  we  will  dare. 

—  James  Russell  Lozvell. 

Patriotism  is  not  only  a  legitimate  sentiment,  but  a  duty.  There 
are  countless  reasons  why,  as  Americans,  we  should  love  our  native 
land.  We  may  feel  no  scruples  as  Christians  in  welcoming  and  nourish- 
ing a  peculiar  affection  for  its  winds  and  soil,  its  coast  and  hills,  its 
memories  and  its  flag.  We  cannot  more  efficiently  labor  for  the  good 
of  all  men  than  by  pledging  heart,  brain,  and  hands  to  the  service  of 
keeping  our  country  true  to  its  mission,  obedient  to  its  idea.  Our 
patriotism  must  draw  its  nutriment  and  derive  its  impulse  from  knowl- 
edge and  love  of  the  ideal  America,  as  yet  but  partially  reflected  in 
our  institutions,  or  in  the  general  mind  of  the  Republic.  Thus  quick- 
ened it  will  be  both  pure  and  practical. —  T.  Starr  King. 


There  is  a  land,  of  every  land  the  pride, 

Beloved  by  Heaven  o'er  all  the  world  beside; 

Where  brighter  suns  dispense  serener  light, 

And  milder  moons  emparadise  the  night. 

There  is  a  spot  of  earth  supremely  blest, 

A  dearer,  sweeter  spot  than  all  the  rest: 

Where  man,  creation's  tyrant,  casts  aside 

His  sword  and  scepter,  pageantry  and  pride, 

While  in  his  softened  looks  benignly  blend 

The  sire,  the  son,  the  husband,  brother,  friend. 

"Where  shall  that  land,  that  spot  of  earth,  be   found?" 

Art  thou  a  man?  a  patriot?  look  around! 

Oh,  thou  shalt  find,  howe'er  thy  footsteps  roam, 

That  land  thy  country,  and  that  spot  thy  home! 

—  James  Montgomery. 


In  this  extraordinary  war,  extraordinary  developments  have  mani- 
fested themselves,  such  as  have  not  been  seen  in  former  wars;  and, 
among  these  manifestations,  nothing  has  been  more  remarkable  than 
these  fairs  for  the  relief  of  suffering  soldiers  and  their  families,  and 
the  chief  agents  in  these  fairs  are  the  women  of  America! 

I  am  not  accustomed  to  the  use  of  language  of  eulogy.  I  have 
never  studied  the  art  of  paying  compliments  to  women;  but  I  must 
say  that,  if  all  that  has  been  said  by  orators  and  poets  since  the  crea- 
tion of  the  world  in  praise  of  women  were  applied  to  the  women  of 
America,  it  would  not  do  them  justice  for  their  conduct  during  the 

I  will  close  by  saying,  God  bless  the  women  of  America!  — 
Abraham  Lincoln. 


My  country,  'tis   of  thee, 
Sweet  land  of  liberty, 

Of  thee  I  sing: 
Land  where  my  fathers  died, 
Land  of  the  pilgrim's  pride, 
From  every  mountain  side 

Let  freedom  ring. 

My  native  country,  thee, 
Land  of  the  noble,  free; 

Thy  name  I  love. 
I  love  thy  rocks  and  rills, 
Thy  woods  and  templed  hills; 
My  heart  with  rapture  thrills 

Like  that  above. 

Let  music  swell  the  breeze, 
And  ring  from  all  the  trees 

Sweet  freedom's  song. 
Let  mortal  tongues  awake, 
Let  all  that  breathe  partake, 
Let  rocks  their  silence  break, 

The  sound  prolong. 



Our  fathers'  God,  to  Thee, 
Author  of  liberty, 

To  Thee  we  sing. 
Long  may  our  land  be  bright 
With  freedom's  holy  light: 
Protect  us  by  Thy  might, 

Great  God,   our  King! 

—  Samuel  Francis  Smith. 

Breathes  there  a  man  with  soul  so  dead, 
Who  never  to  himself  hath  said: 

"  This  is  my  own,  my  native  land!  " 
Whose  heart  hath  ne'er  within  him  burned, 
As  home  his  footsteps  he  hath  turned 

From  wandering  on  a  foreign  strand? 
If  such  there  breathes,  go,  mark  him  well  — 
For  him  no  minstrel  raptures  swell: 
High  though  his  titles,  proud  his  name, 
Boundless  his  wealth  as  wish  can  claim: 
Despite  those  titles,  power  and  pelf, 
The  wretch  concentred  all  in  self, 
Living,  shall  forfeit  all  renown, 
And,   doubly  dying,   shall  go  down 
To  the  vile   dust,   from   whence  he   sprung, 
Unwept,  unhonored,  and  unsung. 

—  Sir  Walter  Scott. 

God  bless  our  native  land! 
Firm  may  she  ever  stand, 

Through   storm  and  night! 
When  the   wild  tempests   rave, 
Ruler  of  wind  and  wave, 
Do  Thou  our  country  save 

By  Thy  great  might. 

For  her  our  prayer  shall  rise 
To  God  above  the  skies: 

On   Him  we  wait. 
Thou,  who  art  ever  nigh, 
Guarding  with  watchful  eye, 
To  Thee  aloud  we  cry, 

God  save  the  State. 

—  John  Sullivan  Divight. 


A  man's  country  is  not  merely  that  of  his  birth,  so  often  a  matter 
of  chance,  but  the  land  of  his  happiness.  Born  in  one  quarter  of  the 
globe,  without  attachment  for  its  associations,  he  may  become  so 
bound  up  and  identified  with  that  of  his  adoption  as  to  hold  it  in  every 
respect  as  his  own  true  native  land.  In  this  light  do  very  many  of  our 
citizens  consider  America.  It  has  afforded  shelter  and  refuge;  it  has 
recognized  the  liberty  that  is  theirs  through  a  common  humanity. 
In  no  other  land  is  there  like  freedom  in  matters  of  conscience,  such 
recognition  and  appreciation  of  the  great  principles  of  religion,  and 
the  universal  obligation  of  all  men  to  seek  the  highest  happiness  of 
all. —  Raphael  Lasker. 

The  first  two  words  of  the  national  motto  are  as  much  a  part  of  it 
as  the  last.  They  have  never  been  changed  since  their  use  began. 
They  have  been  borne  in  every  battle  and  on  every  march,  by  land  or 
sea,  in  defeat  as  in  victory.  They  are  still  blazoned  on  our  escutcheon, 
and  copied  in  every  seal  of  office.  May  that  motto  never  be  mutilated 
or  disowned.  It  should  be  written  on  the  walls  of  the  Capitol  and  on 
every  statehouse.  Its  three  words  contain  a  faithful  history;  may 
they  abide  for  ages,  pledges  of  the  future,  as  they  are  witnesses  of  the 
past. —  David  Dudley  Field. 

The  maid  who  binds  her  warrior's  sash 

With  smile  that  well  her  pain  dissembles, 
The  while  beneath  her  drooping  lash 

One   starry  tear-drop   hangs  and  trembles; 
Though  Heaven  alone  records  the  tear, 

And  Fame  shall  never  know  her  story, 
Her  heart  has  shed  a  drop  as  dear 

As  e'er  bedewed  the  field  of  glory! 

The  wife  who  girds  her  husband's  sword, 

'Mid  little  ones  who  weep  or  wonder, 
And  bravely  speaks  the  cheering  word, 

What  though  her  heart  be  rent  asunder; 
Doomed  nightly  in  her  dreams  to  hear 

The  bolts  of  death  around  him  rattle, 
Hath  shed  as  sacred  blood  as  e'er 

Was  poured  upon  the  field  of  battle! 


The  mother  who  conceals  her  grief 

While  to  her  breast  her  son  she  presses, 
Then  breathes  a  few  brave  words  and  brief, 

Kissing  the  patriot  brow  she  blesses  — 
With  no  one  but  her  secret  God 

To  know  the  pain  that  weighs  upon  her, 
Sheds  holy  blood  as  e'er  the  sod 

Received  on  Freedom's  field  of  honor! 

—  Thomas  Buchanan  Read. 

Give  us  but  a  part  of  that  devotion  which  glowed  in  the  heart  of 
the  younger  Pitt  and  of  our  own  elder  Adams,  who,  in  the  midst  of 
their  agonies,  forgot  not  the  countries  they  had  lived  for,  but  mingled 
with  the  spasms  of  their  dying  hour  a  last  and  imploring  appeal  to 
the  Parent  of  all  mercies  that  He  would  remember,  in  eternal  blessings, 
the  land  of  their  birth.  Give  us  their  devotion,  give  us  that  of  the 
young  enthusiast  of  Paris,  who,  listening  to  Mirabeau  in  one  of  his 
surpassing  vindications  of  human  rights,  and,  seeing  him  falling  from 
his  stand,  dying,  as  a  physician  proclaimed,  for  the  want  of  blood, 
rushed  to  the  spot,  and,  as  he  bent  over  the  expiring  man,  bared  his 
arm  for  the  lancet,  and  cried  again  and  again,  with  impassioned  voice, 
"  Here,  take  it,  oh!  take  it  from  me!  let  me  die  so  that  Mirabeau  and 
the  liberties  of  my  country  may  not  perish!  "  Give  us  something  only 
of  such  a  love  of  country,  and  we  are  safe,  forever  safe;  the  troubles 
which  shadow  over  and  oppress  us  now  will  pass  away  like  a  summer 
cloud.  Give  us  this  and  we  can  thank  God  and  say,  "  These,  these,  are 
my  brethren,  and  Oh!  this,  this  too,  is  my  country!  " —  /.  McDowell. 

The  peace  we  have  won  is  not  a  selfish  truce  of  arms,  but  one 
whose  conditions  presage  good  to  humanity.  At  Bunker  Hill  liberty 
was  at  stake,  at  Gettysburg  the  Union  was  the  issue,  before  Manila 
and  Santiago  our  armies  fought,  not  for  gain  or  revenge,  but  for 
human  rights.  They  contended  for  the  freedom  of  the  oppressed,  for 
whose  welfare  the  United  States  has  never  failed  to  lend  a  hand  to 
establish  and  uphold,  and,  I  believe,  never  will.  The  glories  of  the 
war  cannot  be  dimmed,  but  the  result  will  be  incomplete  and  unworthy 



of  us  unless  supplemented  by  civil  victories  harder  possibly  to  win,  in 
their  way  not  less  indispensable.  We  will  have  our  difficulties  and 
our  embarrassments.  They  follow  all  victories  and  accompany  all 
great  responsibilities.  They  are  inseparable  from  every  great  move- 
ment of  reform.  But  American  capacity  has  triumphed  over  all  in  the 
past.  Doubts  have  in  the  end  vanished.  Apparent  dangers  have 
been  averted  or  avoided,  and  our  own  history  shows  that  progress  has 
come  so  naturally  and  steadily  on  the  heels  of  new  and  grave  responsi- 
bilities that,  as  we  look  back  upon  the  acquisition  of  territory  by  our 
fathers,  we  are  filled  with  wonder  that  any  doubt  could  have  existed,  or 
any  apprehension  could  have  been  felt  of  the  wisdom  of  their  action 
or  their  capacity  to  grapple  with  the  then  untried  and  mighty  prob- 
lems. The  Republic  is  to-day  larger,  stronger,  and  better  prepared 
than  ever  before  for  wise  and  profitable  developments.  Forever  in  the 
right,  following  the  best  impulses  and  clinging  to  high  purposes,  using 
properly  and  within  right  limits  our  power  and  opportunities,  honorable 
reward  must  inevitably  follow. —  William  McKinley. 


Our  fathers'  God,  from  out  whose  hand 
The  centuries  fall  like  grains  of  sand, 
We  meet  to-day,   united,  free, 
And  loyal  to  our  land  and  Thee, 
To  thank  Thee  for  the  era  done, 
And  trust  thee  for  the  opening  one. 
Oh!  make  Thou  us  through  centuries  long, 
In  Peace  secure,  in  Justice  strong: 
Around   our   gift   of   Freedom,   draw 
The  safeguards  of  Thy  righteous  law; 
And,  cast  in  some  diviner  mould, 
Let  the  new  cycle  shame  the  old. 

—  John  Grcenleaf  Whittier. 

Let  me  say  a  word  for  a  little  more  patriotism  in  the  schools.  We 
have  little  in  our  every-day  life  to  arouse  patriotic  ardor.  We  have 
no  frequent  or  great  exhibitions  of  power;  no  army  to  stand  in  awe  of; 
no  royalty  to  worship;  no  emblems  or  ribbons  to  dazzle  the  eye;  and 



but  few  national  airs.  We  have  elections  so  frequently,  and  then  say 
such  terribly  hard  things  of  each  other,  and  about  the  management  of 
government,  that  I  imagine  the  children  wonder  what  kind  of  a  coun- 
try this  is  that  they  have  been  born  into.  There  is  no  such  inculcation 
of  patriotism  among  our  children  as  among  the  children  of  some  other 
lands.  If  I  had  my  way,  I  would  hang  the  flag  in  every  schoolroom, 
and  I  would  spend  an  occasional  hour  in  singing  our  best  patriotic 
songs,  in  declaiming  the  masterpieces  of  our  national  oratory,  and  in 
rehearsing  the  proud  story  of  our  national  life. —  Andrew  S,  Draper. 

In  the  van  of  the  progressive  movement  of  civilization,  our  country 
alike  greets  the  most  ancient  of  nations,  and  the  social  fabric  whose 
many  centuries  know  no  change.  Further,  she  has  garnered  within 
her  borders  all  colors,  creeds,  and  minds.  Providence  has  bidden 
America  to  train,  educate,  uplift,  blend  in  fraternity,  eastern  and 
western,  northern  and  southern  humanity.  Here,  in  these  United 
States,  is  the  grandest  school  of  the  brotherhood  of  man!  Here,  the 
conscience  and  religion  are  free!  Here,  the  Fatherhood  of  God  is 
best  illustrated  in  church,  in  government,  and  in  the  human  institutions 
which  interpret  Him!  In  the  old  countries,  the  people  are  feared  and 
despised;  here,  the  people  are  trusted,  made  responsible,  allowed  to 
govern  themselves.  Here,  in  marvellous  harmony,  local  forms  of  free- 
dom are  blended  with  central  power. —  William  E.  Grifhs. 

Bereft  of  Patriotism,  the  heart  of  a  nation  will  be  cold  and  cramped 
and  sordid;  the  arts  will  have  no  enduring  impulse,  and  commerce  no 
invigorating  soul;  society  will  degenerate  and  the  mean  and  vicious 
triumph.  Patriotism  is  not  a  wild  and  glittering  passion,  but  a  glorious 
reality.  The  virtue  that  gave  to  Paganism  its  dazzling  lustre,  to  Bar- 
barism its  redeeming  trait,  to  Christianity  its  heroic  form,  is  not  dead. 
It  still  lives  to  console,  to  sanctify  humanity.  It  has  its  altar  in  every 
clime;  its  worship  and  festivities. —  Thomas  F.  Meagher. 

The  name  of  Republic  is  inscribed  upon  the  most  imperishable 
monuments  of  the  species,  and  it  is  probable  that  it  will  continue  to  be 
associated,  as  it  has  been  in  all  past  ages,  with  whatever  is  heroic  in 


character,  sublime  in  genius,  and  elegant  and  brilliant  in  the  cultivation 
of  art  and  letters.  What  land  has  ever  been  visited  with  the  influence 
of  liberty  that  did  not  flourish  like  the  spring?  What  people  has  ever 
worshipped  at  her  altars  without  kindling  with  a  loftier  spirit,  and 
putting  forth  more  noble  energies?  Where  has  she  ever  acted  that  her 
deeds  have  not  been  heroic?  Where  has  she  ever  spoken  that  her 
eloquence  has  not  been  triumphant  and  sublime?  —  Hugh  S.  Legare. 

The  sheet  anchor  of  the  ship  of  state  is  the  common  school. 
Teach,-  first  and  last,  Americanism.  Let  no  youth  leave  the  school 
without  being  thoroughly  grounded  in  the  history,  the  principles,  and 
the  incalculable  blessings  of  American  liberty.  Let  the  boys  be  the 
trained  soldiers  of  constitutional  freedom,  the  girls  the  intelligent  lovers 
of  freemen. —  Chauncey  M.  Depczu. 

No  phrase  ever  embodied  more  truth  than  the  oft-repeated  one 
that  "  Eternal  vigilance  is  the  price  of  liberty/'  and  our  work  as  patriots 
is  no  less  binding  to-day  than  in  the  days  when  we  wore  the  army  blue. 
Let  it  be  our  lofty  aim  to  emulate  the  patriotism  of  those  who  gave 
their  lives  that  Government  of  the  People,  by  the  People,  and  for  the 
People,  might  not  perish  from  the  earth.—  Oscar  D.  Robinson. 

Patriotism  is  one  of  the  positive  lessons  to  be  taught  in  every 
school.  Everything  learned  should  be  flavored  with  a  genuine  love  of 
country.  Every  glorious  fact  in  the  nation's  history  should  be  em- 
phasized, and  lovingly  dwelt  upon.  The  names  of  her  illustrious 
citizens  should  be  treasured  in  the  memory.  Every  child  should  feel 
that  he  is  entitled  to  a  share,  not  only  in  the  blessings  conferred  by  a 
free  government,  but  also  in  the  rich  memories  and  glorious  achieve- 
ments of  his  country. —  Richard  Edwards. 

A  man's  country  is  not  a  certain  area  of  land,  of  mountains,  rivers, 
and  woods,  but  it  is  principle;  and  patriotism  is  loyalty  to  that  principle. 
In  poetic  minds  and  in  popular  enthusiasm,  this  feeling  becomes  closely 
associated  with  the  soil  and  the  symbols  of  the  country.  But  the 
secret  sanctification  of  the  soil  and  the  symbol  is  the  idea  which  they 
represent;  and  this  idea  the  patriot  worships,  through  the  name  and 



the  symbol,  as  a  lover  kisses  with  rapture  the  glove  of  his  mistress  and 
wears  a  lock  of  her  hair  upon  his  heart. —  George  W.  Curtis. 

I  am  no  pessimist  as  to  this  Republic.  I  always  bet  on  sunshine 
in  America.  I  know  that  my  country  has  reached  the  point  of  perilous 
greatness,  and  that  strange  forces,  not  to  be  measured  or  compre- 
hended, are  hurrying  her  to  heights  that  dazzle  and  blind  all  mortal 
eyes,  but  I  know  that  beyond  the  uttermost  glory  is  enthroned  the 
Lord  God  Almighty,  and  that  when  the  hour  of  her  trial  has  come  He 
will  lift  up  his  everlasting  gates  and  bend  down  above  her  in  mercy 
and  in  love.  For  with  her  He  has  surely  lodged  the  ark  of  His  covenant 
with  the  sons  of  men.  And  the  Republic  will  endure.  Centralism  will 
be  checked,  and  liberty  saved  —  plutocracy  overthrown  and  equality 
restored.  The  struggle  for  human  rights  never  goes  backward  among 
English-speaking  people.  The  trend  of  the  times  is  with  us. —  Henry 
W.  Grady. 

THE    SHIP    OF    STATE. 

Then,  too,  sail  on,  O   Ship  of  State! 
Sail  on,  O  Union  strong  and  great! 
Humanity,  with  all  its  fears, 
With  all  its  hopes  of  future  years, 
Is  hanging  breathless,  on  thy  fate! 
We  know  what  master  laid  Thy  keel, 
What  workmen  wrought  thy  ribs   of  steel, 

Who  made  each  mast,  and  sail,  and  rope, 
What  anvils  rang,  what  anvils  beat, 
In  what  a  forge  and  what  a  heat, 

Were  shaped  the  anchors  of  thy  hope! 
Fear  not  each  sudden  sound  and  shock, 
'Tis  of  the  wave,  and  not  the  rock; 
'Tis  but  the  flapping  of  the  sail. 
And  not  a  rent  made  by  the  gale; 
In  spite  of  rock  and  tempest  roar. 
In  spite  of  false  lights  on  the  shore, 
Sail  on,  nor  fea-  to  breast  the  sea! 
Our  hearts,   our  hopes  are  all  with  thee: 
Our  hearts,  our  hopes,  our  prayers,  our  tears, 
Our  f-uth  triumphant  o'er  our  fears, 

Are  all  with  thee,  are  all  with  thee. 

—  Henry  Wadsworth  Longfellozv. 


The  time  has  come  when  the  history  of  our  own  country  should 
stand  among  the  fundamental  studies  to  be  pursued  in  our  schools.  In 
the  teaching  of  history,  we  need  not  attach  first  importance  to  the  dates 
of  battles,  the  number  of  men  engaged  upon  each  side,  or  the  number 
killed  and  wounded.  These  are  but  incidents  in  history.  We  should 
teach  causes  and  results.  We  need  not  teach  that  the  soldiers  on  one 
side  were  braver  than  the  soldiers  on  the  other.  The  "  boys  in  gray  " 
who  stood  up  against  you  at  Gettysburg  and  a  hundred  other  battle- 
fields were  as  brave  as  you  were.  We  know  that  they  were  mistaken, 
but  they  were  brave,  and  they  were  Americans.  They  have  done  their 
share  in  making  American  history,  and  one  happy  result  of  the  war 
with  Spain  is  that  sectional  lines  have  been  wiped  out  and  no  longer 
is  there  any  North  and  South  in  the  consideration  of  American  bravery. 
We  need  not  spend  any  time  in  demonstrating  the  bravery  of  the 
American  people.  It  has  been  thoroughly  tested  and  the  whole  world 
knows  it.  I  believe  that  we  should  teach  these  things  to  our  children. 
—  Hon.  Charles  R.  Skinner,  Speech  before  G.  A.  R.  Committee. 

One  of  the  definitions  of  patriotism  is  "  love  of  country."  If  we 
do  not  teach  our  boys  and  girls  to  love  their  country,  how  can  we 
teach  them  to  be  patriotic?  Patriotism  is  sometimes  misunderstood. 
Patriotism  is  not  an  impulse  or  a  sentiment,  but  a  conviction.  Where 
the  heart  is  right,  there  you  will  find  true  patriotism.  I  want  a  patriot- 
ism that  does  not  wait  for  the  firing  of  a  gun  on  a  national  holiday  to 
manifest  itself.  I  want  a  patriotism  which  is  good  every  day  in  the 
year,  and  which  means  an  understanding  of  public  duty  and  a  determi- 
nation to  perform  that  duty.—  Hon.  Charles  R.  Skinner,  Speech  before 
G.  A.  R.  Committee. 

Here,  at  last,  is  its  sacred  secret  revealed!  It  is  in  the  patriotic 
instinct  which  has  brought  to  this  field  the  army  of  Northern  Virginia 
and  the  army  of  the  Potomac.  It  lies  in  the  manly  emotion  with  which 
the  generous  soldier  sees  only  the  sincerity  and  courage  of  his  ancient 
foe  and  scorns  suspicion  of  a  lingering  enmity.  It  lies  in  the  perfect 
freedom  of  speech,  and  perfect  fraternity  of  spirit,  which  now  for  three 


days  have  glowed  in  these  heroic  hearts,  and  echoed  in  this  enchanted 
air.  These  are  the  forces  that  assure  the  future  of  our  beloved  country! 
May  they  go  before  us  on  our  mighty  march,  a  pillar  of  cloud  by  day, 
of  fire  by  night!  Happy  for  us,  happy  for  mankind,  if  we  and  our 
children  shall  comprehend  that  they  are  the  fundamental  conditions  of 
the  life  of  the  Republic!  Then,  long  after,  when,  in  a  country  whose 
vast  population,  covering  the  continent  with  the  glory  of  a  civilization 
which  the  imagination  cannot  forecast,  the  completed  century  of  the 
great  battle  shall  be  celebrated,  the  generation  which  shall  gather  here, 
in  our  places,  will  rise  up  and  call  us  blessed!  Then,  indeed,  the  fleeting 
angel  of  this  hour  will  have  yielded  his  most  precious  benediction;  and 
in  the  field  of  Gettysburg,  as  we  now  behold  it,  the  blue  and  the  gray 
blending  in  happy  harmony,  like  the  mingling  hues  of  the  summer 
landscape,  we  may  see  the  radiant  symbol  of  the  triumphant  America 
of  our  pride,  our  hope,  and  our  joy!  —  George  William  Curtis. 


TE  hold  these  truths  to  be  self-evident,  that  all  men  are  created 
equal;  that  they  are  endowed  by  their  Creator  with 
certain  inalienable  rights;  that  among  these  are  life, 
liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness;  that  to  secure 
these  rights,  governments  are  instituted  among  men, 
deriving  their  just  powers  from  the  consent  of  the  governed."  There 
is  the  origin  of  Popular  Sovereignty.  Who,  then,  shall  come  in  at  this 
day  and  claim  that  he  invented  it?  That  is  the  electric  cord  in  the 
Declaration  that  links  the  hearts  of  patriotic  and  liberty-loving  men 
together;  that  will  link  those  patriotic  hearts  as  long  as  the  love  of 
freedom  exists  in  the  minds  of  men  throughout  the  world.—  Abraham 

It  is  in  vain  for  demagogism  to  raise  its  short  arms  against  the 
truth  of  history.  The  Declaration  of  Independence  stands  there.  No 
candid  man  ever  read  it  without  seeing  and  feeling  that  every  word  of 
it  was  dictated  by  deep  and  earnest  thought,  and  that  every  sentence 
of  it  bears  the  stamp  of  philosophic  generality.  It  is  the  summing  up 
of  the  results  of  the  philosophical  development  of  the  age;  the  practical 
embodiment  of  the  progressive  ideas  which,  far  from  being  confined 
to  the  narrow  limits  of  the  English  colonies,  pervaded  the  atmosphere 
of  all  civilized  nations. —  Carl  Schurz. 

I  have  never  had  a  feeling,  politically,  that  did  not  spring  from  the 
sentiments  embodied  in  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  I  have  often 
pondered  over  the  dangers  which  were  incurred  by  the  men  who  assem- 
bled here  and  framed  and  adopted  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  I 
have  pondered  over  the  toils  that  were  endured  by  the  officers  and 
soldiers  of  the  army  who  achieved  that  independence.  I  have  often 
inquired  of  myself  what  great  principle  or  idea  it  was  that  kept  this 
confederacy  so  long  together.     It  was  not  the  mere  matter  of  the 



separation  of  the  colonies  from  the  motherland,  but  that  sentiment  in 
the  Declaration  of  Independence  which  gave  liberty,  not  alone  to  the 
people  of  this  country,  but,  I  hope,  to  the  world  for  all  future  time.  It 
was  that  which  you  promised,  that  in  due  time  the  weight  would  be 
lifted  from  the  shoulders  of  all  men.  This  is  the  sentiment  embodied  in 
the  Declaration  of  Independence. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 

On  the  fourth  of  July,  1776,  the  representatives  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  in  Congress  assembled,  declared  that  these  United 
Colonies  are,  and  of  right  ought  to  be,  free  and  independent  states. 
This  Declaration,  made  by  most  patriotic  and  resolute  men,  trusting 
in  the  justice  of  their  cause  and  the  protection  of  Providence  —  and 
yet  not  without  deep  solicitude  and  anxiety  —  has  stood  for  seventy- 
five  years,  and  still  stands.  It  was  sealed  in  blood.  It  has  met  dangers 
and  overcome  them;  it  has  had  enemies  and  it  has  conquered  them; 
it  has  had  detractors  and  it  has  abashed  them  all;  it  has  had  doubting 
friends,  but  it  has  cleared  all  doubts  away;  and,  now,  to-day,  raising  its 
august  form  higher  than  the  clouds,  twenty  millions  of  people  contem- 
plate it  with  hallowed  love,  and  the  world  beholds  it,  and  the  conse- 
quences which  have  followed,  with  profound  admiration. —  Daniel 

The  Declaration  of  Independence  is  the  grandest,  the  bravest,  and 
the  profoundest  political  document  that  was  ever  signed  by  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  people.  It  is  the  embodiment  of  physical  and  moral 
courage  and  of  political  wisdom.  I  say  physical  courage  because  it 
was  a  declaration  of  war  against  the  most  powerful  nation  then  on  the 
globe;  a  declaration  of  war  by  thirteen  weak,  unorganized  colonies;  a 
declaration  of  war  by  a  few  people,  without  military  stores,  without 
wealth,  without  strength,  against  the  most  powerful  kingdom  on  the 
earth;  a  declaration  of  war  made  when  the  British  navy,  at  that  day 
the  mistress  of  every  sea,  was  hovering  along  the  coast  of  America, 
looking  after  defenceless  towns  and  villages  to  ravage  and  destroy.  It 
was  made  when  thousands  of  English  soldiers  were  upon  our  soil,  and 
when  the  principal  cities  of  America  were  in  the  substantial  possession 
of  the  enemy.  And  so  I  say,  all  things  considered,  it  was  the  bravest 
political  document  ever  signed  by  man. — Robert  G.  Ingcrsoll. 


rE  can  give  up  everything  but  our  Constitution,  which  is 
the  sun  of  our  system.  As  the  natural  sun  dispels  fogs, 
heats  the  air,  and  vivifies  and  illumines  the  world,  even 
so  does  the  Constitution,  in  days  of  adversity  and  gloom, 
come  out  for  our  rescue  and  our  enlightening.  If  the 
luminary  which  now  sheds  its  light  upon  us  and  invigorates  our 
sphere  should  sink  forever  in  his  ocean  bed,  clouds,  cold,  and  perpetual 
death  would  environ  us;  and  if  we  suffer  our  other  sun,  the  Constitu- 
tion, to  be  turned  from  us,  if  we  neglect  or  disregard  its  benefits,  if 
its  beams  disappear  but  once  in  the  west,  anarchy  and  chaos  will  have 
come  again,  and  we  shall  grope  out  in  darkness  and  despair  the  remain- 
der of  a  miserable  existence. —  Daniel  Webster. 

In  order  to  understand  the  theory  of  the  American  Government, 
the  most  serious,  calm,  persistent  study  should  be  given  to  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States.  I  don't  mean  learning  it  by  heart,  com- 
mitting it  to  memory.  What  you  want  is  to  understand  it;  to  know 
the  principles  at  the  bottom  of  it;  to  feel  the  impulse  of  it;  to  feel  the 
heart-beat  that  thrills  through  the  whole  American  people.  That  is 
the  vitality  that  is  worth  knowing;  that  is  the  sort  of  politics  that  excels 
all  the  mysteries  of  ward  elections,  and  lifts  you  up  into  a  view  where 
you  can  see  the  clear  skies,  the  unknown  expanse  of  the  future. — 
Charles  A.  Dana. 

Every  free  government  is  necessarily  complicated,  because  all  such 

governments  establish  restraints,  as  well  on  the  power  of  government 

itself  as  on  that  of  individuals.     If  we  will  abolish  the  distinction  of 

branches  and  have  but  one  branch;  if  we  will  abolish  jury  trials,  and 

leave  all  to  the  judge;  and  if  we  place  the  executive  power  in  the  same 

hands,  we  may  readily  simplify  government.     We  may  easily  bring  it 

to  the  simplest  of  all  possible  forms,  —  a  pure  despotism.    But  a  separa- 
23  (353) 


tion  of  departments,  so  far  as  practicable,  and  the  preservation  of  clear 
lines  of  division  between  them,  is  the  fundamental  idea  in  the  creation 
of  all  our  constitutions;  and,  doubtless,  the  continuance  of  regulated 
liberty  depends  on  maintaining  these  boundaries. —  Daniel  Webster. 

There  never  existed  an  example  before  of  a  free  community  spread- 
ing over  such  an  extent  of  territory;  and  the  ablest  and  profoundest 
thinkers,  at  the  time,  believed  it  to  be  utterly  impracticable  that  there 
should  be.  Yet  this  difficult  problem  was  solved  —  successfully  solved 
—  by  the  wise  and  sagacious  men  who  framed  our  Constitution.  No; 
it  was  above  unaided  human  wisdom  —  above  the  sagacity  of  the  most 
enlightened.  It  was  the  result  of  a  fortunate  combination  of  circum- 
stances co-operating  and  leading  the  way  to  its  formation,  directed  by 
that  kind  Providence  which  has  so  often  and  so  signally  disposed  events 
in  our  favor. —  John  C.  Calhoun. 

The  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  the  nearest  approach  of 
mortal  to  perfect  political  wisdom,  was  the  work  of  men  who  purchased 
liberty  with  their  blood,  but  who  found  that,  without  organization,  free- 
dom was  not  a  blessing.  They  formed  it,  and  the  people,  in  their  intel- 
ligence, adopted  it.  And  what  has  been  its  history?  Has  it  trodden 
down  any  man's  rights?  Has  it  circumscribed  the  liberty  of  the  press? 
Has  it  stopped  the  mouth  of  any  man?  Has  it  held  us  up  as  objects  of 
disgrace  abroad?  How  much  the  reverse!  It  has  given  us  character 
abroad;  and  when,  with  Washington  at  its  head,  it  went  forth  to  the 
world,  this  young  country  at  once  became  the  most  interesting  and 
imposing  in  the  circle  of  civilized  nations. —  Daniel  Webster. 



Is  it  nothing,  then,  to  be  free?  Is  it  nothing  that  we  are  Republi- 
cans? Can  anything  be  more  striking  and  sublime  than  the  idea  of 
an  Imperial  Republic,  spreading  over  an  extent  of  territory  more 
immense  than  the  empire  of  the  Caesars  in  the  accumulated  conquests 
of  a  thousand  years,  without  prefects,  or  proconsuls,  or  publicans, 
founded  in  the  maxims  of  common  sense,  employing  within  itself  no 
arms  but  those  of  reason,  and  known  to  its  subjects  only  by  the  bless- 
ings it  bestows  or  perpetuates,  yet  capable  of  directing  against  a  for- 
eign foe  aH  the  energies  of  a  military  despotism,  —  a  Republic  in  which 
men  are  completely  insignificant,  and  principles  and  laws  exercise 
throughout  its  vast  dominion  a  peaceful  and  irresistible  sway,  blending 
in  one  divine  harmony,  such  various  habits  and  conflicting  opinions; 
and  mingling  in  our  institutions  the  light  of  philosophy  with  all  that 
is  dazzling  in  the  associations  of  heroic  achievement  and  extended  domi- 
nation, and  deep-seated  and  formidable  power! — Hugh  S.  Lcgare. 

A  government  founded  upon  anything  except  liberty  and  justice 
cannot  and  ought  not  to  stand.  All  the  wrecks  on  either  side  of  the 
stream  of  time,  all  the  wrecks  of  the  great  cities,  and  all  the  nations 
that  have  passed  away  —  all  are  a  warning  that  no  nation  founded 
upon  injustice  can  stand.  From  the  sand-enshrouded  Egypt,  from  the 
marble  wilderness  of  Athens,  and  from  every  fallen,  crumbling  stone 
of  the  once  mighty  Rome,  comes  a  wail,  as  it  were,  the  cry  that  no 
nation  founded  upon  injustice  can  permanently  stand. —  Robert  G.  Inger- 

Liberty  has  been  the  battle-cry  which  has  led  to  victory  on  a  thou- 
sand battlefields;  it  wrung  from  King  John  the  Magna  Charta;  it  razed 
the  Bastile  to  the  ground;  it  peopled  the  solitudes  of  America  with  a 
hardy  race  of  pilgrims;  it  led  Washington  and  his  faithful  army  through 
the  perils  and  sufferings  of  a  seven  years'  war.     It  has  been  the  pre- 




siding  genius  which,  age  after  age,  in  Greece,  Rome,  Switzerland, 
England,  France,  America,  and  in  the  South  Seas,  has  molded  constitu- 
tions, framed  laws,  and  elaborated  institutions,  all  seeking  to  secure  to 
the  individual  the  highest  possible  liberty. —  Thomas  J.  Morgan. 

Is  true  freedom  but  to  break 
Fetters  for  our  own  dear  sake, 
And    with  leathern  hearts  forget 
That  we  owe  mankind  a  debt? 
No!     True  freedom  is  to  share 
All  the  chains  our  brothers  wear, 
And    with  heart  and  hand  to  be 
Earnest  to  make  others  free! 

They  are  slaves  who  fear  to  speak 

For  the  fallen  and  the  weak; 

They  are  slaves  who  will  not  choose 

Hatred,  scoffing  and  abuse, 

Rather  than  in  silence  shrink 

From  the  truth  they  needs  must  think; 

They  are  slaves  who  dare  not  be 

In  the  right  with  two  or  three. 

—  James  Russell  Lowell. 

All  who  stand  beneath  our  banner  are  free.  Ours  is  the  only  flag 
that  has  in  reality  written  upon  it  "  Liberty,  Equality,  Fraternity  " — 
the  three  grandest  words  in  all  the  languages  of  men.  Liberty:  give 
to  every  man  the  fruit  of  his  own  labor  —  the  labor  of  his  hand  and  of 
his  brain.  Fraternity:  every  man  in  the  right  is  my  brother.  Equality: 
the  rights  of  all  are  equal.  No  race,  no  color,  no  previous  condition, 
can  change  the  rights  of  men.  The  Declaration  of  Independence  has  at 
least  been  carried  out  in  letter  and  in  spirit.  To-day,  the  black  man 
looks  upon  his  child  and  says:  "  The  avenues  of  distinction  are  open  to 
you  —  upon  your  brow  may  fall  the  civic  wreath."  We  are  celebrating 
the  courage  and  wisdom  of  our  fathers,  and  the  glad  shout  of  a  free 
people,  the  anthem  of  a  grand  nation,  commencing  at  the  Atlantic,  is 
following  the  sun  to  the  Pacific,  across  a  continent  of  happy  homes. — 
Robert  G.  Ingersoll. 


The  land  of  Freedom!     Sea  and  shore 

Are  guarded  now,  as  when 
Her  ebbing  waves  to  victory  bore 

Fair  barks  and  gallant  men: 
O  many  a  ship  of  prouder  name 

May  wave  her  starry  fold, 
Nor  trail,  with  deeper  line  of  fame, 

The  paths  they  swept  of  old! 

—  Oliver  Wendtll  Hclmes. 

O  Freedom!    Thou  are  not,  as  poets  dream, 

A  fair  young  girl,  with  light  and  delicate  limbs, 

And  wavy  tresses  gushing  from  the  cap 

With  which  the  Roman  master  crowned  his  slave 

When  he  took  off  the  gyves.     A  bearded  man, 

Armed  to  the  teeth,  art  thou;  one   mailed  hand 

Grasps  the  broad  shield,  and  one  the  sword:    thy  brow, 

Glorious  in  beauty  though  it  be,  is  scarred 

With  tokens  of  old  wars:     Thy  massive  limbs 

Are  strong  with  struggling.     Power  at  thee  has  launched 

His  bolts  and  with  hi-  lightnings  smitten  thee: 

They  could  not  quench  the  light  thou  hast  from  Heaven. 

Wm.  Cullen  Bryant. 

In  relation  to  the  principle  that  all  men  are  created  equal,  let  it 
be  as  nearly  reached  as  we  can.  If  we  cannot  give  freedom  to  every 
creature,  let  us  do  nothing  that  will  impose  slavery  upon  any  other 
creature.  I  leave  you,  hoping  that  the  lamp  of  liberty  will  burn  in 
your  bosoms  until  there  shall  be  no  longer  a  doubt  that  all  men  are 
created  free  and  equal. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 

Hope  of  the  world!    Thou  hast  broken  its  chains, 
Wear  thy  bright  arms  while  a  tyrant  remains: 
Stand  for  the  right  till  the  nations  shall  own 
Freedom  their  sovereign,  with  law  for  her  throne! 

Freedom!    Sweet  Freedom!     Our  voices  resound, 
Queen  by  God's  blessing,  unsceptered,  uncrowned! 
Freedom!     Sweet  Freedom!     Our  pulses  repeat, 
Warm  with  her  life  blood,  as  long  as  they  beat! 



Fold  the  broad  banner-stripes  over  her  breast, 
Crown  her  with  star-jewels,  Queen  of  the  West! 
Earth  for  her  heritage,  God  for  her  friend, 
She  shall  reign  over  us,  world  without  end! 

—  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 


Hail  to  the  planting  of  Liberty's  Tree! 
Hail  to  the  charter  declaring  us  free! 

Millions  of  voices  are  chanting  its  praises, 
Millions  of  worshippers  bend  at  its  shrine, 

Wherever  the  sun  of  America  blazes, 
Wherever  the  stars  of  our  bright  banner  shine. 

Sing  to  the  heroes  who  breasted  the  flood 

That,  swelling,  rolled  o'er  them,  a  deluge  of  blood. 

Fearless  they  clung  to  the  ark  of  the  nation, 
And  dashed  on  'mid  lightning,  and  thunder,  and  blast, 

Till  Peace,  like  the  dove,  brought  her  branch  of  salvation, 
And  Liberty's  mount  was  their  refuge  at  last. 

Bright  is  the  beautiful  land  of  our  birth, 

The  home  of  the  homeless  all  over  the  earth. 

Oh!     Let  us  ever,  with  fondest  devotion, 
The  freedom  our  fathers  bequeathed  us  watch  o'er, 

Till  the  angel  shall  stand  on  the  earth  and  the  ocean, 
And  shout  'mid  earth's  ruins  that  Time  is  no  more. 

—  Alfred  B.  Street. 



I  profess,  sir,  in  my  career  hitherto,  to  have  kept  steadily  in  view 
the  prosperity  and  honor  of  the  whole  country,  and  the  preservation 
of  our  Federal  Union.  It  is  to  that  Union  we  owe  our  safety  at  home, 
and  our  consideration  and  dignity  abroad.  It  is  to  that  Union  that 
we  are  chiefly  indebted  for  whatever  makes  us  most  proud  of  our 
country.  That  Union  we  reached  only  by  the  discipline  of  our  virtue 
in  the  severe  school  of  adversity.  It  had  its  origin  in  the  necessities  of 
disordered  finance,  prostrate  commerce  and  ruined  credit.  Under  its 
benign  influences,  these  great  interests  immediately  awoke,  as  from 
the  dead,  and  sprang  forth  with  newness  of  life.  Every  year  of  its  dura- 
tion has  teemed  with  fresh  proof  of  its  utility  and  its  blessings,  and 
although  our  country  has  stretched  out,  wider  and  wider,  and  our 
population  spread  farther  and  farther,  they  have  not  outrun  its  protec- 
tion or  its  benefits.  It  has  been  to  us  all  a  copious  fountain  of  national, 
social,  and  personal  happiness. —  Daniel  Webster. 

There  are  four  things  which  I  humbly  conceive  are  essential  to  the 
well-being  —  I  may  even  venture  to  say,  to  the  existence  —  of  the 
United  States,  as  an  independent  power. 

First.  An  indissoluble  Union  of  the  states  under  one  Federal  head. 

Second.  A  sacred  regard  to  public  justice. 

Third.  The  adoption  of  a  proper  peace  establishment. 

Fourth.  The  prevalence  of  that  pacific  and  friendly  disposition 
among  the  people  of  the  United  States  which  will  induce  them  to 
forget  their  local  prejudices  and  politics;  to  make  those  mutual  con-i 
cessions  which  are  requisite  to  the  general  prosperity;  and,  in  some 
instances,  to  sacrifice  their  individual  advantages  to  the  interest  of  the 

These  are  the  pillars  on  which  the  glorious  fabric  of  our  inde- 
pendence and  national  character  must  be  supported.     Liberty  is  the 




basis.  And  whoever  would  dare  to  sap  the  foundation,  or  overturn  the 
structure,  under  whatever  specious  pretext  he  may  attempt  it,  will 
merit  the  bitterest  execration  and  the  severest  punishment  which  can 
be  inflicted  by  his  injured  country. —  George  Washington. 

While  every  part  of  our  country  feels  an  immediate  and  particular 
interest  in  Union,  all  the  parts  combined  cannot  fail  to  find,  in  the 
united  mass  of  means  and  efforts,  greater  strength,  greater  resource, 
proportionably  greater  security  from  external  danger,  a  less  frequent 
interruption  of  their  peace  by  foreign  nations;  and,  what  is  of  inestima- 
ble value,  they  must  derive  from  the  Union  an  exemption  from  those 
broils  and  wars  between  themselves  which  so  frequently  afflict  neigh- 
boring countries  not  tied  together  by  the  same  government,  which 
their  own  rivalships  alone  would  be  sufficient  to  produce,  but  which 
opposite  foreign  alliances,  attachments,  and  intrigues  would  stimulate 
and  embitter.  Hence,  likewise,  they  will  avoid  the  necessity  of  those 
overgrown  military  establishments  which,  under  any  form  of  govern- 
ment, are  inauspicious  to  liberty,  and  which  are  to  be  regarded  as  par- 
ticularly hostile  to  Republican  Liberty.  In  this  sense  it  is  that  your 
Union  ought  to  be  considered  as  a  main  prop  of  your  liberty,  and  that 
the  love  of  the  one  ought  to  endear  to  you  the  preservation  of  the  other. 
—  George  Washington. 

If  Washington  were  now  amongst  us,  and  if  he  could  draw  around 
him  the  shades  of  the  great  public  men  of  his  own  days  —  patriots  and 
warriors,  orators  and  statesmen  —  and  were  to  address  us  in  their  pres- 
ence, would  he  not  say  to  us:  "  Ye  men  of  this  generation,  I  rejoice  and 
thank  God  for  being  able  to  see  that  our  labors  and  toils  and  sacrifices 
were  not  in  vain.  The  fire  of  liberty  burns  brightly  and  steadily  in  your 
hearts,  while  duty  and  the  law  restrain  it  from  bursting  forth  in  wild 
and  destructive  conflagration.  Cherish  liberty  as  you  love  it,  cherish 
its  securities  as  you  wish  to  preserve  it.  Maintain  the  Constitution 
which  we  labored  so  painfully  to  establish,  and  which  has  been  to  you 
such  a  source  of  inestimable  blessings.  Preserve  the  Union  of  the 
States,  cemented  as  it  was  by  our  prayers,  our  tears,  and  our  blood. 


Be  true  to  God,  your  country,  and  your  duty.  So  shall  that  Almighty 
Power,  which  so  graciously  protected  us,  and  which  now  protects  you, 
shower  its  everlasting  blessings  upon  you  and  your  posterity." — Daniel 

A  nation  may  be  said  to  consist  of  its  territory,  its  people,  and  its 
laws.  The  territory  is  the  only  part  which  is  of  certain  durability. 
"  One  generation  passeth  away,  and  another  generation  cometh,  but 
the  earth  abideth  forever."  It  is  of  the  first  importance  to  duly  con- 
sider and  estimate  this  ever-enduring  part.  That  portion  of  the  earth's 
surface  which  is  owned  and  inhabited  by  the  people  of  the  United 
States  is  well  adapted  to  be  the  home  of  one  national  family,  and  it  is 
not  well  adapted  for  two  or  more.  Its  vast  extent,  and  its  variety  of 
climate  and  productions,  are  of  advantage  in  this  age  for  one  people, 
whatever  they  might  have  been  in  former  ages.  Steam,  telegraphs, 
and  intelligence  have  brought  these  to  be  an  advantageous  combina- 
tion for  one  united  people.  There  is  no  line,  straight  or  crooked,  suit- 
able for  a  national  boundary,  upon  which  to  divide.  Trace  through 
from  East  to  West  upon  the  line  between  the  free  and  slave  country, 
and  we  shall  find  a  little  more  than  one-third  of  its  length  are  rivers, 
easy  to  be  crossed  and  populated,  or  soon  to  be  populated  thickly  upon 
both  sides;  while  nearly  all  its  remaining  length  are  merely  surveyor's 
lines,  over  which  people  may  walk  back  and  forth  without  any  con- 
sciousness of  their  presence.  No  part  of  this  line  can  be  made  any 
more  difficult  to  pass  by  writing  it  down  on  paper  or  parchment  as  a 
national  boundary. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 

For  my  part,  I  have  never  believed  in  isothermal  lines,  air  lines 
and  water  lines  separating  distinct  races.  I  no  more  believe  that  that 
river  yonder,  dividing  Indiana  and  Kentucky,  marks  off  two  distinct 
species  than  I  believe  that  the  great  Hudson,  flowing  through  the 
state  of  New  York,  marks  off  distinct  species.  Such  theories  only  live 
in  the  fancy  of  morbid  minds.  We  are  all  one  people.  Commercially, 
financially,  morally,  we  are  one  people.  Divide  as  we  will  into  parties, 
we  are  one  people. 

*  *  *  *  *  *  * 



The  silken  folds  that  twine  about  us  here,  for  all  their  soft  and 
careless  grace,  are  yet  as  strong  as  hooks  of  steel.  They  hold  together 
a  united  people  and  a  great  nation.  The  South  says  to  the  North,  as 
simply  and  as  truly  as  was  said  three  thousand  years  ago  in  that  far 
away  meadow  by  the  side  of  the  mystic  sea:  "  Thy  people  shall  be  my 
people,  and  thy  God,  my  God."  —  Henry  Watterson. 

My  fellow  countrymen  of  the  North,  we  join  you  in  setting  apart 
this  land  as  an  enduring  monument  of  peace,  brotherhood,  and  per- 
petual union.  I  repeat  the  thought,  with  additional  emphasis,  with 
singleness  of  heart  and  of  purpose,  in  the  name  of  a  common  country, 
and  of  universal  human  liberty;  and,  by  the  blood  of  our  fallen  brothers, 
we  unite  in  the  solemn  consecration  of  these  hallowed  hills,  as  a  holy 
eternal  pledge  of  fidelity  to  the  life,  freedom,  and  unity  of  this  cherished 
Republic. —  John  B.  Gordon. 

What  the  sun  is  in  the  heavens,  diffusing  light  and  warmth,  and, 
by  its  subtle  influence,  holding  the  planets  in  their  orbits,  and  preserv- 
ing the  harmony  of  the  universe,  such  is  the  sentiment  of  nationality 
in  a  people,  diffusing  life  and  protection  in  every  direction,  holding  the 
faces  of  Americans  always  toward  their  homes,  protecting  the  states 
in  the  exercise  of  their  just  powers,  and  preserving  the  harmony  of 
all.  We  must  have  a  Nation.  It  is  a  necessity  of  our  political  existence. 
We  should  cherish  the  idea  that,  while  the  states  have  their  rights, 
sacred  and  inviolable,  which  we  should  guard  with  untiring  vigilance, 
never  permitting  an  encroachment  upon  them,  and  ever  remembering 
that  such  encroachment  is  as  much  a  violation  of  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  as  to  encroach  upon  the  rights  of  the  general  gov- 
ernment, still  bear  in  mind  that  the  states  are  but  subordinate  parts  of 
one  great  nation;  that  the  nation  is  over  all,  even  as  God  is  over  the 
universe. —  Oliver  P.  Morton. 

There  is  nothing  more  national  in  all  this  Republic  than  the  spirit 
that  saved  the  Union.  The  soldiers  fought  for  the  whole  Union,  and 
the  spirit  that  animated  us  was  the  spirit  of  nationality  against  the  spirit 
of  sectionalism,  and,  in  defending  the  truths  for  which  we  fought,  we 
were  national  to  the  core  and  sectional  in  nothing.     It  was  the  spirit 


of  sectionalism  against  which  we  fought,  and  the  spirit  of  broad,  united 
nationality  which  we  defended,  and  will  defend  while  we  live  *  *  * 
What  could  be  more  national  as  a  material  thing  than  the  Mississippi 
River?  We  made  that  the  river  of  one  people,  from  Fort  Benton,  far 
up  under  the  British  line,  down  to  the  gulf;  and  every  wave,  every 
drop  from  the  lakes  at  the  far  north  goes  singing  of  the  Union  all  the 
way  down  till  it  joins  the  tropical  ocean,  and  we  made  the  song  of  the 
Union  ring  along  its  banks,  and  the  people  that  inhabit  its  shores,  one 
people,  I  trust,  forever.  The  mountain  chains  that  God  made  are 
one,  and  we  made  the  people  and  the  government  that  dwell  on  these 
mountains,  in  these  valleys,  —  one,  like  the  ocean,  —  one,  like  the  ever- 
lasting hills,  and  one  will  we  be  with  them  forevermore. —  James  A. 
Garfield,  Address  at  a  Reunion. 

The  drama  of  the  Revolution  opened  in  New  England,  culminated 
in  New  York,  and  closed  in  Virginia.  It  was  a  happy  fortune  that  the 
three  colonies  which  represented  the  various  territorial  sections  of  the 
settled  continent  were  each  in  turn  the  chief  seat  of  war.  The  com- 
mon sacrifice,  the  common  struggle,  the  common  triumph,  tended  to 
weld  them  locally,  politically,  and  morally  together.  *  *  *  The 
voice  of  Patrick  Henry  from  the  mountains  answered  that  of  James 
Otis  by  the  sea.  Paul  Revere's  lantern  shone  through  the  valley  of 
the  Hudson,  and  flashed  along  the  cliffs  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  The  scat- 
tering volley  of  Lexington  Green  swelled  to  the  triumphant  thunder 
of  Saratoga,  and  the  reverberation  of  Burgoyne's  falling  arms  in  New 
York  shook  those  of  Cornwallis  in  Virginia  from  his  hands.  Doubts, 
jealousies,  prejudices,  were  merged  in  one  common  devotion.  The 
union  of  the  colonies  to  secure  liberty  foretold  the  union  of  the  states 
to  maintain  it,  and  wherever  we  stand  on  revolutionary  fields,  or  inhale 
the  sweetness  of  revolutionary  memories,  we  tread  the  ground  and 
breathe  the  air  of  invincible  national  union. —  George  William  Curtis, 
Oration  on  Burgoyne's  Surrender. 

While  the  Union  lasts,  we  have  high,  exciting,  gratifying  pros- 
pects spread  out  before  us,  for  us  and  our  children.  Beyond  that,  I 
seek  not  to  penetrate  the  veil.    God  grant  that  in  my  day,  at  least,  that 



curtain  may  not  rise!  God  grant  that  on  my  vision  never  may  be 
opened  what  lies  behind!  When  my  eyes  shall  be  turned  to  behold  for 
the  last  time  the  sun  in  heaven,  may  I  not  see  him  shining  on  the  broken 
and  dishonored  fragments  of  a  once  glorious  Union;  on  states,  dis- 
severed, discordant,  belligerent;  on  a  land  rent  with  civil  feuds,  or 
drenched,  it  may  be,  with  fraternal  blood!  Let  their  last  feeble  and 
lingering  glance  rather  behold  the  glorious  ensign  of  the  Republic,  now 
known  and  honored  throughout  the  earth,  still  full  high  advanced,  its 
arms  and  trophies  streaming  in  their  original  lustre,  not  a  stripe  erased 
or  polluted,  nor  a  single  star  obscured,  bearing  for  its  motto  no  such 
miserable  interrogatory  as  —  What  is  all  this  worth?  —  nor  those  other 
words  of  delusion  and  folly  —  Liberty  first  and  Union  afterwards  — 
but  everywhere,  spread  all  over  in  characters  of  living  light,  blazing  on 
all  its  ample  folds,  as  they  float  over  the  sea  and  over  the  land,  and  in 
every  wind  under  the  whole  heavens,  that  other  sentiment,  dear  to 
every  true  American  heart  —  Liberty  and  Union,  now  and  forever,  one 
and  inseparable. —  Daniel  Webster. 

We  cannot  escape  history.  We  of  this  Congress,  and  this  admin- 
istration will  be  remembered  in  spite  of  ourselves.  No  personal  signifi- 
cance or  insignificance  can  spare  one  or  another  of  us.  The  fiery  trial 
through  which  we  pass  will  light  us  down  in  honor  or  dishonor  to  the 
latest  generation.  We  say  that  we  are  for  the  Union.  The  world  will 
not  forget  that  we  say  this.  We  know  how  to  save  the  Union.  The 
world  knows  we  do  know  how  to  save  it.  We  —  even  we  here  —  hold 
the  power  and  bear  the  responsibility.  In  giving  freedom  to  the  slave, 
we  assure  freedom  to  the  free  —  honorable  alike  in  what  we  give  and 
what  we  preserve.  We  shall  nobly  save  or  meanly  lose  the  last  hope 
of  earth.  Other  means  may  succeed;  this  could  not,  cannot,  fail.  This 
way  is  plain,  peaceful,  generous,  just  —  a  way  which,  if  followed,  the 
world  will  forever  applaud,  and  God  must  forever  bless. —  Abraham  Lin- 

The  nation  has  been  at  war,  not  within  its  own  shores,  but  with  a 
foreign  power,  a  war  waged  not  for  revenge  or  aggrandizement,  but 
for  our  oppressed  neighbors,  for  their  freedom  and  amelioration.  It 
was  short,  but  decisive.    It  recorded  a  succession  of  significant  victories 



on  land  and  on  sea.  It  gave  new  honors  to  American  arms.  It  has 
brought  new  problems  to  the  Republic,  whose  solution  will  tax  the 
genius  of  our  people.  United  we  will  meet  and  solve  them,  with  honor 
to  ourselves,  and  to  the  lasting  benefit  of  all  concerned.  The  war 
brought  us  together;  its  settlement  will  keep  us  together. 

Reunited!  Glorious  realization!  It  expresses  the  thought  of  my 
mind,  and  the  long  deferred  consummation  of  my  heart's  desire  as  I 
stand  in  this  presence.  It  interprets  the  hearty  demonstration  here 
witnessed,  and  is  the  patriotic  refrain  of  all  sections  and  all  lovers  of  the 

Reunited,  one  country  again  and  one  country  forever.  Proclaim  it 
from  the  press  and  pulpit;  teach  it  in  the  schools;  write  it  across  the 
skies.  The  world  sees  and  feels  it.  It  cheers  every  heart,  North  and 
South,  and  brightens  the  life  of  every  American  home.  Let  nothing 
ever  strain  it  again.  At  peace  with  all  the  world  and  with  each  other, 
what  can  stand  in  the  pathway  of  our  progress  and  prosperity?  — 
William  McKinley. 


Flag  of  the  heroes  who  left  us  their  glory, 

Borne   through   their   battlefield's   thunder   and   flame, 
Blazoned   in    song   and   illumined    in    story, 
Wave  o'er  us  all  who  inherit  their  fame! 

Up  with  our  banner  bright, 

Sprinkled   with   starry   light, 
Spread  its  fair  emblems  from  mountain  to  shore, 

While  through  the  sounding  sky 

Loud  rings  the  Nation's  cry, 
Union  and  Liberty!     One  Evermore! 

Light  of  our  firmament,  guide  of  our  Nation, 

Pride  of  her  children,  and  honored  afar, 
Let  the  wide  beams  of  thy  full  constellation 

Scatter  each  cloud  that  would  darken  a  star! 


Lord  of  the  Universe!     Shield  us  and  guide  us, 
Trusting  Thee  always,  through  shadow  and  sun! 

Thou  hast  united  us,  who  shall  divide  us? 
Keep  us,  O  keep  us,  the  MANY  IN  ONE. 

—  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes. 



Citizens  by  birth  or  choice,  of  a  common  country,  that  country 
has  a  right  to  concentrate  your  affections.  The  name  of  Ameri- 
can, which  belongs  to  you  in  your  national  capacity,  must  always 
exalt  the  just  pride  of  patriotism,  more  than  any  appellation  derived 
from  local  discriminations.  With  slight  shades  of  difference,  you 
have  the  same  religion,  manners,  habits,  and  political  principles.  You 
have,  in  a  common  cause,  fought  and  triumphed  together.  The  inde- 
pendence and  liberty  you  possess  are  the  work  of  joint  counsels,  and 
joint  efforts,  of  common  dangers,  sufferings  and  successes. 

>|C  JjC  5fC  3j£  5jC  5JC  >JC 

From  the  gallantry  and  fortitude  of  her  citizens,  under  the  auspices 
of  Heaven,  America  has  derived  her  independence.  To  their  indus- 
try, and  the  natural  advantages  of  the  country,  she  is  indebted  for 
her  prosperous  situation.  From  their  virtue,  she  may  expect  long  to 
share  the  protection  of  a  free  and  equal  government,  which  their  wis- 
dom has  established,  and  which  experience  justifies,  as  admirably 
adapted  to  our  social  wants  and  individual  felicity. —  George  Washington. 

The  virtue,  moderation,  and  patriotism  which  marked  the  steps 
of  the  American  people,  in  framing,  adopting,  and  thus  far  carrying 
into  effect  our  present  system  of  government,  have  excited  the  admi- 
ration of  nations.  It  only  now  remains  for  us  to  act  up  to  those 
principles  which  should  characterize  a  free  and  enlightened  people, 
that  we  may  gain  respect  abroad,  and  insure  happiness  to  ourselves 
and  our  posterity. —  George  Washington. 

To  complete  the  American  character,  it  remains  for  the  citizens 

of  the  United  States  to  show  to  the  world  that  the  reproach  heretofore 

cast  on  Republican  governments,  for  their  want  of  stability,  is  without 



foundation  when  that  government  is  the  deliberate  choice  of  an  enlight- 
ened people.  And  I  am  fully  persuaded  that  every  well-wisher  to  the 
happiness  and  prosperity  of  this  country  will  evince,  by  his  conduct, 
that  we  live  under  a  government  of  laws,  and  that,  while  we  preserve 
inviolate  our  national  faith,  we  are  desirous  to  live  in  amity  with  all 
mankind. —  George  Washington. 

There  can  be  no  such  thing,  in  the  highest  sense,  as  a  home,  unless 
you  own  it.  There  must  be  an  incentive  to  plant  trees,  to  beautify  the 
grounds,  to  preserve  and  improve.  It  elevates  a  man  to  own  a  home. 
It  gives  a  certain  independence,  a  force  of  character,  that  is  obtained 
in  no  other  way.  Homes  make  patriots.  He  who  has  sat  by  his  own 
fireside,  with  wife  and  children,  will  defend  it.  Few  men  have  been 
patriotic  enough  to  shoulder  a  musket  in  defense  of  a  boarding-house. 
The  prosperity  and  glory  of  our  country  depend  upon  the  number  of 
people  who  are  the  owners  of  homes. 

A  man  does  not  vote  in  this  country  simply  because  he  is  rich; 
he  does  not  vote  in  this  country  simply  because  he  has  an  education; 
he  does  not  vote  simply  because  he  has  talent  or  genius;  we  say  that 
he  votes  because  he  is  a  man,  and  that  he  has  his  manhood  to  support; 
and  we  admit  in  this  country  that  nothing  can  be  more  valuable  to 
any  human  being  than  his  manhood,  and  for  that  reason  we  put  poverty 
on  an  equality  with  wealth.  If  you  are  a  German,  remember  that  this 
country  is  kinder  to  you  than  your  fatherland, —  no  matter  what  coun- 
try you  came  from,  remember  that  this  country  is  an  asylum,  and  vote, 
as  in  your  conscience  you  believe  you  ought  to  vote,  to  keep  this  flag 
in  heaven.  I  beg  every  American  to  stand  with  that  part  of  the  coun- 
try that  believes  in  law,  in  freedom  of  speech,  in  an  honest  vote,  in 
civilization,  in  progress,  in  human  liberty,  and  in  universal  justice. — 
Robert  G.  Ingersoll. 

It  is  the  work  of  this  generation  to  prove  to  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury, in  the  face  of  Christendom,  and  for  the  race,  the  fact  that  the 
people  do  actually  govern,  and  that  what  twenty  millions  of  freemen 



determine,  shall  be  done.  The  American  Republic  must  live!  Popu- 
lar commotion  and  partisan  fury  may  dash  their  mad  wars  against  it, 
but  they  shall  roll  back  shattered,  spent.  Persecution  shall  not  shake 
it,  fanaticism  disturb  it,  nor  revolutions  change  it.  But  it  shall  stand 
towering  sublime,  like  the  last  mountain  in  the  deluge,  while  the  earth 
rocks  at  its  feet  and  the  thunders  peal  over  its  head, —  majestic,  immu- 
table, magnificent!  —  Wendell  Phillips. 

It  is  hard  to  believe  that  there  is  any  necessity  to  warn  Americans 
that,  when  they  seek  to  model  themselves  on  the  lines  of  other  civiliza- 
tions, they  make  themselves  the  butts  of  all  right-thinking  men;  and 
yet  the  necessity  certainly  exists  to  give  this  warning  to  many  of  our 
citizens  who  pride  themselves  on  their  standing  in  the  world  of  art 
and  letters,  or,  perchance,  on  what  they  would  style  their  social  leader- 
ship in  the  community.  We  Americans  can  only  do  our  alloted  task 
well  if  we  face  it  steadily  and  bravely,  seeing,  but  not  fearing,  the 
dangers.  Above  all,  we  must  stand  shoulder  to  shoulder,  not  asking 
as  to  the  ancestry  or  creed  of  our  comrades,  but  only  demanding  chat 
they  be  in  very  truth  Americans,  and  that  we  all  work  together, — 
heart,  hand,  and  head, —  for  the  honor  and  the  greatness  of  our  com- 
mon country. —  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

In  the  efforts  of  the  people  —  of  the  people  struggling  for  their 
rights  —  moving,  not  in  organized  disciplined  masses,  but  in  their  spon- 
taneous action,  man  for  man  and  heart  for  heart,  there  is  something 
glorious.  The  people  always  conquer.  They  always  must  conquer. 
Armies  may  be  defeated,  kings  may  be  overthrown,  and  new  dynasties 
be  imposed,  by  foreign  arms  on  an  ignorant  and  slavish  race,  that  care 
not  in  what  language  the  covenant  of  their  subjugation  runs,  nor  in 
whose  name  the  deed  of  their  barter  and  sale  is  made  out.  But  the 
people  never  invade;  and,  when  they  rise  against  the  invader,  are  never 
subdued.  If  they  are  driven  from  the  plains,  they  fly  to  the  moun- 
tains. Steep  rocks  and  everlasting  hills  are  their  castles;  the  tangled, 
pathless  thicket  their  palisade,  and  nature,  God,  is  their  ally.  Now  He 
overwhelms  the  hosts  of  their  enemies  beneath  His  drifting  mountains 
of  sand;  now  He  buries  them  beneath  a  falling  atmosphere  of  polar 



snows;  He  lets  loose  His  tempests  on  their  fleets;  He  puts  a  folly  into 
their  counsels,  a  madness  into  the  hearts  of  their  leaders;  and  He  never 
gave,  and  never  will  give,  a  final  triumph  over  a  virtuous  and  gallant 
people,  resolved  to  be  free. —  Edward  Everett. 

The  faith  of  our  people  in  the  stability  and  permanence  of  their 
institutions  was  like  their  faith  in  the  eternal  course  of  nature.  Peace, 
liberty  and  personal  security  were  blessings  as  common  and  universal 
as  sunshine  and  showers  and  fruitful  seasons;  and  all  sprang  from  a 
single  source,  the  principle  declared  in  the  Pilgrim  Covenant  of  1620, 
that  all  owed  due  submission  and  obedience  to  the  lawfully  expressed 
will  of  the  majority.  This  is  not  one  of  the  doctrines  of  our  political 
system,  it  is  the  system  itself.  It  is  our  political  firmament,  in  which 
all  other  truths  are  set,  as  stars  in  the  heaven.  It  is  the  encasing  air, 
the  breath  of  the  Nation's  life. —  James  A.  Garfield. 

Have  you  thought  what  the  government  has  cost?  Do  you  real- 
ize what  free  government  means?  Do  you  remember,  as  you  have 
read  the  story  of  ages  gone,  how  the  barons  met  at  Runnymede?  Do 
you  remember  how  they  wrested  a  charter  from  the  king?  Do  you 
remember  how  the  Ironsides  went  into  battle?  Do  you  remember 
the  psalm  that  rang  out  at  the  shock  of  the  conflict?  Do  you  remem- 
ber Faneuil  Hall,  and  Massachusetts,  and  John  Hancock?  Do  you 
remember  Carpenter's  Hall  and  Benjamin  Franklin?  Do  you  remem- 
ber Virginia  and  George  Washington?  Do  you  remember  what  the 
liberty  we  have  has  cost,  and  are  you  willing,  because  of  fashion, 
because  of  ease,  because  of  social  enjoyment,  are  you  willing  to  let 
the  Republic  get  into  the  rapids  simply  because  there  are  not  strong 
men  straining  at  the  oars  and  keeping  us  back  in  the  midstream  of 
safety? — Stezvart  L.  Woodford. 

The  supreme  glory  of  our  heroism  in  the  Civil  War  was  founded 
in  the  greatness  of  the  common  people.  Do  you  tell  me  that  they 
were  unknown  —  that  they  commanded  no  battalions,  determined  no 
policies,  sat  in  no  military  councils,  rode  at  the  head  of  no  regiments? 
Be  it  so.  All  the  more  are  they  the  fitting  representatives  of  you  and 


me  —  the  people.  Never  in  all  history  was  there  a  war,  whose  aims, 
whose  policy,  whose  sacrifices  were  so  absolutely  determined  by  the 
people,  that  great  body  of  the  unknown,  in  which,  after  all,  lay  the 
strength  and  power  of  the  Republic.  When  some  one  reproached 
Lincoln  for  the  seeming  hesitancy  of  his  policy,  he  answered,  "  I  stand 
for  the  people.  I  am  going  just  as  fast  and  as  far  as  I  can  feel  them 
behind  me." — Henry  C.  Potter. 

I  can  most  religiously  aver,  I  have  no  wish  that  is  incompatible 
with  the  dignity,  happiness,  and  true  interest  of  the  people  of  this 
country.  My  ardent  desire  is,  and  my  aim  has  been,  so  far  as  depended 
upon  the  Executive  Department,  to  comply  strictly  with  all  our  engage- 
ment, foreign  and  domestic:  but  to  keep  the  United  States  free  from 
political  connections  with  every  other  country,  to  see  them  independent 
of  all,  and  under  the  influence  of  none.  In  a  word,  I  want  an  Ameri- 
can Character,  that  the  powers  of  Europe  may  be  convinced  we  act 
for  ourselves,  and  not  for  others.  This,  in  my  judgment,  is  the  only 
way  to  be  respected  abroad,  and  happy  at  home. —  George  Washington. 

There  was  never  a  time  when  we  had  a  right  to  feel  prouder  of 
our  country.  We  take,  every  ten  years,  a  census  of  our  material 
advancement.  I  wish  we  might  take,  once  in  a  while,  a  census  of 
brave  deeds  and  brave  thoughts;  a  census  which  would  show  the  prog- 
ress of  the  people  of  our  Republic  in  heroism,  in  patriotism,  in  the 
instinct  of  honor,  in  the  sense  of  duty.  I  know  that  our  history  at  this 
hour  is  full  of  good  hope. 

There  never  was  a  people  who,  as  to  the  great  subjects  of  public 
conduct,  were  actuated  by  a  finer,  by  a  profounder  sense  of  duty  and 
a  clearer  sense  of  justice  than  the  people  of  the  United  States  in  this 
generation  and  at  this  hour. —  George  F.  Hoar. 

We  shall  never  be  successful  over  the  dangers  that  confront  us; 
we  shall  never  achieve  true  greatness,  nor  reach  the  lofty  ideal  which 


the  founders  and  preservers  of  our  mighty  Federal  Republic  have  set 
before  us,  unless  we  are  Americans  in  heart  and  soul,  in  spirit  and 
purpose,  keenly  alive  to  the  responsibility  implied  in  the  very  name 
of  American,  and  proud  beyond  measure  of  the  glorious  privilege  of 
bearing  it. —  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

We  know  as  well  as  any  other  class  of  American  citizens  where 
our  duties  belong.  We  will  work  for  our  country  in  time  of  peace 
and  fight  for  it  in  time  of  war,  if  a  time  of  war  should  ever  come.  When 
I  say  our  country,  I  mean,  of  course,  our  adopted  country.  I  mean 
the  United  States  of  America.  After  passing  through  the  crucible 
of  naturalization  we  are  no  longer  Germans;  we  are  Americans.  Our 
attachment  to  America  cannot  be  measured  by  the  length  of  our  resi- 
dence here.  We  are  Americans  from  the  moment  we  touch  the  Ameri- 
can shore  until  we  are  laid  in  American  graves.  We  will  fight  for 
America  whenever  necessary.  America,  first,  last,  and  all  the  time. 
America  against  Germany,  America  against  the  world;  America,  right 
or  wrong;  always  America.  We  are  Americans.—  Richard  Guenther,  of 
Wisconsin,  in  a  speech  at  the  time  of  the  Samoan  trouble. 

Men  who  wish  to  work  for  decent  politics  must  work  practically, 
and  yet  must  not  swerve  from  their  devotion  to  a  high  ideal.  They 
must  actually  do  things,  and  not  merely  confine  themselves  to  criticis- 
ing those  who  do  them.  They  must  work  disinterestedly,  and  appeal 
to  the  disinterested  element  in  others,  although  they  must  also  do  work 
which  will  result  in  the  material  betterment  of  the  community.  They 
must  act  as  Americans  through  and  through,  in  spirit  and  hope  and 
purpose,  and,  while  being  disinterested,  unselfish  and  generous  in  their 
dealings  with  others,  they  must  also  show  that  they  possess  the  essen- 
tial manly  virtues  of  energy,  of  resolution,  and  of  indomitable  personal 
courage. —  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

Citizenship  has  its  duties  as  well  as  its  privileges.  The  first  is 
that  we  give  our  energies  and  influence  to  the  enactment  of  just,  equal 
and  beneficent  laws.     The  second  is  like  unto  it:  that  we  loyally  rever- 


ence  and  obey  the  will  of  the  majority,  whether  we  are  of  the  majority 
or  not;  the  law  throws  the  aegis  of  its  protection  over  us  all.  There 
is  an  open  avenue  through  the  ballot-box  for  the  modification  or 
repeal  of  laws  that  are  unjust  or  oppressive.  To  the  law  we  bow  with 
reverence.  It  is  the  one  king  that  commands  our  allegiance. —  Benja- 
min Harrison. 

Constitutions  do  not  make  people;  people  make  constitutions. 
Our  constitution  is  great  and  admirable,  because  the  men  who  made 
it  were  so  and  the  people  who  ratified  it  and  have  lived  under  it  were 
and  are  brave,  intelligent,  and  lovers  of  liberty.  There  is  a  higher 
sanction  and  a  surer  protection  to  life  and  liberty,  to  the  right  of  free 
speech  and  trial  by  jury,  to  justice  and  humanity,  in  the  traditions, 
the  beliefs,  the  habits  of  mind,  and  the  character  of  the  American  peo- 
ple than  any  which  can  be  afforded  by  any  constitution,  no  matter  how 
wisely  drawn.  If  the  American  people  were  disposed  to  tyranny,  injus- 
tice and  oppression,  a  constitution  would  offer  but  a  temporary  barrier 
to  their  ambitions,  and  the  reverence  for  the  constitution,  and  for  law 
and  justice,  grows  out  of  the  fact  that  the  American  people  believe  in 
freedom  and  humanity,  in  equal  justice  to  all  men  and  in  equal  rights 
before  the  law,  and  while  they  so  believe  the  great  doctrine  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence  and  of  the  Constitution  will  never  be  in 
peril. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  Speech  on  the  adoption  of  the  Spanish- 
American  Treaty,  United  States  Senate,  January  24,  1899. 

Let  reverence  of  the  law  be  breathed  by  every  mother  to  the  lisping 
babe  that  prattles  on  her  lap;  let  it  be  taught  in  schools,  seminaries,  and 
colleges;  let  it  be  written  in  primers,  spelling-books,  and  almanacs;  let 
it  be  preached  from  pulpits,  and  proclaimed  in  legislative  halls,  and 
enforced  in  courts  of  justice;  in  short,  let  it  become  the  political  religion 
of  the  Nation. —  Abraham  Lincoln. 








The  glorious  Union  is  our  world. —  Daniel  S.  Dickinson. 

Our  Country  —  the  strongest,  richest,  freest,  happiest  of  the  nations  of  the  earth. 
—  George  F.  Hoar. 

Valor's   home   and    Freedom's   lov'd    retreat! 

—  William  Leggett. 

One  country,  one  Constitution,  one  destiny.—  Daniel  Webster. 

The  glorious  Union  our  fathers  gave  us  till  time  shall  be  no  more. —  Reverdy 

Let  all  the  ends  thou  aim'st  at  be  thy  Country's, 
Thy  God's  and  Truth's. 

—  William  Shakespeare. 

Never  was  a  people  so  advantageously  situated  for  working  out  the  great  prob- 
lem of  human  liberty.—  Henry  A.  Boordman. 

The  American  Nation!    Its  men  are  as  brave,  energetic  and  dauntless  as  they  are 
honest. —  Nicholas,  Czar  of  Russia. 

O  land!    of  every  land  the  best, 

O  land!    whose  glory  shall  increase. 

—  Phoebe  Cary. 

An  indissoluble  Union  of  indestructible  States,  one  flag,  one  country,  one  destiny! 
—  Daniel  Webster. 

I  am  an  American;  I  know  no  country  but  America,  and  no  locality  in  America 
that  is  not  my  country. —  Daniel  Webster. 

The  blue  arch  above  us  is  Liberty's  dome, 
The  green  fields  beneath  us,  Equality's  home. 

—  Hezekiah  Butterworth. 




The  people's  government;  made  for  the  people;  made  by  the  people;  and  answer- 
able to  the  people. —  Daniel  Webster. 

We  are  Americans,  we  will  live  Americans  and  we  will  die  Americans.—  Daniel 

Freedom's   soul   has   only  place 
For  a  free  and  fearless  race. 

—  John   G.    Whittier. 

Above  all,  we  must  stand  shoulder  to  shoulder  for  the  honor  and  the  greatness 
of  our  country.—  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

There  never  existed  an  example  before  of  a  free  community  spreading  over  such 
an  extent  of  territory. —  John  C.  Calhoun. 

Here  began  the  kingdom  not  of  kings,  but  men; 
Began  the  making  of  the  world  again. 

—  John  Boyle  O'Reilly. 

Here  the  people  govern.      Here  they  act  by  their  immediate  representatives.— 
Alexander  Hamilton. 

In  our  federal  relations  I  know  but  one  section,  one  union,  one  flag,  one  govern- 
ment.— Daniel  S.  Dickinson. 

We're  bound  by  mutual  ties, 

No  hostile  hands  are  ours, 
From  where   Maine's  snowy   mountains   rise, 

To  the  fair  land  of  flowers. 

—  William   L.    Shoemaker. 

We  are  to  constitute  all  together,  North,  South,  East,  West,  one  government. 
—  Hilary  A.  Herbert. 

The  best  son  of  his  country  is  he  who  gives  the  best  manhood  to  his  country  — 

Hail,  America,  hail!    the  glory  of  lands! 

To  thee  high  honors  are  given, 
Thy  stars  shall  blaze  till  the  moon  veil  her  rays, 

And  the  sun  lose  his  pathway  in  heaven. 

—  Jonathan  M.  Sewell. 


The  love  of  my  country  will  be  the   ruling  influence  of  my  conduct. —  George 

One  God,  one  country,  one  destiny.      This  is  the  gospel  of  American  nationality. 
—  Wendell  Phillips. 

Our  country  is  a  goodly  land; 

We'll  keep  her  always  whole  and  hale; 
We'll  love  her,  live  for  her,  or  die; 

To  fall  for  her  is  not  to  fail. 

—  Francis  Lieber. 

Every  good  citizen  makes  his  country's  honor  his  own,  and  cherishes  it  not  only 
as  precious,  but  as  sacred. —  Andrew  Jackson. 

I  know  no  North,  no  South,  no  East,  no  West  to  which  I  owe  any  allegiance. — 
Henry  Clay. 

My  country!  ay,  thy  sons  are  proud, 

True  heirs  of  freedom's  glorious  dower, 
For  never  here  has  knee  been  bowed 

In  homage  to  a  mortal  power. 

—  Mrs.  Sarah  J.  Hale. 

Let  every  man  that  lives  and  owns  himself  an  American  take  the  side  of  true 
American  principles. —  Henry  Ward  Beecher. 

The  heritage  of  American  youth  is  equal  opportunities  in  a  land  of  equal  rights. — 
William  L.  Wilson. 

Columbia!    First  and  fairest  gem 
On  Nature's  brow  —  a  diadem 
Whose  lustre,  bright  as  heavenly  star, 
The  light  of  Freedom  sheds  afar. 

—  P.  S.  Gilmore. 

Every  American  should  be  proud  of  his  whole  country,  rather  than  a  part. — 
William  Tecumseh  Sherman. 

We  of  this  generation  and  nation,  occupy  the  Gibraltar  of  the  ages  which  com- 
mands the  world's  future. —  Josiah  Strong. 

The  nation  Thou  hast  blest 

May  well  Thy  love  declare 
From  foes  and  fears  at  rest, 

Protected  by  Thy  care. 

—  Francis  Scott  Key. 



Territory  is  but  the  body  of  a  nation.      The  people  who  inhabit  its  hills  and 
its  valleys  are  its  soul,  its  spirit,  its  life.—  James  A.  Garfield. 

Of  the  whole  sum  of  human  life  no  small  part  is  that  which  consists  of  a  man's 
relations  to  his  country  and  his  feelings  concerning  it.—  William  Ewart  Gladstone. 

Land  of  the  West  —  beneath  the  heaven 
There's  not  a  fairer,  lovelier  clime; 
Nor  one  to  which  was  ever  given 
A  destiny  more  high,  sublime. 

—  W.D.  Gallagher. 

Without  Union  our  independence  and  liberty  would  never  have  been  achieved; 
without  Union  they  cannot  be  maintained. —  Andrew  Jackson. 

Liberty  has  a  more  extensive  and  durable  foundation  in  the  United  States  than 
it  ever  has  had  in  any  other  age  or  country.—  George  McDulhe. 

O!  make  Thou  us  through  centuries  long, 

In  peace  secure,  in  justice  strong; 
Around  our  gift  of  freedom  draw 

The  safeguards  of  Thy  righteous  law. 

—  John  G.  Whittier. 

Driven  from  every  other  corner  of  the  earth,  freedom  of  thought  and  the  right 
of  private  judgment  in  matters  of  conscience  direct  their  course  to  this  happy  country 
as  their  last  asylum. —  Samuel  Adams. 

The  Fathers  of  the  Republic,  in  their  almost  inspiration,  saw  clearly  that  a  gov- 
ernment to  be  enduring  and  free  must  be  a  Union,  not  of  States,  but  of  the  people, 
and  they  fashioned  their  work  accordingly. —  Roscoe  Conkling. 

Their  country  first,  their  glory  and  their  pride, 
Land  of  their  hopes,  land  where  their  fathers  died, 
When  in  the  right,  they'll  keep  their  honor  bright, 
When  in  the  wrong,  they'll  die  to  set  it  right. 

—  James  T.  Fields. 

May  this  immense  Temple  of  Freedom  ever  stand  a  lesson  to  oppressors,  an 
example  to  the  oppressed,  a  sanctuary  for  the  rights  of  mankind.—  Marquis  de 


No  words  can  depict,  no  pen  can  describe,  the  wonderful  variety,  richness, 
grandeur  and  beauty  which  the  Almighty  has  stamped  upon  this,  our  favored  land.— 
John  Sherman. 

O  Nation  great,  State  linked  to  State,  in  bonds  that  none  can  break, 
From  ocean  unto  ocean,  from  Gulf  to  northern  lake! 
State  linked  to  State,  fate  linked  to  fate,  in  mart  and  mint  and  mine, 
In  rolling  plain  of  golden  grain,  in  toss  of  plumy  pine. 

—  Kate  D.  Sherwood. 

Now  every  man,  woman  and  child  is  raised  to  the  dignity  of  an  American  free- 
man, and  that  bright,  triumphant  banner  of  liberty  now  floats  proudly  over  every 
foot  of  American  soil.—  /.  C.  Parker. 

We  are  all  one,  and  we  will  maintain  our  nation  as  it  was  handed  down  to  us, 
the  most  priceless  heritage  that  ever  sons  inherited.—  Gen.  Nelson  A.  Miles,  U.  S.  A. 

*      *      *      drifted  past  the  storm  of  war 

To  isles  of  peaceful  calm, 
The  lakes  give  greetings  to  the  sea, 

The  pine  unto  the  palm. 

—  Arthur  Dyer. 

The  worth  of  valor,  the  beauty  of  endurance,  the  grandeur  of  self-denial  and  the 
sacredness  of  honor  —  for  all  of  these  our  flag  is  the  symbol,  our  Union  the  flower, 
our  Nation  the  synonym.—  Elbridge  S.  Brooks. 

The  kindred  blood  which  flows  in  the  veins  of  American  citizens,  the  mingled 
blood  which  they  have  shed  in  defense  of  their  sacred  rights,  consecrate  their  Union. 
—  fames  Madison. 

*      *      *      our  Country  shall  be 

Unshaken  in  strength  and  unsullied  in  name — 

And  from  the  broad  center  all  around  to  the  sea 
Shall  millions  inherit  her  power  and  fame. 

—  /.  D.  Van  Dusee. 

Let  us  strive  to  aid  and  advance  the  liberty  of  the  world  by  patriotic  fidelity  and 
devotion  in  upholding,  illustrating  and  advocating  our  own  free  institutions.—  Robert 
C.  Winthrop. 

Our  very  air  is  instinct  with  freedom.  Every  inhalation  on  American  soil  is 
fraught  with  American  ideas.  It  is  impossible  for  sane  people  to  live  in  this  country 
and  not  become  Americans.—  Edmund  J.  Wolf. 



The  breath  of  heaven  is  here! 
One  draught  can  make  the  slave  and  master  one! 
The  grace  of  liberty  softens  year  by  year, 
And  in  a  richer  flood  the  stream  of  life  flows  on. 

—  Maurice  Thompson. 

Let  it  be  Patriotism  first,  last,  and  always;  Patriotism  in  the  history,  in  the 
reading  lesson;  in  the  general  exercises;  in  the  flags  that  adorn  the  school-room. — 
Albert  E.  Winship. 

Our  chief  glory  arises  from  the  general  welfare  of  our  people,  their  contentment 
with  their  institutions,  their  enlightenment,  and  their  general  advancement  in  the  vir- 
tues of  Christian  civilization —  John  Adams  Kasson. 

Daughter  of  Liberty!  queen  of  the  world! 

Fairest  of  all  earth's  fair  nations,  arise! 
Let  thy  bright  banners  and  flags  be  unfurled; 

Send  thy  glad  voice  to  the  uttermost  skies! 

—  Anon. 

We  cannot  more  effectually  labor  for  the  good  of  all  men,  than  by  pledging  heart.,, 
brain  and  hands  to  the  service  of  keeping  our  country  true  to  its  mission,  obedient 
to  its  idea. —  Thomas  Starr  King. 

We  are  One  by  the  configuration  of  nature  and  by  the  strong  impress  of  art. 
We  are  One  by  the  memories  of  our  fathers.  We  are  One  by  the  hopes  of  our 
children.      We  are  One  by  our  Constitution  and  our  Union. —  Robert  C.  Winthrop. 

To  her  we  owe 
All  that  of  happiness   we  know; 
Justice,  and  Law's  protecting  care, 
The  rights  of  freemen  everywhere. 

—  W.  IV.  Caldwell. 

The  nation  depends  not  on  the  wisdom  of  its  senators,  not  on  the  vigilance  of 
its  police,  not  on  the  strong  arm  of  its  standing  armies:  but  on  the  loyalty  of  a  united 
people.—  Parke  Godwin. 

We  are  a  Republic  whereof  one  man  is  as  good  as  another  before  the  law.  Un- 
der such  a  form  of  government,  it  is  of  the  greatest  importance  that  all  should  be 
possessed  of  education  and  intelligence. —  Ulysses  S.  Grant. 


We  know  no  North,  nor  South,  nor  West; 

One  Union  binds  us  all; 
Its  stars  and  stripes  are  o'er  us  flung  — 

'Neath  them  we'll  stand  or  fall. 

—  Anon. 

That  we  live  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  fruits  of  our  labors,  that  we  live  at  all, 
perhaps,  or  live  girt  about  by  the  blessings  of  civilization,  we  owe,  under  Providence, 
to  our  country.  Let  us  prove  ourselves  true  sons  and  daughters  of  such  a  mother.— 
Epes  Sargent. 

This  is  what  I  call  the  American  idea  of  freedom  —  a  government  of  all  the 
people,  by  all  the  people,  for  all  the  people;  of  course  a  government  of  the  principles 
of  eternal  justice  — the  unchanging  law  of  God.—  Theodore  Parker,  D.  D. 

Oh  the  land  of  our  Union!  it  sweetens  the  morn 

With  the  fragrance  of  orchards,  the  sunshine  of  corn: 

In  its  beautiful  bosom  the  fountains  are  sure, 

And  the  gold  of  its  furrows  is  wealth  to  the  poor: 

And  the  children  of  exile  as  kindred  may  toil 

In  the  vineyards  of  freedom  with  sons  of  the  soil. 

—  Anon. 

Freedom  of  religion,  freedom  of  the  press,  and  freedom  of  the  person  under  the 
protection  of  the  habeas  corpus,  these  are  the  principles  that  have  guided  our  steps 
through  an  age  of  revolution  and  reformation. —  Thomas  Jefferson. 

Our  country  —  whether  bounded  by  the  St.  John's  and  the  Sabine,  or  however 
otherwise  bounded  or  described,  and  be  the  measurements  more  or  less;— still  our 
country,  to  be  cherished  in  all  our  hearts,  to  be  defended  by  all  our  hands.—  Robert 
C.  Winthrop. 

Father,  whose  mighty  power 
Shields  us  through  life's  short  hour, 

To  Thee  we  pray,— bless  us  and  keep  us  free; 
All  that  is  past  forgive: 
Teach  us  henceforth  to  live 

That  through  our  country  we  may  honor  Thee. 

—  Marion  Crawford. 

If  this  country  is  to  reach  the  full  development  which  we  believe  to  be  possible, 
it  must  be  by  maintaining  in  all  its  integrity  the  Constitution  which  our  fathers 
framed,  and  in  giving  steadfast  and  uncalculating  support  to  the  Union  which  they 
formed.—  Hugh  S.  Thompson. 



God's  mercy  will  still  lead  our  country  on.  On  under  the  dearest  flag  that 
freemen  ever  bore.  On  in  the  broad  sunshine  of  liberty,  equality,  and  justice.  On 
to  the  inspiring  music  of  the  Union.  On  along  the  grand  highway  of  the  Nation's 
glory  to  the  future  of  our  country's  hope. —  John  M.  Thurston. 

Long  as  thine  Art  shall  love  true  love, 

Long  as  thy  Science  truth  shall  know, 
Long  as  thy  Eagle  harms  no  Dove, 

Long  as  thy  Law  by  law  shall  grow, 
Long  as  thy  God  is  God  above, 

Thy  Brother  every  man  below, 
So  long  dear  Land  of  all  my  love 

Thy  name  shall  shine,  thy  fame  shall  glow! 

—  Sidney  Lanier. 


Prefatory  Note.—  In  the  life  ol  the  nation,  true  Patriotism  and 
honest  Labor  are  very  closely  allied.  Then  why  not  upon  the  printed 

Only  a  few  years  ago,  the  State  of  New  York  recognized  the  cause 
of  labor  by  making  the  first  Monday  in  September  of  each  year  a 
legal  holiday,  called  "  Labor  Day."  On  that  day  hundreds  of  thousands 
of  the  toilers  of  the  great  Empire  State  march  in  procession  with  flags 
flying  and  bands  playing, —  and  then  away  for  an  afternoon  of  games 
and  sports!  And  every  on-looker  feels  not  only  that  "  the  laborer  is 
worthy  of  his  hire,"  but  of  his  holiday. 

Moreover,  the  laborer  is  worthy  not  only  of  his  hire  and  holiday, 
but  of  the  best  education  for  his  children,  and  the  best  protection  for 
himself  and  his  family  which  the  State  can  give!  For  without  his 
faithful  toil,  the  white  Sails  of  Commerce  would  soon  desert  the  seas; 
the  Wheels  of  Trade  would  clog  and  stop  —  and  the  National  Govern- 
ment itself  stand  still.  There  is  no  better  patriot  in  the  land  than  the 
strong-handed,  true-hearted  laborer. 


Honest  labor  wears  a  lovely  face. 

—  Thos.  Dekker  (died  1641). 

If  all  the  year  were  playing  holidays, 

To  sport  would  be  as  tedious  as  to  work. 

From  toil  he  wins  his  spirits  light, 
From  busy  day  the  peaceful  night; 
Rich  from  the  very  want  of  wealth, 
In  Heaven's  best  treasures,  peace  and  health. 

—  Shakspere. 


As  for  bidding  me  not  work,  Molly  might  as  well  put  the  kettle  on  the  fire,  and 
say,  "Now,  don't  boil  I"  —  Sir  Walter  Scott. 





Harkl  roars  the  bellows,  blast  on  blast, 

The  sooty  smithy  jars, 
And  fire-sparks,  rising  far  and  fast, 

Are  fading  with  the  stars. 
All  day  for  us  the  smith  shall  stand 

Beside  that  flashing  forge; 
All  day  for  us  his  heavy  hand 

The  groaning  anvil  scourge. 

From   far-off  hills,  the  panting  team 

For  us  is  toiling  near; 
For  us  the  raftsman  down  the  stream 

Their   island   barges    steer. 
Rings  out  for  us  the  axe-man's  stroke 

In  forests  old  and  still,— 
For  us  the  century-circled  oak 

Falls  crashing  down  his  hill. 

—  From  "  The  Ship-Builders." 

Cheerly,  on  the  axe  of  labor, 

Let  the  sunbeams  dance, 
Better  than  the  flash  of  sabre 

Or  the  gleam  of  lance! 
Strike!  —  with  every  blow  is  given 

Freer  sun  and  sky, 
And  the  long-hid  earth  to  heaven 

Looks,  with  wondering  eye. 

—  From  "  The  Lumbermen." 

Rap,  rap!  upon  the  well-worn  stone 

How  falls  the  polished  hammer! 
Rap,  rap!  the  measured  sound  has  grown 

A  quick  and  merry  clamor. 
Now  shape  the  sole!  now  deftly  curl 

The  glossy  vamp  around  it, 
And  bless  the  while  the  bright-eyed  girl 

Whose  gentle  fingers  bound  it. 

—  From  "  The  Shoemakers." 



Here  we'll  drop  our  lines,   and  gather 

Old    Ocean's    treasures    in, 
Where'er  the  mottled  mackerel 

Turns  up  a  steel-dark  fin. 
The  sea's  our  field  of  harvest, 

Its  scaly  tribes  our  grain; 
We'll  reap  the  teeming  waters 

As  at  home  they  reap  the  plain! 

—  From  "  The  Fishermen." 

There  wrought  the  busy  harvesters;  and  many  a  creaking  wain 
Bore  slowly  to  the  long  barn-floor  its  load  of  husk  and  grain; 
Till  broad  and  red,  as  when  he  rose,  the  sun  sank  down  at  last, 
And,  like  a  merry  guest's  farewell,  the  day  in  brightness  passed. 

—  From  "  The  Huskers." 

The  gentleman,  sir,  has  misconceived  the  spirit  and  tendency  of 
Northern  institutions.  He  is  ignorant  of  Northern  character.  He 
has  forgotten  the  history  of  his  country.  Preach  insurrection  to  the 
Northern  laborers!  Who  are  the  Northern  laborers?  The  history  of 
your  country  is  their  history.  The  renown  of  your  country  is  their 
renown.  The  brightness  of  their  doings  is  emblazoned  on  its  every  page. 
Blot  from  your  annals  the  words  and  doings  of  Northern  laborers,  and 
the  history  of  your  country  presents  but  a  universal  blank.  Sir,  who  was 
he  that  disarmed  the  Thunderer,  wrested  from  his  grasp  the  bolts  of 
Jove;  calmed  the  troubled  ocean;  became  the  central  sun  of  the  philo- 
sophical system  of  his  age,  shedding  his  brightness  and  effulgence  on 
the  whole  civilized  world;  whom  the  great  and  mighty  of  the  earth 
delighted  to  honor;  who  participated  in  the  achievement  of  your  inde- 
pendence, prominently  assisted  in  molding  your  free  institutions,  and 
the  beneficial  effects  of  whose  wisdom  will  be  felt  to  the  last  moment 
of  "  recorded  time?  "  Who,  sir,  I  ask,  was  he?  A  Northern  laborer, — 
a  Yankee  tallow-chandler's  son  —  a  printer's  runaway  boy. —  Charles 

And  who  let  me  ask  the  honorable  gentleman,  who  was  he  that, 
in  the  days  of  our  Revolution,  led  the  Northern  army, —  yes,  an  army 
of  Northern  laborers, —  and  aided  the  chivalry  of  South  Carolina  in  their 
defence  against  British  aggression,  drove  the  spoilers  from  their  fire- 
sides, and  redeemed  her  fair  fields  from  foreign  invaders?  Who  was  he? 



A  Northern  laborer,  a  Rhode  Island  blacksmith, —  the  gallant  General 
Greene, —  who  left  his  hammer  and  his  forge,  and  went  forth  conquer- 
ing and  to  conquer  in  the  battle  for  our  independence!  And  will  you 
preach  insurrection  to  men  like  these? — Nay  lor. 

Sir,  our  country  is  full  of  the  achievements  of  Northern  laborers. 
Where  is  Concord,  and  Lexington,  and  Princeton,  and  Trenton,  and 
Saratoga,  and  Bunker  Hill,  but  in  the  North?  And  what,  sir,  has  shed 
an  imperishable  renown  on  the  never-dying  names  of  those  hallowed 
spots,  but  the  blood  and  the  struggles,  the  high  daring,  and  patriotism, 
and  sublime  courage,  of  Northern  laborers?  The  whole  North  is  an 
everlasting  monument  of  the  freedom,  virtue,  intelligence,  and  indom- 
itable independence,  of  Northern  laborers.  Go,  sir,  go  preach  insurrec- 
tion to  men  like  these!  —  Naylor. 


"Labor  is  worship!" — the  robin  is  singing; 
"Labor  is  worship!" — the  wild  bee  is  ringing: 
Listen!  that  eloquent  whisper  up-springing 

Speaks  to  thy  soul  from  out  Nature's  great  heart. 
From  the  dark  cloud  flows  the  life-giving  shower; 
From  the  rough  sod  blows  the  soft-breathing  flower; 
From  the  small  insect,  the  rich  coral  bower; 
Only  man,  in  the  plan,  shrinks  from  his  part. 

Labor  is  life!     '  Tis  the  still  water  faileth; 

Idleness  ever  despaireth,  bewaileth; 

Keep  the  watch  wound,  for  the  dark  rust  assaileth; 

Flowers  droop  and  die  in  the  stillness  of  noon. 
Labor  is  glory!  —  the  flying  cloud  lightens; 
Only  the  waving  wing  changes  and  brightens; 
Idle  hearts  only  the  dark  future  frightens; 

Play  the  sweet  keys,  would'st  thou  keep  them  in  tune! 

Labor  is  health!     Lo!    the  husbandman  reaping, 
How  through  his  veins  goes  the  life-current  leaping! 
How  his  strong  arm,  in  its  stalwart  pride  sweeping, 

True  as  a  sunbeam,  the  swift  sickle  guides! 
Work  for  some  good,  be  it  ever  so  slowly; 
Cherish  some  flower,  be  it  ever  so  lowly 
Labor!     all   labor  is  noble  and  holy; 

Let  thy  great  deeds  be  thy  prayer  to  thy  God! 

—  By  Frances  S.  Osgood. 



The  Camp  has  had  its  day  of  song: 

The  sword,  the  bayonet,  the  plume, 
Have  crowded  out  of  rhyme  too  long 

The  plough,  the  anvil,  and  the  loom! 
O,  not  upon  our  tented  fields 

Are  Freedom's  heroes  bred  alone; 
The  training  of  the  Work-shop  yields 

More  heroes  true  than  war  has  known! 

Who  drives  the  bolt,  who  shapes  the  steel, 

May,  with  a  heart  as  valiant,  smite, 
As  he  who  sees  a  foeman  reel 

In  blood  before  his  blow  of  might! 
Let  Labor,  then,  look  up  and  see 

His  craft  no  pith  of  honor  lacks;  . 
The  soldier's  rifle  yet  shall  be 

Less  honored  than  the  woodman's  axe! 

When  the  great  obelisk,  brought  from  Egypt  in  1586,  was  erected 
in  the  square  of  St.  Peter's  in  Rome,  the  tackle  was  all  arranged  for  the 
delicate  and  perilous  work.  To  make  all  safe  and  prevent  the  possi- 
bility of  accident  from  any  sudden  cry  or  alarm,  a  papal  edict  had 
proclaimed  death  to  any  man  who  should  utter  a  loud  word,  till  the 
engineer  had  given  the  order  that  all  risk  was  passed. 

As  the  majestic  monolith  moved  up,  the  populace  closed  in.  The 
square  was  crowded  with  admiring  eyes  and  beating  hearts.  Slowly 
that  crystalization  of  Egyptian  sweat  rises  on  its  base  —  five  degrees, 
ten  degrees,  fifteen,  twenty— there  are  signs  of  faltering.  No  matter 
—  no  voice — silence.  It  moves  again  —  twenty-five,  thirty,  forty, 
forty-three  —  it  stops!  See!  Those  hempen  cables  which  like  faithful 
servants  have  obeyed  the  mathematician  have  suddenly  received  an 
order  from  God  not  to  hold  that  base  steady  another  instant  on  those 
terms.  The  obedient  masons  look  at  each  other, —  silent, —  and  then 
watch  the  threatening  masses  of  stone.  Among  the  crowd,  silence, — 
silence  everywhere,  obedience  to  law, —  and  the  sun  shone  on  the 
stillness  and  despair. 



Suddenly  from  out  of  the  breathless  throng  rang  a  cry,  clear  as 
the  archangel's  trumpet, —  " Wet  the  ropes!"  The  crowd  turned  to 
look.  Tiptoe  on  a  post,  in  a  jacket  of  homespun,  his  eyes  full  of 
prophetic  fire,  stood  a  zvorkman  of  the  people.  His  words  flashed  like 
lightning  and  struck.  From  the  engineer  to  his  lowest  assistant  the 
cry  had  instant  obedience.  Water  was  dashed  on  the  cables;  they  bit 
fiercely  into  the  granite;  the  windlasses  were  manned  once  more,  and 
the  obelisk  rose  to  its  place  and  took  its  stand  for  centuries. — Adapted. 

What  tho'  on  hamely  fare  we  dine, 

Wear  hoddin  gray,  and  a'  that; 
Gie  fools  their  silks,  and  knaves  their  wine, 

A  man's  a  man  for  a'  that! 

For  a'  that,  and  a'  that, 

Their  tinsel  show,   and  a'   that; 
The  honest  man,  though  e'er  sae  poor, 

Is  king  o'  men  for  a'  that. 

Then  let  us  pray  that  come  it  may  — 

As  come  it  will  for  a'  that  — 
That  sense  and  worth,  o'er  a'  the  earth, 

May  bear  the  gree,  and  a'  that; 

For  a'  that,  and  a'  that, 

It's  comin'  yet,  for  a'  that, 
That  man  to  man,  the  warld  o'er, 

Shall  brothers  be  for  a'  that! 

—  Robert  Burns. 

Ashamed  to  toil,  art  thou?  Ashamed  of  thy  dingy  work-shop  and 
dusty  labor-field;  of  thy  hard  hand,  scarred  with  service  more  honor- 
able than  that  of  war;  of  thy  soiled  and  weather-stained  garments,  on 
which  mother  Nature  has  embroidered,  midst  sun  and  rain,  midst  fire 
and  steam,  her  own  heraldic  honors?  Ashamed  of  these  tokens  and 
titles,  and  envious  of  the  flaunting  robes  of  imbecile  idleness  and  vanity? 
It  is  treason  to  Nature,— it  is  impiety  to  Heaven, —  it  is  breaking 
Heaven's  great  ordinance.  Toil,  I  repeat  —  toil,—  either  of  the  brain, 
of  the  heart,  or  of  the  hand,  is  the  only  true  manhood,  the  only  true 
nobility !  —  Orville  Dewey. 


It  is  believed  that  pupils  may  become  interested  in  the  study  of 
American  history  by  presenting  for  their  study  and  investigation  its 
important  events  on  the  anniversaries  of  their  occurrence.  Experi- 
enced teachers  recognize  the  value  of  having  at  hand  a  few  dates 
around  which  may  be  grouped  a  number  of  facts  with  sufficient 
accuracy  to  preserve  that  sequence  of  events  so  necessary  to  the  study 
of  history.  What  dates  should  be  remembered  is  not  particularly  es- 
sential, and  each  pupil  may  largely  be  allowed  to  choose  those  which 
interest  him  personally  or  are  in  some  way  connected  with  his  indi- 
vidual experiences. 

The  following  arrangement  of  dates  has  been  compiled  for  use  in 
morning  exercises  in  schools,  in  the  belief  that  if  used  intelligently 
such  exercises  will  materially  aid  the  avowed  purpose  of  this  volume 
in  stimulating  an  intelligent  patriotism,  through  a  knowledge  of 
events  that  have  been  influential  in  shaping  the  development  of  our 
country  to  its  present  marvelous  greatness  and  have  added  to  its 
acknowledged  prestige. 

The  references  have,  so  far  as  possible,  been  chosen  from  works 
easily  accessible,  but  they  may  always  be  supplemented  to  advantage 
by  the  alert  and  enterprising  teacher.  Either  a  class  or  a  particular 
pupil  chosen  for  the  work  should  carefully  study  the  history  relating 
to  the  event  which  is  the  subject  of  a  morning  exercise,  preparatory 
to  its  presentation,  and  should,  under  the  direction  of  the  teacher, 
provide  short  recitations  or  quotations  supplementary  to  those  given 
in  connection  with  the  several  dates.  Abundant  material  may  be 
obtained  from  the  excellent  selections  given  in  this  volume. 

It  is  suggested  that  pupils  whose  birthdays  are  the  same  as  the 
anniversary  of  an  event  which  is  the  subject  of  a  morning  exercise 
should  be  chosen  to  take  part  therein.  It  is  also  suggested  that  morn- 
ing exercises  should  be  limited  to  fifteen  minutes. 




In  the  arrangement,  September  has  been  placed  first  in  order  to 
correspond  substantially  with  the  opening  of  the  schools  of  our  State. 
As  the  dates  in  any  given  list  must  differ  materially  in  importance, 
those  of  greater  moment  in  the  list  presented  have  been  printed  in 
black-face  type  in  order  that  they  may  be  readily  distinguished  from 
others  of  minor  importance  but  still  of  interest  locally  or  in  connection 
with  other  school  work. 

Believing  that  the  faithful  and  efficient  teaching  force  of  the  State 
will  find  much  that  is  helpful  in  the  material  submitted,  I  unhesitat- 
ingly commit  to  their  care  the  great  interests  which  this  particular 
work,  as  well  as  this  entire  volume,  is  intended  to  promote. 


September  i,  1675. —  Attack  on  Hadley. 

The  Indians  under  Philip  attacked  Hadley.  Most  of  the  garrison  were  absent. 
Moreover  it  was  a  feast  day,  and  the  people  were  in  the  meeting-house  when 
the  alarm  was  given.  The  colonists  were  almost  driven  back  when  Goffe,  the 
regicide,  suddenly  appeared,  led  the  troops,  repulsed  the  Indians,  and  as  sud- 
denly disappeared. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

September  2,  1864. —  Capture  of  Atlanta. 

General  Sherman,  by  a  series  of  masterly  movements,  compelled  the  Con- 
federates to  retreat,  and  after  crossing  the  almost  inaccessible  country  between 
Chattanooga  and  Atlanta,  finally  succeeded  in  capturing  the  important  military 
center,  Atlanta,  the  most  important  strategic  point  in  possession  of  the  Con- 
federates in  the  southeast. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

September  3,  1783. — Treaty  of  peace  signed  at  Paris.     (This  treaty 
marked  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War.) 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
History  of  the  United  States,  vol.  X. —  Bancroft. 
Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States. —  Frothingham. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Advantages  and  Disadvantages  of  the  Revolution,  from  David  Ramsay's 
History  of  the  American  Revolution. 

September  5,  1774. —  First  Continental  Congress. 

The  first  Continental  Congress  met  in  Carpenter's  Hall,  Philadelphia,  Septem- 
ber 5,  1774.  Every  colony  except  Georgia  was  represented,  and  the  delegates 
were  the  ablest  politicians  of  the  colonies.  Its  chief  work  was  the  adoption  of 
a  Declaration  of  Rights,  and  the  establishment  of  the  American  Association. 




Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 
American  History  Leaflets,  No.  n. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
The  American  Revolution. — Fiske. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

"  The  Continental  Congress  and  its  Doings." —  Edmund  Olliver. 
"  The  First  American  Congress." —  Maxey. 


"  When  liberty  is  the  prize,  who  would  shun  the  warfare,  who  would  stoop 
to  waste  a  coward  thought  on  life?  We  esteem  no  sacrifice  too  great,  no  con- 
flict too  severe,  to  redeem  our  inestimable  rights  and  privileges.  'Tis  for  you, 
brethren,  for  ourselves,  for  our  united  posterity,  we  hazard  all;  and  permit  us 
humbly  to  hope  that  such  a  measure  of  vigilance,  fortitude,  and  perseverance 
will  still  be  afforded  us  that,  by  patiently  suffering  and  nobly  doing,  we  may 
eventually  secure  that  more  precious  than  Hesperian  fruit,  the  golden  apples  of 
freedom.  We  see  the  hand  of  heaven  in  the  rapid  and  wonderful  union  of  the 
colonies;  and  that  generous  and  universal  emulation  to  prevent  the  sufferings 
of  the  people  of  this  place  gives  a  prelibation  of  the  cup  of  deliverance.  May 
unerring  Wisdom  dictate  the  measures  to  be  recommended  by  the  Congress; 
may  a  smiling  God  conduct  this  people  through  the  thorny  paths  of  difficulty 
and  finally  gladden  our  hearts  with  success." 

Septembers,  1887. —  Labor  Day   first   observed  in   the   State   of  New 

September  7,  1888. —  Congress  prohibited  Chinese  immigration. 

September  8,  1565. —  Founding  of  St.  Augustine. 

On  the  eighth  of  September,  1565,  Don  Pedro  Menendez,  a  Spaniard,  com- 
menced to  lay  the  foundation  of  St.  Augustine,  Florida,  the  oldest  town  in  the 
United  States. 

References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  the  United  States.—  Winsor. 
Pioneers  of  France  in  the  New  World.—  Parkman. 
Discovery  of  America. —  Fiske. 

September  9,  1850. —  California  admitted  to  the  Union. 


September  10,  1813. — -Battle  of  Lake  Erie. 

Perry,  in  command  of  the  American  ships,  met  a  British  fleet  of  six  ships, 
and  a  hard-fought  battle  of  four  hours  ensued.  The  result  was  a  brilliant  victory 
for  the  Americans;  it  established  their  naval  supremacy  on  Lake  Erie,  Detroit 
was  evacuated  by  the  British,  the  Indians  of  Michigan  were  intimidated.  Perry's 
motto  for  the  day  was  Lawrence's  dying  words:  "  Don't  give  up  the  ship,"  and 
his  message  to  Harrison  after  the  victory,  "  We  have  met  the  enemy  and  they 
are  ours." 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

History  of  the   Navy  of  the   United   States. —  Cooper. 
History  of  the  Battle  of  Lake  Erie. —  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections : 

Selection  from  ■   The  Second  War  between  England  and  the  United  States.  — 

September  11,  1777. —  Battle  of  Brandy  wine  Creek. 

At  the  landing  of  Howe's  fleet  at  Chesapeake  Bay,  Washington  marched  to 
Brandywine  to  make  a  stand  for  Philadelphia,  but  superior  numbers  and 
stratagem  gave  the  enemy  the  victory.  W'hile  the  Americans  were  being  at- 
tacked from  the  front,  a  part  of  the  British  forces  secretly  fell  upon  them  in  the 
rear  and  routed  them. 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

September  n,  18 14. —  Battle  of  Plattsburg  and  McDonough's  victory. 

A  large  British  army  advanced  from  Canada  to  attack  Plattsburg,  and  at  the 
same  time  their  fleet,  commanded  by  Commodore  Donnie,  began  an  attack  upon 
the  American  fleet  under  Commodore  McDonough,  then  lying  in  the  bay  of 
Plattsburg.  Both  land  and  naval  contests  were  sharp  and  decisive.  All  the 
British  vessels,  with  the  exception  of  some  galleys,  were  captured,  while  the 
army  hastily  retreated. 


History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 


September  13,  1759.— Taking  of  Quebec. 

The  great  object  of  the  campaign  of  1759  was  the  reduction  of  Canada. 
General  Wolfe  was  to  lay  siege  to  Quebec;  Amherst  was  to  reduce  Ticonderoga 
and  Crown  Point,  and  then  co-operate  with  Wolfe;  and  General  Prideaux  was 
to  capture  Niagara  and  Montreal  and  then  join  Amherst. 

During  July,  Niagara  surrendered,  and  Johnson,  successor  to  Prideaux,  in- 
stead of  going  to  Montreal,  made  his  way  to  Albany.  The  French  abandoned 
both  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point  without  striking  a  blow,  and  Amherst  went 
into  winter  quarters,  failing  Wolfe.  With  8,000  men  Wolfe  ascended  the  St. 
Lawrence  and  landed  his  army  on  the  isle  of  Orleans.  On  July  31st,  he  made 
a  daring,  through  unsuccessful,  attempt  upon  the  French  intrenchments  at  Mont- 
morencie,  near  Quebec.  Not  discouraged  by  the  disaster,  the  English  continued 
the  struggle,  and  finally  effected  a  landing  at  night  about  two  miles  above  the 
city,  and,  climbing  the  steep  banks  of  the  river,  by  daybreak  on  September  13th, 
stood  on  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  in  battle  array.  This  battle  virtually  decided 
the  French  and  Indian  war,  and  the  supremacy  of  the  English  in  America. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. — Anderson. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Taking  of  Quebec  and  Death  of  Wolfe. —  Parkman. 
Elegy  in  a  Country  Churchyard. —  Gray. 

September  13,  18 14. —  Bombardment  of  Fort  McHenry,  Baltimore. 

After  the  burning  of  Washington,  Ross  started  to  attack  Baltimore,  but  was 
slain  on  the  way.  His  forces,  checked  for  a  time  by  the  militia,  prepared  to  co- 
operate with  a  fleet  of  sixteen  vessels.  But  Fort  McHenry  hindered  the  advance 
of  the  fleet,  and  after  a  twenty-four  hours'  bombardment  the  British  with- 


History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 
Popular   History   of  the   United   States. —  Bryant. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Star  Spangled  Banner. —  Key. 

The  Flag  of  Washington.—  F.  W.  Gillett. 


September  14,  1807.— Fulton  first  ascended  the  Hudson   by  steam 

This  experiment  was  the  beginning  of  the  revolution  in  methods  of  navigation. 

September  14,  1847.— Occupation  of  the  City  of  Mexic0- 

The  approaches  to  the  City  of  Mexico  were  strongly  guarded  by  batteries  and 
troops,  but  by  perseverance  and  daring  all  were  overcome,  and  Santa  Anna  and 
his  army  fled. 

September  14,  1847,  "  General  Scott,  at  the  head  of  the  American  troops,  made 
a  triumphal  entry  into  the  city." 


History  of  the  Mexican  War—  Mansfield. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 
Our  Country. —  Lossing. 
War  with  Mexico.—  R.  S.  Ripley. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selection  from  Mansfield's  History  of  the  Mexican  War. 

September  15,  1789. —  James  Fenimore  Cooper  born. 
Selections  from: 

The  Spy. 

The  Deerslayer. 

The  Pathfinder. 

September  16,  1776.— Battle  of  Harlem  Plains. 

While  Washington's  army  was  in  New  York,  after  the  retreat  from  Long 
Island,  it  was  decided  to  fortify  Harlem  Heights.  Here  the  Americans  were 
attacked  by  a  strong  detachment  of  British,  and  after  a  severe  skirmish,  were 

References : 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  Revolution.—  Carrington. 
Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 

September  16,  1823.— Francis  Parkman  born. 
Selections  from: 

The  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac. 

France  and  England  in  North  America  —  A  Series  of  Historical  Narratives. 



September  17,  1787. —  Adoption  of  the  National  Constitution  at  Phila- 

A  stronger  government  than  that  provided  for  by  the  articles  of  confederation 
which  had  formerly  held  the  colonies  together,  was  found  necessary,  and  a  con- 
vention met  at  Philadelphia  in  May,  1787,  to  formulate  a  constitution. 


Critical  Period  of  American   History. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Building  of  the  Ship. —  Longfellow. 
Insufficiency  of  the   Confederation. —  Hamilton. 
See  Dexter  Smith,  p.  318. 

September  17,  1862. —  Battle  of  Antietam. 

Taking  advantage  of  the  weak  condition  of  the  Union  army,  the  Confederates, 
under  General  Lee,  marched  towards  Washington,  but  were  confronted  by  the 
forces  of  Generals  Bank  and  Pope.  These  generals  were  defeated,  the  latter  in 
the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run  (August  29th  and  30th);  and  Lee  crossed  the 
Potomac  into  Maryland.  Meanwhile  McClellan  had  been  recalled  from  the 
James,  and,  having  assumed  the  command  of  the  army  in  Maryland,  defeated 
Lee  in  the  battle  of  South  Mountain  and  in  the  greater  conflict  of  Antietam 
(September  17).  Lee  at  once  withdrew  across  the  Potomac,  but  McClellan 
made  no  pursuit    and  in  November  was  superseded  by  Burnside. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Barbara  Frietchie. —  Whittier. 

The  Conflict  at  Antietam. —  Lossing. 

September  18,  1793. —  Cotton  Gin  invented  by  Eli  Whitney. 

References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 



September  i8>  1793.  —  President  Washington  laid  the  corner-stone  of 
the  National  Capitol. 
See  "  The  Capitol,"  p.  51. 

September  19,  1777. — First  battle  of  Stillwater  (Saratoga),  or  battle  of 
Bemis  Heights. 

Under  Arnold's  and  Kosciusko's  direction,  Gates  had  fortified  Bemis  Heights, 
a  point  which  Burgoyne  must  cross  on  his  way  to  Albany.  The  British,  recog- 
nizing the  necessity  of  pushing  on,  began  the  attack  at  once.  The  contest  was 
ended  by  darkness,  each  side  claiming  the  victory.  Although  the  British  re- 
mained on  the  field,  their  advance  to  Albany  was  stopped.  The  American  loss 
equaled  about  half  that  of  the  British. 

References : 
The  American   Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selection: 

The  Right  of  the  Line.     See  p.  20. 

September  19,  1863. —  Battle  of  Chickamauga. 

In  June,  1863,  Rosecrans  again  undertook  the  task  of  capturing  Chattanooga, 
but  succeeded  only  so  far  as  to  compel  Bragg  to  abandon  the  place.  On 
September  19th,  the  Confederates  under  General  Bragg  suddenly  attacked  the 
Union  forces  under  General  Rosecrans  at  Chickamauga,  and  nearly  routed 
them.  But  here,  as  at  Murfreesboro,  General  George  H.  Thomas  saved  the  day 
by  holding  the  center  of  the  Union  position. 


Battles  antl  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selections : 

Rosecrans  and  the  Chickamauga  Company  —  Major  William  J.   Richards,  in 
War  Papers. 

September  19,  1881. —  Garfield  died.     Arthur  became  President. 
September  20,  1697. —  Peace  of  Ryswick,  ending  King  William's  war. 
September  20,  1703. —  Beginning  of  Queen  Anne's  war. 

-ng  manual  of  patriotism. 

September  22,  1780. —  Meeting  of  Arnold  and  Andre. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Diary  of  the  American  Revolution. —  Moore. 

The  Treason  of  Arnold,  by  Jared  Sparks  in  Half-Hours  with  American  His- 
tory, by  Morris. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Execution  of  Major  Andre,   in   Letter  to   Lawrens,   by  Alexander  Hamilton, 

in  Anderson's  United  States  Reader. 
Andre's   Last  Request. —  Willis. 

Benedict  Arnold.—  Garden.     See  Anderson's  United  States  Reader. 
75  I  was  born  in  America,  I  lived  there  to  the  prime  of  my  life;  but  alas,  I  can 

call  no  man  in  America  my  friend." —  Arnold. 

September  23,  1779.— Paul  Jones'  naval  victory. 

Paul  Jones,  with  a  smajl  squadron,  encountered  two  British  frigates  and  a 
merchant  fleet  off  the  coast  of  Great  Britain.  Jones  lashed  his  flagship,  The 
Bon  Homme  Richard,  to  the  British  ship  Serapis  and  one  of  the  most  desperate 
of  sea-fights  ensued,  lasting  from  seven  until  ten,  when  the  frigates  struck  their 
flags.    It  was  the  first  naval  victory  won  under  the  American  flag. 

References : 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

1776.—  Lossing. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States  of  America. —  Cooper. 

American  History  told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 

Life  of  Paul  Jones. —  Mackenzie. 

History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

September  24,  1669. —  Fort  Orange  surrendered  to  the  English  and  was 
renamed  Albany. 

September  24,  1846. —  Surrender  of  Monterey. 

After  a  series  of  assaults  by  General  Taylor's  troops,  Monterey  capitulated,  a 
city  strong  in  natural  defenses  and  furthermore  garrisoned  by  ten  thousand 
troops.     The  American  force  was  far  inferior. 



Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 
Our  Country. —  Lossing. 
War  with  Mexico.—  R.  S.  Ripjey. 
History  of  the  Mexican  War.—  Mansfield. 

Appropriate  Selections  : 

The  Martyr  of  Monterey.—  Rev.  J.  G.  Lyons. 
Monterey.— Charles  F.  Hoffman,  p.  324. 

September  24,  1869.— "Black  Friday"  in  New  York. 

On  the  24th  of  September,  1869,  there  was  a  terrific  panic  in  the  gold-room 
on  Wall  street,  New  York,  when  a  few  conspirators  held  nearly  all  the  gold  in 
this  country,  and  would  give  it  out  only  at  ruinous  prices.  A  telegram  from 
the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  at  Washington  offering  $4,000,000  of  gold  for  sale 
made  a  great  falj  in  the  price,  and  relieved  the  financial  situation.  The  business 
of  the  country  suffered  for  months  because  of  the  effects  of  the  panic. 


School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 

September  25,  15 13.—  Discovery  of  the  Pacific  ocean  by  Balboa. 

In  1513,  Balboa,  the  governor  of  the  Spanish  Colony  at  the  Isthmus  of  Darien, 
while  crossing  the  isthmus,  gained  the  summit  of  a  mountain  from  which  he  dis- 
covered the  Pacific  Ocean.  After  falling  on  his  knees  and  thanking  God  for  the 
privilege  of  being  the  discoverer  of  this  great  ocean,  he  descended  to  the  sea- 
shore and  took  possession  of  the  whole  coast  in  the  name  of  the  Spanish  Crown. 

References : 

Discovery  of  America,  vol.   II. —  Fiske. 
America,  vol.   II. —  Winsor 

'Appropriate  Selections: 

Discovery  of  Pacific  Ocean. —  Irving. 

September  25,  1690. —  First  newspaper  in  America. 

On  September  25,  1690,  there  appeared  in  Boston  the  first  newspaper  in 
America,  called  "  Public  Occurrences,"  but  the  Legislature  suppressed  its  publi- 
cation after  the  first  number. 


History  of  the  United  States.—  E.  E.  Childs. 



September  28,  1868. —  Chinese  Embassy. 

In  1868  China  sent  to  the  United  States  the  first  embassy  she  had  ever  com- 
missioned to  any  foreign  nation. 

October  3,  1800. —  George  Bancroft  born. 
A  prominent  historian. 

October  4,  1777. —  Battle  of  Germantown. 

At  sunrise  on  October  4th,  Washington,  with  a  large  force,  surprised  the 
British  at  Germantown.  "  At  first  his  success  was  complete,  but  a  dense  fog 
finally  frustrated  his  plans,  and,  seeing  that  the  day  was  lost,  he  ordered  a 

References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 

October  5,  181 3. —  Battle  of  the  Thames. 

After  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie,  American  forces  commanded  by  Harrison 
overtook  the  British  and  Indians  commanded  by  Proctor  and  Tecumseh  and 
defeated  them.  Tecumseh  was  slain  and  all  that  Hull  had  previously  lost  was 
was  regained. 


Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

October  7,  1765. —  Stamp  Act  Congress. 

As  a  result  of  the  Stamp  Act,  delegates  from  all  the  colonies  except  Virginia, 
North  Carolina,  Georgia  and  New  Hampshire,  met  at  New  York  to  decide  upon 
some  plan  of  opposition,  and  sent  petitions  to  the  king  and  commons.  The 
unrepresented  colonies  also  sent  similar  petitions. 


Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States. —  Frothingham. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States,  vol.  III. —  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
American  History  Told  by  Contemporaries,  vol.  II. —  Hart. 


Appropriate  Selections: 

It  was  in  opposing  the  Stamp  Act  that  Patrick  Henry  said,  "  Caesar  had  his 
Brutus;  Charles  I.,  his  Cromwell;  and  George  III.,"— "  Treason,  Treason!  "  cried 
his  opponents.  The  orator  paused,  looked  the  speaker  of  the  house  calmly  in 
the  eyes  and  finished  his  sentence  — "  may  profit  by  their  example.  If  this  be 
treason,  make  the  most  of  it." 

British  Orations. —  Adams. 

October  7,  1777.—  Battle  of  Saratoga. 

Finding  that  he  must  either  fight  or  surrender,  Burgoyne  attempted  to  cut  his 
way  through  the  American  lines,  but  in  spite  of  his  determined  exertions  he  was 
compelled  to  fall  back.  The  battle  of  Saratoga  is  classed  as  one  of  the  fifteen 
decisive  battles  of  the  world. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 

October  7,  1780.— Battle  of  King's  Mountain. 

The  British  under  Ferguson  were  attacked  and  defeated  at  King's  Mountain. 
The  Americans  ascended  in  three  divisions  on  three  sides,  thus  gradually  en- 
trapping the  British,  as  the  fourth  side  was  too  steep  for  retreat. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

1776.—  Lossing. 

King's   Mountain   and   Its    Heroes.—  Draper. 

October  7,  1826.— First  Railroad  in  the  United  States. 

A  railroad  was  put  into  operation  at  Quincy,  Mass.,  to  transport  granite  about 
three  miles  to  tide-water.  Granite  sleepers  were  used,  upon  which  timbers 
were  placed,  and  on  these  flat  bars  of  iron  were  spiked.  The  cars  were  drawn 
by  horses.  This  is  commonly  supposed  to  be  the  first  railroad  in  America,  but 
there  is  reported  to  have  been  an  earjier  one  of  unknown  date  in  Pennsylvania. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
American  Centenary. —  Lossing. 



October  9,  1779. —  Abandonment  of  the  Siege  of  Savannah. 

General  Lincoln,  in  command  of  the  patriot  forces  of  the  South,  with  the  help 
of  the  French  fleet,  tried  to  recover  Savannah.  After  a  three  weeks'  siege,  an 
assault  was  made.    The  Americans  were  repulsed  with  heavy  loss. 


Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Pulaski's  Banner. —  Longfellow. 

October  12,  1492. —  Discovery  of  America. 

Christopher  Columbus,  the  discoverer  of  America,  was  born  in  the  city  of 
Genoa,  Italy.  Believing  the  earth  to  be  round,  he  concluded  that  by  sailing 
westward  he  would  reach  India  sooner  than  by  the  usual  route  by  way  of  Egypt 
and  the  Red  Sea.  Genoa  refused  his  applications  for  aid,  as  did  also  Portugal 
and  England,  but  Spain  finally  came  to  his  assistance.  A  little  over  four  hundred 
years  ago,  on  Friday,  the  third  of  August,  Columbus  sailed  from  the  port  of 
Palos,  in  Spain,  and  ten  weeks  later,  on  Friday,  the  12th  of  October,  1492,  he 
landed  at  San  Salvador,  one  of  the  Bahamas. 

References : 

Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Landing  of  Columbus. —  From  Irving's  Life  and  Voyage  of  Columbus. 

Landing  of  Columbus. —  Robertson. 

First  Voyage  of  Columbus. —  Joanna  Bartle. 

Character  of  Columbus. —  Irving. 

Chauncey  M.   Depew,  p.   162. 

Columbus  Day,  p.  157. 

October  13,  1812. —  Battle  on  Queenstown  Heights. 


History  of  the  Second  War  with  England.— J.  H.  Headley. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812  —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States  —  Dawson. 



October  16,  1859. —  John  Brown's  Raid  at  Harper's  Ferry. 

John  Brown  took  an  active  part  in  the  Kansas  troubles.  An  ardent  aboli- 
tionist, he  formed  plans  to  liberate  the  slaves.  Collecting  a  small,  well-armed 
force,  he  suddenly  seized  the  arsenal  at  Harper's  Ferry,  Virginia,  October  16, 
1859.  After  a  desperate  resistance,  he  was  captured,  tried,  and  executed.  The 
event  was  of  the  utmost  importance  in  the  development  of  the  Civil  war. 


Life  of  John  Brown. —  F.   B.   Sanborn. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Schouler. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

History  of  the  United  States  from  the  Compromise  of  1850. —  Rhodes. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Battle-Cry  of  Freedom. 

October  17,  1777. —  Surrender  of  Burgoyne. 

As  a  result  of  the  Battk  of  Saratoga,  Burgoyne  was  forced  to  surrender,  for" 
he  was  hedged  in  without  provisions  by  the  patriot  forces. 

References : 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Surrender  of  Burgoyne. — Anderson's  United  States  Reader. 
Burgoyne's  Surrender. —  George  William  Curtis. 

October  18,  1831. —  Helen  Fiske  Hunt  Jackson  born. 

Selections  from: 
A  Century  of  Dishonor. 

October  19,  1781. —  Surrender  of  Cornwallis. 

Cornwallis,  shut  up  in  Yorktown,  attacked  by  sea  and  land,  was  compelled  to 
surrender.  This  virtually  ended  the  Revolutionary  war,  although  nearly  two 
years  elapsed  before  the  final  treaty  of  Paris. 

The   American    Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United   States.—  Anderson. 
Popular   History   of  the   United   States. —  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 


Appropriate  Selections: 

Selection  from  Holmes'  Annals  of  America. 

Yorktown. —  Whittier. 

The  Battle  of  Yorktown. —  See  p.   179. 

October  22,  1776. —  Execution  of  Nathan  Hale. 


The  Two  Spies.—  Lossing. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Plildreth. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
A  Brave  Man's  Death. —  Anonymous. 
Nathan  Hale. —  Frances  Miles  Finch. 
The  Ballad  of  Nathan  Hale. —  Anonymous. 
"  I  regret  that  I  have  but  one  life  to  give  to  my  country." —  Capt.  Nathan  Hale. 

October  25,  1812. —  The  United  States  captured  the  Macedonian. 

The  frigate  United  States,  Commodore  Decatur,  compelled  the  Macedonian 
to  surrender  after  a  two-hours'  action  west  of  the  Canary  Islands. 


History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States. —  Cooper. 

Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 

October  28,  1776. —  Battle  of  White  Plains. 

As  Washington's  forces  on  Harlem  Heights  were  so  strong,  Howe  determined 
to  gain  his  rear.  But  Washington,  informed  of  Howe's  movements,  crossed  the 
Harlem  River  to  meet  him,  and  at  White  Plains  a  severe  battle  was  fought.  The 
Americans  were  driven  to  the  hills  of  North  Castle,  whither  the  British  dared 
not  go. 


Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 

Popular   History  of  the   United   States. —  Bryant. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Battles  of  the  American  Revolution. —  Carrington. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

October  28,  1886. —  Bartholdi's  Statue  of  Liberty  Enlightening  the 
World,  the  gift  of  the  French  people,  was  formally  unveiled  in 
New  York  Harbor. 


October  30,  1753. —  French  and  Indian  war. 

The  French  having  seized  three  British  traders,  and  built  forts  on  the  land 
of  the  Ohio  Company,  an  association  formed  under  a  royal  grant  to  trade  with 
the  Indians,  Governor  Dinwiddie  of  the  Virginia  Colony  selected  George 
Washington,  then  about  twenty-two,  to  carry  a  letter  of  remonstrance  to  the 
French  commandant  —  the  first  public  service  of  importance  performed  by 


History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
History   of  the  United   States. —  Hildreth. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 
School   History  of  the  United  States. —  Lee. 
America,  vol.  V. — Winsor. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Incidents  of  Washington's  Journey. —  Lossing. 

October  31,  1864. —  Nevada  admitted  to  the  Union. 

November  1,  1683. —  Original  counties  of  New  York  established. 

Albany,    Dutchess,   Kings,   New  York,    Orange,   Queens,   Richmond,   Suffolk, 

Ulster,  and  Westchester. 

November  1,  1889. —  Washington  admitted  to  the  Union. 

November  2,  1889. —  North  Dakota  admitted  to  the  Union. 
South  Dakota  admitted  to  the  Union. 

November  3,  1794. —  William  Cullen  Bryant  born. 

His  "  Thanatopsis,"   1817,  marks  the  first  date  in  our  true  American  poetry. 


Forest   Hymn. 
Antiquity  of  Freedom. 

November  7,  181 I.—  Battle  of  Tippecanoe. 

In  the  troubles  prior  to  the  war  of  1812,  the  British  again  excited  the  Indians 
to  make  war  upon  the  American  frontier.  General  Harrison  took  measures 
against  them,  and  at  Tippecanoe  was  treacherously  attacked  by  the  Prophet,  a 
brother  of  the  Indian  leader.  After  one  of  the  most  desperate  battles  ever  fought 
with  the  Indians,  the  Americans  repulsed  them  with  heavy  losses. 




Battles  of   the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

November  7,  1814. —  Seizure  of  Pensacola. 

During  the  war  of   1812,   the  Spaniards  at  Pensacola  allowed  the  British  to 

take  possession  of  their  forts  and  fit  out  expeditions  against  the  United  States. 

General  Jackson,  with  3,000  men,  marched  to  Pensacola,  seized  the  town,  and 
forced  the  British  to  leave. 


Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812.—  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

November  8,  1889. —  Montana  admitted  to  the  Union. 

November  11,  1778. —  Massacre  at  Cherry  Valley. 

A  party  of  Tories  and  Indians  fell  upon  Cherry  Valley,  and  killed  or  carried 
away  captive  many  of  the  inhabitants. 


The    American    Revolution. —  Fiske.- 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the   United  States.—  Bancroft. 

November  12,  1824.— Orleans  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 

November  15,  1777. —  Articles  of  Confederation. 

The  representatives  of  Congress  entered  into  the  Articles  of  Confederation, 
November  15,  1777.  The  Confederacy  was  to  be  "  the  United  States  of 
America;"  each  state  was  to  retain  its  sovereignty  and  independence.  The 
states  were  united  for  their  common  defence. 


American    Revolution. —  Fiske. 
History    of   the   United    States.—  Bancroft. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 


November  16,  1776.— Capture  of  Fort  Washington  by  the  British. 

After  the  battle  of  White  Plains,  Howe  sent  a  force  of  Hessians  to  attack  Fort 
Washington.  They  captured  it  with  a  loss  of  1,000  men  while  more  than  2,000 
American  prisoners  were  taken. 

References : 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Battles  of  the  American  Revolution. —  Carrington. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

November  19,  1863. —  Dedication  of  the  National  Cemetery  at  Gettys- 

One  of  the  most  interesting  events  of  the  year  1863  was  the  dedication  of  the 
National  cemetery  at  Gettysburg.  It  took  place  in  the  presence  of  a  vast  con- 
course of  visitors,  and  an  oration  was  delivered  by  Edward  Everett.  The  brief 
address  of  President  Lincoln  on  that  occasion  was  especially  admired  for 
the  touching  pathos  of  its  sentiment  and  the  simple  beauty  of  its  diction. 
Of  all  his  utterances  this  is  undoubtedly  the  most  expressive  of  the  purity  and 
loftiness  of  his  character. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

National     Cemetery     at     Gettysburg  —  Address     at     National     Cemetery     at 

Gettysburg. —  Edward  Everett. 
Lincoln's  Gettysburg  address,  p.  337. 

November  23-25,  1863. —  Battle  of  Chattanooga. 

When  Thomas  took  command  of  the  army  after  the  battle  of  Chickamauga, 
he  was  obliged  to  shelter  his  army  in  Chattanooga,  where  Bragg  blockaded  it. 
Meanwhile  Grant  with  the  combined  armies  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  Sherman's 
corps,  and  Hooker,  with  a  detachment  from  the  army  of  the  Potomac,  arrived 
at  the  scene  of  action.  The  Confederate  center  was  carried  by  assault;  Lookout 
Mountain  was  cleared  in  the  "  battle  above  the  clouds;  "  all  the  strong  Confeder- 
ate positions  were  taken,  and  Bragg's  army  completely  routed. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Midnight  on  Missionary  Ridge. —  Captain  A.  C.  Ford. 
Missionary  Ridge. —  Brevet  Lieut.-Col.  Martin  L.  Bundy. 



November  24,  1832. —  Nullification  Act. 

The  cotton-growing  states  objected  to  the  tariff  of  1828,  which  was  to  encour- 
age and  protect  the  manufacture  of  certain  articles  in  America  by  imposing  a 
heavy  duty  upon  imports.  South  Carolina  openly  opposed  the  law;  a  convention 
ordained  that  the  tariff  law  was  null  and  void,  and  that  if  the  government  should 
attempt  to  enforce.  South  Carolina  would  secede  from  the  Union.  Soon,  how- 
ever, quiet  was  restored  by  a  compromise  bill  providing  for  the  gradual  reduction 
of  the  duties. 


United   States. —  Rhodes. 

United   States. —  Schouler. 

Half-Hours   with   American    History. —  Morris. 

Select  Documents  of  United  States  History. —  Macdonald. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Johnston's  Orations. —  vol.  IV. 

November  25,  1783. —  Evacuation  Day. 

On  November  25,  the  British  army  left  New  York,  while  Washington  and 
Governor  Clinton  took  possession.     It  was  a  scene  of  public  festivity. 

References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Critical  Period  of  American  History. —  Fiske. 

November  29,  1802. —  Ohio  admitted  to  the  Union. 

November  29,  181 1. —  Wendell  Phillips  born. 

Selections  from : 

Toussaint  l'Ouverture. 
The  Lost  Arts. 

December  2,  1823. —  Monroe  Doctrine. 

Napoleon's  triumph  in  Spain  led  to  revolts  in  the  Spanish  Colonies  in  America; 
another  so-called  "  Holy  Alliance  "  had  been  suggested  to  consider  aiding  Spain 
to  reduce  the  Colonies;  and  Russia  had  claimed  part  of  the  Pacific  coast  of  North 
America.  Finally  Great  Britain  proposed  that  England  and  the  United  States 
should  unite  in  a  declaration  against  European  intervention  in  America.  The 
proposal  was  declined.  In  his  annual  message,  Monroe  stated  the  policy  known 
as  the  Monroe  Doctrine:  "America  for  Americans." 




Select  Documents  of  United  States  History.—  Alacdonald. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States  —  Channing. 

December  3,  1 818.— Illinois  admitted  to  the  Union. 

December  4,  1682.— Establishment  of  the  Quaker  colony  in   Pennsyl- 

Actuated  by  a  desire  to  found  a  colony  where  civil  and  religious  liberty  might 
be  enjoyed,  and  where  the  people  might  dwell  together  in  peace,  William  Penn 
obtained  from  Charles  II.  a  tract  of  land  west  of  the  Delaware  and  called  it 
Pennsylvania.  After  several  conferences  with  the  Indians,  he  met  them  beneath 
the  wide-spreading  elm  at  a  place  now  called  Kensington,  a  part  of  Philadelphia, 
where  he  made  his  famous  treaty  of  peace  and  friendship  with  the  Redmen  — 
a  treaty  "  never  sworn  to  and  never  broken." 


School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 
Ha'f-Hours   with   American    History.—  Morris. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Penn's  Treaty  with  the  Indians,  in  Anderson's  United  States  Reader. 

December  4>  1783.— Washington  took  leave  of  his  officers  and  gave  up 
the  active  command  of  the  American  army. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Washington's  Address  to  the  Officers  of  the  Army. 

December  10,  18 17.— Mississippi  admitted  to  the  Union. 

December  10,  1898.— Treaty  of  peace  signed  between  Spain  and  the 
United  States. 

The  Commissioners  of  both  governments  met  in  Paris  in  October  and  ex- 
changed their  powers.  The  negotiations  then  begun,  lasted  until  December 
10,  when  the  treaty  was  signed.  The  Americans  did  work  among  hostile 
nations,  in  a  way  which  added  another  triumph  to  the  annals  of  American 



The  War  with  Spain.—  H.  C.  Lodge. 

Appropriate  Selections : 
The  Peace  Conference  and  the  Moral  Aspect  of  War.—  North  American  Re- 
view, October,  1899. 

December  11,  1777. — Washington's  army  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Valley  Forge. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
History  of  the  United  States. — Bancroft. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Selections  from  the  Life  of  General  Greene. —  Greene. 
Selection  from  Irving's  Life  of  Washington. 

December  n,  1816. —  Indiana  admitted  to  the  Union. 

December  13,  1862. — Battle  of  Fredericksburg. 

Led  by  General  Burnside,  their  new  commander,  the  Union  army  crossed 
the  Rappahannock,  the  design  being  to  march  against  Richmond  by  the  route 
from  Fredericksburg.  Fredericksburg  was  taken  December  13,  but,  after  a 
disastrous  attempt  to  carry  the  works  behind  the  city,  the  river  was  recrossed. 
The  horror  of  Fredericksburg  Jed  to  Burnside's  deposition  from  the  command 
of  the  army  of  the  Potomac. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Wanted  —  a  man. —  E.   C.   Stedman. 

Fredericksburg. —  W.  F.  H.,  in  Richard  Grant  White's  Poetry  of  the  War. 

December  14,  1799. —  Death  of  Washington. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Our   Country. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
The  Half-Masted  Flag.— p.  25. 


December  14,  18 19.— Alabama  admitted  to  the  Union. 

December  16,  1773.— Boston  tea-party. 

The  East  India  Company  sent  several  shiploads  of  tea  to  the  Colonies.  The 
colonists,  however,  refused  to  pay  the  tax,  in  spite  of  the  extremely  low  price  of 
the  tea,  and  at  Boston,  December  16,  1773,  a  small  band  of  men  disguised  as 
Indians,  boarded  the  ships  and  threw  the  tea  overboard.  The  action  shows  the 
strict  adherence  to  principle  which  characterized  the  colonists. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

The   American    Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 

American  History  Told  by  Contemporaries,  vol.  II.—  Hart. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

"  It  is  not,  Mr.  Moderator,  the  spirit  that  vapors  within  these  walls  that  must 
stand  us  in  stead.  The  exertions  of  this  day  will  call  forth  events  which  will 
make  a  very  different  spirit  necessary  for  our  salvation.  Whoever  sup- 
poses that  shouts  and  hosannas  will  terminate  the  trials  of  the  day  enter- 
tains a  childish  fancy.  We  must  be  grossly  ignorant  of  the  importance  and 
value  of  the  prize  for  which  we  contend;  we  must  be  equally  ignorant  of 
the  power  of  those  who  have  combined  against  us;  we  must  be  blind  to  that 
malice,  inveteracy,  and  insatiable  revenge  which  actuates  our  enemies,  pub- 
lic and  private,  abroad  and  in  our  bosom,  to  hope  that  we  shall  end  this 
controversy  without  the  sharpest  conflicts,—  to  natter  ourselves  that  popular 
resolves,  popular  harangues,  popular  acclamations,  and  popular  vapor  will 
vanquish  our  foes.  Let  us  consider  the  issue.  Let  us  look  to  the  end.  Let 
us  weigh  and  consider  before  we  advance  to  those  measures  which  must 
bring  on  the  most  trying  and  terrific  struggle  this  country  ever  saw."— 
Josiah  Quincy,  Jr. 

December  17,  1807.— John  Greenleaf  Whittier  born. 
See  p.  152. 

December  18,  1867.— Abolition  of  slavery  in  the  United  States. 

A  resolution  of  Congress,  proposing  an  amendment  to  the  Constitution, 
abolishing  slavery,  having  been  approved  by  three-fourths  of  the  states,  slavery 
was   declared   constitutionally   abolished. 

December  19,  1675. —  Attack  on  the  Narragansett  Fort. 
References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Bryant. 
Popular    History   of   the    United    States. —  Anderson. 


Appropriate  Selections: 

The    Indian    Hunter. —  Longfellow. 

Death  and  Character  of  King  Philip,  from  Irving's  Sketch-Book. 

December  20,  i860. —  Secession  of  South  Carolina. 

After  an  exciting  canvass,  in  i860,  in  which  the  slavery  question  was  the 
all-absorbing  topic,  the  election  resulted  in  favor  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  the  can- 
didate of  the  Republican  party.  When  it  became  known  that  the  party  opposed 
to  the  further  extension  of  slavery  had  been  successful,  public  meetings  were 
held  in  South  Carolina  to  bring  about  a  secession  of  that  State  from  the  Union; 
and,  on  the  20th  of  December,  i860,  an  ordinance  of  secession  was  passed  by  a 
state  convention  held  in  Charleston.  Six  days  later,  hostilities  commenced 
which  led  directly  to  the  great  Civil  war. 


Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Division  and  Reunion. —  Wilson. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War.—  Ropes. 
United   States. —  Rhodes. 
Confederate  States. —  Davis. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

In  American  Orations. —  Johnston. 

Brother  Jonathan's  Lament  for  Sister  Caroline.—  O.  W.  Holmes. 

The  Ordinance  of  Nullification. —  Edward  Everett. 

December  21,  1864. —  Occupation  of  Savannah. 

Having  destroyed  Atlanta,  September  2,  Sherman  made  his  memorable  march 
through  Georgia  to  the  sea  coast  and  occupied  Savannah,  Dec.  21,  1864. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Story  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States. — Channing. 
Civil  War  in  America. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Sherman's  March  to  the  Sea  — Wm.  T.  Sherman  in  Half-Hours'" with  Ameri- 
can History. —  Morris. 

December  22,  1620. —  Landing  of  Pilgrims. 

The  first  permanent  settlement  in  New  England  was  made  at  Plymouth  by  a 
small  band  of  pilgrims,  dissenters  from  the  Church  of  England,  who  fled  from 
their  own  country  to  find  religious  freedom. 



Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Pilgrims. —  Everett. 

Landing  of  the  Pilgrims. —  Southey. 

Settlement  of  Plymouth. —  Palfrey,  in  History  of  New  England. 

The  Pilgrim  Fathers. —  Pierpont. 

The  Landing  of  the  Pilgrims. —  p.  163. 

John   Boyle  O'Reilly. —  p.   167. 

Landing  of  the  Pilgrims. —  p.   167 

December  23,  1783. —  Washington  resigned  his  commission  to  Congress. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States. —  Frothingham. 

Critical  Period  of  American  History. —  Fiske. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  closing  scene  from  William  Gordon's  History  of  the  Rise,  Progress,  and 

Establishment  of  the  Independence  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
Selection  from  Ramsay's  Life  of  Washington. 

December  24,  18 14. —  Treaty  of  Ghent. 

About  a  month  after  the  defeat  of  the  British  at  New  Orleans,  news  came  that 
a  treaty  of  peace  had  been  signed  at  Ghent.  "Peace!  peace!  peace!  was  the 
deep,  harmonious,  universal  anthem.  The  whole  night,  Broadway  sang  its  song 
of  peace;  and  the  next  day,  Sunday,  all  the  churches  sent  up  hymns  of  thanks- 
giving for  the  joyous  tidings." 


Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

December  26,  1776. —  Battle  of  Trenton. 

The  Americans  were  at  this  time  gloomy  and  almost  despairing  of  victory; 
their  army  had  met  defeat,  hardship,  and  discouragement.  The  British  troops 
were  divided  throughout  New  Jersey,  a  force  of  1,200  being  stationed  at  Tren- 
ton. On  the  night  of  the  25th,  Washington  himself  led  2,^00  trusted  soldiers 
to  the  attack.  They  crossed  the  river  in  a  fearful  storm;  the  next  morning 
marched  nine  miles  to  Trenton,  through  a  driving  storm,  surprised  and  took  the 
city.     "  That  victory  turned  the  shadows  of  Death  into  the  morning." 



The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Songs  and  Ballads  of  the  Revolution. —  Moore. 

The  Battle  of  Trenton. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  p.  260. 

December  28,  1835. —  Second  Seminole  war. 

As  a  result  of  the  attempt  to  remove  the  Seminole  Indians  of  Florida  to  lands 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  war  again  broke  out.  On  December  28th,  Osceola,  the 
chief,  suddenly  attacked  a  house  where  General  Thompson  was  dining,  and 
killed  five  of  the  party.  The  same  day  Major  Dade,  with  over  100  men,  was  at- 
tacked, and  all  but  four  men  were  massacred.  The  Americans  could  obtain  no 
decided  victory.  Finally,  Osceola  appeared  with  a  flag  of  truce,  was  captured, 
and  imprisoned.  Two  months  later,  the  Indians  were  defeated  in  a  desperate 
battle  near  Lake  Okeechobee. 


Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Osceola. —  Lucy  Hooper. 

December  28,  1846. —  Iowa  admitted  to  the  Union. 

December  29,  1812. —  The  Constitution  captured  the  Java. 

After  a  two  hours'  fight  the  United  States  frigate  Constitution,  Commodore 
Bainbridge,  captured  the  Java  off  the  coast  of  Brazil. 


History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.—  Cooper. 

Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812  —  Lossing. 

December  29,  1845. —  Texas  admitted  to  the  Union. 


December  30,  1853.— The  Gadsden  Treaty. 

The  interests  of  the  United  States  in  a  transportation  route  across  the  isthmus 
of  Tehuantepec  occasioned  extensive  diplomatic  correspondence  between  the 
United  States  and  Mexico.  In  addition,  the  running  of  the  boundary  line  under 
the  treaty  of  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  had  been  attended  with  difficulties.  Both  ques- 
tions were  dealt  with  in  the  Gadsden  treaty,  December  30,  1853.  The  area  ac- 
quired from  Mexico  was  45*535  square  miles. 

Select  Documents  of  United  States  History. —  Macdonald. 

December  31,  1775.— Attack  on  Quebec. 

After  a  long  and  hideous  march  through  the  wilderness  in  winter,  Arnold 
reached  the  Plains  of  Abraham  with  only  550  of  his  1,100  men.  December  1st, 
Montgomery  arrived  with  his  force  and  took  command.  As  their  numbers  were 
small  and  their  field  pieces  few,  a  stormy  night  was  selected  for  the  attack. 
The  advance  was  made  in  two  divisions,  under  Montgomery  and  Arnold,  but 
early  in  the  conflict  Montgomery  was  killed  and  Arnold  wounded  so  that  the 
command  fell  upon  Morgan.  In  spite  of  his  desperate  resistance,  he  was  over- 
powered by  numbers  and  forced  to  surrender,  for  the  town  had  been  warned 
of  the  movement,  and  had  received  reinforcements. 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

January  1,  1831. —  First  issue  of  The  Liberator. 

The  Liberator,  an  abolitionist  paper,  was  started  by  William  Lloyd  Garrison. 
It  had  an  immense  influence  against  slavery. 


Life  of  William  Lloyd  Garrison,  by  his  sons. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Old  South  Leaflets,  III.,  No.  I. 
United  States. —  Schouler. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selection  from  Old  South  Leaflets,  No.  79. 



January  i,  1863. —  Emancipation  proclamation. 

On  the  first  of  January,  1863,  President  Lincoln  issued  his  memorable  procla- 
mation, declaring  free  all  the  slaves  within  the  borders  of  the  States  at  war 
with  the  general  government.  By  this  measure,  more  than  three  millions  of 
slaves  were  declared  free.  On  the  same  day  Galveston  was  taken;  and  the 
naval  force  before  the  place  was  captured,  destroyed,  or  dispersed  by  the  Con- 


Old  South  Leaflets;  General  Series,  No.  II. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 
Life  of  Lincoln. —  Morse. 

Appropriate  Selections  : 
Boston  Hymn. —  R.  W.  Emerson. 
Charles  A.  Dana. —  p.  280. 

January  1,  1879. —  Resumption  of  specie  payments. 

During  the  Civil  war,  Government  notes  were  greatly  depreciated  and  gold 
became  a  marketable  product.  At  the  close  of  the  war,  however,  the  price 
gradually  declined;  and  on  the  first  of  January,  1879,  the  government  and  the 
banks  resumed  specie  payments,  gold  and  silver  once  more  coming  into  general 

January  1,  1899. —  Nassau  county  erected  from  territory  of  Queens. 

January  2,  1776. —  First  Continental  flag. 

It  was  composed  of  thirteen  stripes  and  the  union  of  the  crosses  of  St.  George 
and  St.  Andrew. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
A  Brief  History  of  the  Flag.—  See  p.  5. 

January  3,  1777. —  Battle  of  Princeton. 

Washington's  small  force  was  confronted  at  Trenton  by  Cornwallis  and  a 
large  army.  As  a  battle  seemed  full  of  peril,  Washington  broke  camp  in  the 
night,  deceiving  his  enemy  by  keeping  his  camp-fires  burning,  and  at  sunrise 
met  the  British  forces  near  Princeton.  At  first  the  Americans  gave  way,  but 
Washington,  with  a  select  corps,  routed  the  enemy.  The  British  loss  was  about 
400  men,  while  the  American  loss  was  not.  more  than  thirty. 



The  American  Revolution.—  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Washington  at  Princeton.— Miss  C.  F.  Orne. 

January  4,  1896. —  Utah  admitted  to  the  Union. 

January  8,  181 5.—  Battle  of  New  Orleans. 

Jackson,  in  command  of  the  American  troops  at  New  Orleans,  had  raised  a 
line  of  defense  extending  a  mile  in  front  of  the  forces,  while  the  Mississippi  was 
on  his  right  flank,  and  a  jungle  on  his  left.  The  British  under  Pakenham  made 
an  advance,  but  volley  after  volley  was  poured  upon  them  until  they  had  to  flee. 
Pakenham  was  slain  and  2.000  of  his  men  were  killed,  wounded,  or  taken  pris- 
oners.   The  Americans  had  seven  killed  and  six  wounded. 

References : 

Half-Hours  with  American  History.—  Morris. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812  —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Dirge  for  a  Soldier. 

Battle  of  New  Orleans.— Thomas  Dunn  English. 

Selection  from  Paxton's  Life  of  Andrew  Jackson. 

January  11,  1757. —  Alexander  Hamilton  born. 

A  statesman  and  leader  of  the  Revolutionary  period,  and  during  the  forma- 
tion of  the  Constitutional  period. 

Selection  from: 
The  Federalist. 

January  17,  1706. —  Benjamin  Franklin  born. 

Selections  from: 

His  Autobiography. 




January  17,  1781. —  Battle  of  the  Cowpens. 

At  the  Cowpens,  the  British  under  Tarleton  attacked  the  Americans  com- 
manded by  Morgan.  After  a  severe  battle,  the  British  were  completely  routed, 
losing  about  eight  hundred  men,  while  the  American  loss  was  about  eighty. 


Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selection  from  "  Life  of  Nathaniel  Greene." —  George  W.  Greene. 

January  18,  1782. —  Daniel  Webster  born. 

Selections  from: 
The  Reply  to  Hayne. 
Speech  on  the  Fugitive  Slave  Law. 

January  19,  1809. —  Edgar  Allen  Poe  born. 

The  Raven. 
The  Bells. 

January  26,  1837. —  Michigan  admitted  to  the  Union. 

January  27,  1789. —  Ontario    county    erected    from    territory   of    Mont- 

January  29,  1861. —  Kansas  admitted  to  the  Union. 

January  29,  1850. —  Compromise  of  1850. 

The  compromise  measures  proposed  by  Clay,  January  29,  1850,  consisted  of 
four  acts  providing  for  "  The  organization  of  territorial  governments  for  New 
Mexico  and  Utah  without  mention  of  slavery;  the  establishment  of  the  boundary 
of  Texas;  the  abolition  of  the  slave-trade  in  the  District  of  Columbia;  and  the 
surrender  to  their  masters  of  slaves  escaping  to  free  states."  The  last  measure 
was  known  as  the  Fugitive  Slave  Law. 



United  States. —  Rhodes. 

The  United  States  of  America,  1765- 1866. —  Channing. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Select  Documents  of  United  States  History. —  Macdonald. 

Johnston's  Orations. 

February  2,  1848. —  Treaty  of  peace  signed  at  Guadalupe   Hidalgo 

(Close  of  the  Mexican  war.) 

By  the  treaty  with  Mexico,  February  2,  1848,  all  the  territory  north  of  the 
Rio  Grande,  New  Mexico  and  California  was  ceded  to  the  United  States; 
$15,000,000  was  to  be  paid  for  the  acquired  territory  and  debts  due  from  Mexico 
to  American  citizens  should  be  assumed  by  the  United  States. 


Popular  History  of  the  United   States. —  Bryant. 
United  States  Reader. —  Anderson. 

February  5,  1823. —  Yates  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ontario. 

February  6,  1778. —  Treaty  between  the  United  States  and  France. 

The  alliance  with  France  therein  made  insured  the  final  independence  of  the 
United  States. 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

American  History  Told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 

Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

February  7,  1791. —  Rensselaer  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 
Saratoga  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 

February  8,  1690. —  Schenectady  destroyed. 

The  troubles  between  England  and  France  led  to  war  in  the  colonies  between 
the  English  and  French.  On  February  8,  1690,  the  first  attack  "vas  made  by  the 
French  and  Indians.  Albany  was  to  be  the  place  of  attack,  but  the  Indians 
chose  Schenectady  and  the  French  followed.  They  quietly  entered  the  town 
at  midnight  with  no  resistance,  as  the  palisades  were  deserted,  massacred  many 
of  the  inhabitants  and  burned  the  town. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 


February  8,  i860. —  Organization  of  the  Confederacy. 

On  the  8th  of  February,  a  congress,  composed  of  delegates  from  all  the 
seceding  states,  except  Texas,  met  at  Montgomery,  and  four  days  later  organ- 
ized a  government  by  the  adoption  of  a  Provisional  Constitution,  assuming 
the  title,  Confederate  States  of  America.  On  the  9th,  this  congress  elected 
Jefferson  Davis  President  of  the  Confederacy,  and  on  the  18th,  Texas  being 
represented,  he  was  duly  inaugurated. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 
School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Confederate  States. —  Davis. 

A  p propria  te  Selections : 
Davis'  Address. —  Bennett,  in  Moore's  Personal  and  Political  Ballads. 
Jefferson  Davis. —  Cornwall,  in  Moore's  Personal  and  Political  Ballads. 

February  11,  1847. —  Thomas  Edison,  the  inventor  of  the  phonograph, 

February  12,  1809.— Abraham  Lincoln  born. 

The  Birthday  of  Abraham  Lincoln. —  p.  269. 
Theodore   Frelinghuysen. —  p.    271 
Ralph    Wajdo    Emerson. —  p.    274. 

February  14,  1859. —  Oregon  admitted  to  the  Union. 

February  1 5,  1898. —  Battle-ship  Maine  blown  up  in  Havana  Harbor. 

In  1895  occurred  one  of  the  numerous  insurrections  in  Cuba  against  Spanish 
rule.  In  a  short  time  people  were  forced  to  recognize  the  fact  that  this  time 
the  Cubans  were  determined  to  win  their  liberty.  Affairs  went  from  bad  to 
worse  and  the  Spanish  cruelties  towards  the  Cubans,  and  finally  towards  the 
Americans  in  Havana,  led  to  the  United  States  sending  the  battleship  "  Maine  " 
to  Havana  as  a  protection  in  case  of  further  atrocities.  Spain  was  unduly 
suspicious,  and  the  effects  of  its  corrupt  system  of  government  were  shown  in 
the  blowing  up  of  the  Maine  and  the  killing  of  two  hundred  and  sixty-four  men 
and  two  officers,  in  the  fancied  security  of  a  friendly  harbor. 


The  War  with  Spain.—  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
The  Maine.— p.  198. 


February  16,  1791.—  Herkimer  county  erected  from  territory  of  Mont- 

Otsego  county  erected  from  territory  of  Mont- 

Tioga  county  erected  from  territory  of  Mont- 

February  16,    1 807.— Frigate  Philadelphia   destroyed  at  Tripoli  by 

The  Tripolitans  were  accustomed  to  capture  merchant  ships  of  different  nations, 
and  make  slaves  of  their  crews.  Even  the  tribute  money  no  longer  restrained 
them  and  different  expeditions  were  sent  against  them.  In  one  of  these,  Com- 
modore Preble's  frigate,  Philadelphia,  was  captured  and  fitted  up  by  the 
Tripolitans.  Shortly  afterwards,  Stephen  Decatur  was  sent  to  destroy  the  ship. 
At  night  he  succeeded  in  entering  the  harbor  unseen,  boarding  the  Philadelphia, 
overcoming  the  Tripolitan  guard,  and  destroying  the  vessel.  A  treaty  of  peace' 
was  made  June  4,  1807. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
See  p.  237. 

History  of  the  Navy.—  Maclay. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.—  Cooper. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

February  17,  1865.— Evacuation  of  Charleston. 

Sherman,  having  halted  at  Savannah  only  long  enough  to  refit  his  army,  was 
again   in   motion  by   February   1st.     On  the   17th   he  captured  Columbia,  com- 
pelling the  Confederates  by  this  achievement   to  evacuate  Charleston. 

Story  of  the  Civil  War.—  Ropes. 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.— Dodge. 

February  22,  1732.— George  Washington  born. 

See  p.  243. 

February  22,  1819  —  Florida  ceded  to  the  United  States. 

When  Jackson  was  sent  to  Florida  to  repress  the  Seminole  Indians,  he  found 
that  they  were  incited  to  hostilities  by  certain  people  there,  and  so  invaded  the 
country.  Trouble  with  Spain  was  feared  as  a  result,  but  all  difficulties  were 
finally   settled   by  the   treaty   signed   at   Washington,    February   22,    1819,   when 


Spain  agreed  to  sell  Florida  to  the  United  States  for  $5,000,000.  Florida  did 
not  actually  come  into  the  possession  of  the  United  States,  however,  until  two 
years  later. 


Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  the  United  States.—  Winsor. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.— Channing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

February  22,  1819. —  James  Russell  Lowell  born. 
See  p.  153. 

February  22,  1865. —  Occupation  of  Wilmington. 

The  active  operations  of  1865  began  with  the  reduction  of  Fort  Fisher,  the 
main  defense  of  Wilmington,  by  General  Terry,  and  Admiral  Porter's  fleet. 
Wilmington  was  occupied  by  the  Federal  troops  a  few  days  after  the  capture 
of  the  fort. 


Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civi,l  War. —  Dodge. 

February  23,  1798. —  Rockland  county  erected  from  territory  of  Orange. 

February   23,    1821. —  Livingston     county    erected    from    territory    of 

Ontario  and  Genesee. 
Monroe  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ontario 
and  Genesee. 

February  23,  1847. —  Battle  of  Buena  Vista. 

With  less  than  five  thousand  men,  General  Taylor  was  attacked  at  Buena 
Vista  by  a  Mexican  force  nearly  four  times  as  large,  under  Santa  Anna.  After 
an  all-day's  determined  contest,  the  Mexicans  were  driven  in  disorder  from  the 


Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Our   Country. —  Lossing. 
History  of  the  Mexican  War. —  Mansfield. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Angels  of  Buena  Vista. —  Whittier. 


February  25,  1868.— Impeachment  of  President  Johnson. 

In  the  summer  of  1867,  President  Johnson  requested  the  resignation  of  Sec- 
retary of  War  Stanton,  who  refused  to  resign.  Johnson  suspended  him  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  Tenure-of-Office  Act.  When  the  Senate 
met  it  refused  to  agree  with  this  suspension.  The  President  then  removed 
Stanton  from  the  office  and  gave  the  portfolio  to  Thomas.  In  March,  1868, 
articles  of  impeachment  were  presented  by  the  House  at  the  bar  of  the  Senate.' 
The  result  of  the  trial  was  the  acquittal  of  the  President. 
References : 

Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 

February  25,  179 1.— First  United  States   bank  was   chartered   by  Con- 

It  went  into  operation  with  a  capital  of  $10,000,000,  the  government  subscrib- 
ing $2,000,000,  and  individuals  $8,000,000. 

References : 

Select  Documents  of  United  States  History.—  Macdonald. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
School  History  of  the  United  States.— Lee. 

February  27,  1807.— Henry  W.  Longfellow  born. 
See  p.  152. 

March  1,  1799.— Essex  county  erected  from  territory  of  Clinton. 

March  1,  1816.—  Oswego  county  erected  from  territory  of  Onondaga. 

March  1,  1867.— Nebraska  admitted  to  the  Union. 

March  3,  1802.— St.  Lawrence  county  erected  from  territory  of  Clinton. 

March  3,  1845.— Florida  admitted  to  the  Union. 

March  4,  1719.— Vermont  admitted  to  the  Union. 

March  4,  1861.—  First  inauguration  of  President  Lincoln. 
Life  of  Lincoln. —  Morse. 
Abraham  Lincoln.—  Hadley  and  Hay. 
Lincoln. —  Herndon. 


Appropriate  Selections: 

Inauguration  of  Lincoln.— Greely,  in  American  Conflict. 

The  Constitution  and  the  People.—  Lincoln,  from  his  Inaugural  Address. 

March  4,  1885.—  Letter  postage  reduced  to  two  cents  per  ounce. 

March  5,  1770. —  Boston  Massacre. 

In  a  collision  between  the  citizens  of  Boston  and  some  of  the  British  soldiers 
stationed  there,  three  or  four  citizens  were  killed  and  others  wounded.  The 
event  aroused  the  strongest  feelings  against  British  tyranny,  although  the  sol- 
diers probably  fired  into  the  mob  only  to  preserve  their  lives. 

The  American   Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.— Channing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Boston  Massacre. —  Hawthorne. 

March  7,  1788.— Clinton  county  erected  from  territory  of  Washington. 
March  7,  1809.— Schenectady  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 
March  8,  1799.— Cayuga  county  erected  from  territory  of  Onondaga. 

March  9,  1862.— The  Monitor  and  the  Merrimac. 

The  Merrimac,  which  had  been  sunk  at  Norfolk  by  the  Union  commander  at 
the  beginning  of  the  war,  had  subsequently  been  raised  by  the  Confederates, 
cut  down  almost  to  the  water's  edge,  covered  with  a  plating  of  railroad  iron, 
and  named  the  Virginia.  On  the  8th  of  March  she  steamed  out  from  Norfolk 
to  Hampton  Roads,  and  destroyed  the  United  States  vessels  Cumberland  and 
Congress.  During  the  night  the  Monitor,  a  newly  invented  floating  battery, 
commanded  by  Lieutenant  Worden,  arrived  from  New  York,  and  on  the  fol- 
lowing day,  the  9th,  encountered  the  Virginia  (Merrimac),  and  disabled  her. 


Old  South  Leaflets,  III.,  No.  3. 
Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.— Dodge. 
School   History  of  the   United   States. —  Lee. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Merrimac  and  the  Monitor. —  Estvan. 

The  Cumberland. —  Longfellow. 

The  Monitor  and  the  Merrimac— John  W.  Draper. 


March  9,  1893. —  Cleveland  recalls  Hawaiian  annexation  treaty. 

Toward  the  close  of  Harrison's  administration  a  revolution  broke  out  in  the 
Hawaiian  Islands.  The  more  intelligent  inhabitants  deposed  Queen  Liliuaka- 
lani,  established  a  republican  form  of  government,  and  then  sent  commissioners 
to  the  United  States  to  propose  annexation.  A  treaty  was  agreed  upon,  but, 
before  the  Senate  had  time  to  vote  upon  it,  Harrison's  administration  came  to  a 
close  and  Grover  Cleveland  was  elected  President.  One  of  the  first  acts  of  his 
administration  was  to  withdraw  the  treaty  from  the  Senate,  and  to  announce 
the  United  States'  protectorate  to  be  at  an  end  in  Hawaii. 

References : 

History  of  the  American  Nation. —  McLaughlin. 
American  Congress. —  Moore. 

March  10,  1797. —  Delaware  county  erected   from   territory   of   Ulster 
and  Otsego. 

March  11,  1808. —  Cattaraugus  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 
Chautauqua  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 
Franklin  county  erected  from  territory  of  Clinton. 
Niagara  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 

March  12,  1772. —  Montgomery  county  (first  known   as  Tryon  county) 
erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 
Washington  county  (first  known  as  Charlotte  county) 
erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 

March  12,  1813. —  Warren  county  erected  from  territory  of  Washington. 

March  15,  1781. —  Battle  of  Guilford  Court  House. 

Greene,  in  command  of  the  Americans,  took  up  his  position  at  Guilford  Court 
House,  where  he  was  attacked  by  the  British.  Although  the  result  was  un- 
favorable to  the  Americans,  it  left  Cornwallis  in  so  disabled  a  condition  that  he 
was  forced  to  retreat  from  the  field  of  victory. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selections  from  Life  of  Nathaniel  Greene. —  Greene. 

Character   of   General    Greene. —  Alexander    Hamilton,    found   in   Anderson's 
United  States  Reader. 


March  15,  1798. —  Oneida  county  erected  from  territory  of  Herkimer. 

Chenango  county  erected  from  territory  of  Tioga  and 

March  15,  1820.— Maine  admitted  to  the  Union. 

March  17,  1776. —  British  evacuated  Boston. 

After  the  fortifications  of  Dorchester  Heights  were  completed,  Howe,  instead 
of  attacking  the  American  forces,  evacuated  Boston.  Washington  was  rewarded 
with  the  first  gold  medal  struck  in  the  United  States.  "  Hostibus  Primo 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

America,   vol.    VI. —  Winsor. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

History  of  the  Siege  of  Boston  —  Frothingham. 

History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

Half-Hours  with  American  History.—  Morris. 

March  18,  1796. —  Steuben  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ontario. 

March  21,  1806. —  Madison  county  erected  from  territory  of  Chenango. 

March  24,  1804. —  Seneca  county  erected  from  territory  of  Cayuga. 

March  25,  1800. —  Greene  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany  and 

March  27,  1809.—  Sullivan  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ulster. 

March  27,  18 14. —  Defeat  of  the  Creek  Indians. 

The  massacre  at  Fort  Mimms  aroused  the  country  against  the  Indians,  and 
Generals  Jackson  and  CofTee  went  into  the  country  of  the  Creeks  to  avenge 
the  massacre.  A  thousand  Indian  warriors  made  a  final  and  desperate  stand  at 
the  Horseshoe  Bend  of  the  Tallapoosa  river,  but  were  completely  defeated  by 
Jackson's  force  of  three  thousand  men. 

References : 

Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

March  28,  1805. —  Jefferson  county  erected  from  territory  of  Oneida. 
Lewis  county  erected  from  territory  of  Oneida. 


March  28,  1806. —  Broome  county  erected  from  territory  of  Tioga. 

March  28,  1814. —  Surrender  of  the  Essex. 

After  a  successful  cruise  of  more  than  a  year,  Captain  Porter  was  attacked  in 
the  harbor  of  Valparaiso  by  two  British  vessels  and  forced  to  surrender.  The 
conflict  was  one  of  the  most  desperate  of  the  war. 


History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.—  Cooper. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

March  29,  1836. —  Chemung  county  erected  from  territory  of  Tioga. 

March  30,  1802. —  Genesee  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ontario. 

March  30,  1820.- -Missouri  Compromise. 

As  the  Northern  people  opposed  any  increase  in  the  number  of  slave  states 
they  tried  to  prevent  the  admission  of  Misouri,  with  its  constitution  allowing 
slavery.  After  a  long  and  violent  discussion,  the  measure  called  the  Missouri 
Compromise  was  adopted.  Slavery  should  be  prohibited  in  all  the  territory, 
except  Missouri,  lying  north  of  the  parallel  360  30'  and  west  of  the  Mississippi. 
Missouri  was  admitted  August  10,  1821. 


History  of  the  United  States.—  Schouler. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.— Channing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Johnston's  Orations. 

March  30,  1842. —  John  Fiske  born. 

Selections  from : 

American  Political  Ideas. 

The  Critical  Period  in  American  History. 

March  30,  1867. —  Purchase  of  Alaska. 

In  1867,  the  Russian  territory  in  America,  now  known  as  Alaska,  was  bought 
by  the  United  States  for  a  little  over  $7,200,000.  It  is  a  vast  region,  lying  far 
north,  but  its  climate  is  tempered  by  the  warm  Pacific  current,  and  it  has  great 
tracts  of  fine  cedar  and  other  timber,  vakiable  fisheries,  furs,  and  important 


Men  and  Measures  of  Half  a  Century.—  McCulloch. 



March  30,  1870. —  Fifteenth  Amendment  to  the  Constitution. 

The  Fifteenth  Amendment  to  the  Constitution,  guaranteeing  to  all  citizens  of 
the  United  States  the  right  of  suffrage,  without  regard  to  race,  color,  or 
previous  condition  of  servitude,  was  declared  adopted  March  30,  1870. 

March  31,  1854.— Treaty  with  Japan. 

Japan  had  always  excluded  all  foreigners  from  her  ports,  but  as  the  acquisi- 
tion of  California  made  commercial  relations  important,  Commodore  Perry  was 
sent  to  open  communications.  At  length  a  treaty  was  signed,  permitting  the 
United  States  to  trade  in  two  ports,  and  also  the  residence  of  American  citizens 
and  consuls  at  these  ports.  Thus  America  was  among  the  first  to  obtain  inter- 
course with  Japan. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

April  2,  1792. —  First  United  States  mint. 

By  the  act  of  Congress  April  2,  1792,  the  first  United  States  mint  was  estab- 
lished at  Philadelphia  for  the  purpose  of  national  coinage. 


Dictionary  of  United  States  History. —  Jameson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

April  2,  1743. —  Thomas  Jefferson  born. 


Declaration  of  Independence. 

April  2,  1821. —  Erie  county  erected  from  territory  of  Niagara. 

April  3,  1783. —  Washington  Irving  born. 

Selections  from: 

Knickerbocker  History  of  the  United  States. 
Life  of  Columbus. 

April  3,  1822. —  Edward  Everett  Hale  born. 

Selections  from: 

Franklin  in  France. 

The  Man  without  a  Country. 

My  Double,  and  How  He  Undid  Me. 


April  3,  1865. —  Occupation  of  Richmond. 

On  the  29th  of  March,  1865,  commenced  the  final  movement  of  the  national 
forces  which  General  Grant  had  gathered  around  Richmond.  After  ten  days' 
marching  and  fighting,  the  Confederates  were  compelled  to  evacuate  their  de- 
fenses at  both  Petersburg  and  Richmond. 


Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Evacuation  of  Richmond. —  Pollard. 

April  4,  1786. —  Columbia  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany. 

April  6,  1 5 13. —  Discovery  of  Florida. 

In  1513  Ponce  de  Leon,  searching,  not  for  gold,  like  his  countrymen,  but  for  a 
fountain  which  the  Indians  declared  would  restore  a  man  to  perpetual  youth, 
came  upon  another  unknown  coast.  It  was  on  Easter  Sunday,  in  Spanish  "  El 
Pascua  Florida,"  and  the  new  land  has  borne  the  name  of  Florida  ever  since. 


The  Discovery  of  Florida. —  Bancroft. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 

America,  vol.  II. —  Winsor. 

April  6,  1795. —  Schoharie  county  erected  from  territory  of  Albany  and 

April  6,  1862.— Battle  of  Shiloh. 

On  the  morning  of  the  6th  of  April,  General  Grant's  army,  while  encamped 
at  Shiloh,  was  severely  attacked  by  General  A.  S.  Johnston's  army.  At  nightfall 
the  Union  troops  had  been  driven  back  to  the  river,  where  the  gunboats  aided 
them  to  keep  the  enemy  in  check.  General  Johnston  was  killed.  The  arrival 
of  reinforcements  under  General  Buell  enabled  Grant  to  assume  the  offensive  on 
the  following  day,  and  the  Confederates  were  driven  towards  Corinth.  The 
forces  engaged  on  both  sides  numbered  more  than  100,000  men.  The  losses  on 
both  sides  were  severe. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 


Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Battle  of  Shiloh.—  William  Sainton. 

Shiloh.—  Brig.  Gen.  George  F.  McGennis,  in  War  Papers. 

April  7,  1806. —  Allegany  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 

April  7,  1817. —  Tompkins  county  erected  from  territory  of  Cayuga  and 

April  8,  1808. —  Cortland  county  erected  from  territory  of  Onondaga. 

April  9,  1682. —  Discovery  of  Louisiana. 

In  February,  1682,  La  Salle  passed  down  the  Illinois  river,  and  on  into  the 
Mississippi,  on  an  exploring  expedition.  The  river  he  called  St.  Louis,  and  the 
vast  region  through  which  it  flowed,  Louisiana,  in  honor  of  the  French  King. 
On  April  9,  1682,  he  planted  a  cross  with  the  arms  of  France  near  the  mouth 
of  the  river,  and  claimed  all  the  territory  drained  by  it  and  its  tributaries  for 
King  Louis. 

Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 

April  9,  1865. —  Surrender  of  Lee  at  Appomattox. 

After  the  evacuation  of  Petersburg  and  Richmond,  Lee  withdrew  his  army  and 
endeavored  to  escape  by  the  valley  of  the  Appomattox  to  the  mountains.  The 
retreating  army  was  hotly  pursued  by  the  Union  forces  under  Grant,  and  on 
the  9th,  Lee,  overtaken  and  surrounded,  surrendered  near  Appomattox  Court 

Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Last  March  of  Lee's  Army. —  Armstead  L.  Long,  in  Half-Hours  with  Ameri- 
can History. —  Morris. 

April  n,  1794. —  Edward  Everett  born. 
Apostrophe  to  La  Fayette,  at  the  close  of  Everett's  address  "  On  the  Circum- 
stances Favorable  to  the  Progress  of  Literature." 

April  11,  1823. —  Wayne  county  erected  from  territory  of  Ontario  and 



April  12,  1777. —  Henry  Clay  born. 
One  of  America's  greatest  orators. 

April    12,    1 8 16. —  Hamilton    county   erected    from  territory   of    Mont- 

April  14,  1861. —  Evacuation  of  Fort  Sumter. 

Regarding  their  duty  to  the  general  government  as  secondary  to  the  obliga- 
tion they  owed  to  their  respective  states,  and  in  spite  of  the  President's  assur- 
ance that  the  new  administration  did  not  intend  interfering  with  the  constitu- 
tional rights  of  any  of  the  states,  the  southern  leaders  organized  an  army  under 
General  Beauregard  to  reduce  Fort  Sumter.  Accordingly,  on  the  morning  of 
April  12th,  the  first  shot  was  fired  on  the  fort.  After  a  bombardment  of  thirty- 
four  hours  Anderson  was  compelled  to  evacuate.  On  the  following  Monday,  as 
if  with  spontaneous  protest  against  any  dissolution  of  the  Union,  the  flag  of  the 
Republic  was  raised  throughout  the  free  states. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 
School  History  of  the  United  States. —  Lee. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Flag. —  Horatio  Woodman. 

Fort  Sumter's  Bombardment. —  Orville  J.  Victor,  in  Half-Hours  with  Ameri- 
can History. —  Morris. 

The  Flag  of  Fort  Sumter. —  Anonymous,  in  Moore's  Personal  and  Political 

The  12th  of  April. —  E.  C.  Stedman. 

April  14,  1865. —  Assassination  of  Lincoln. 

Lincoln  had  served  but  a  few  weeks  of  his  second  term,  when,  less  than  one 
week  after  Lee's  surrender,  he  was  assassinated  by  a  desperado  acting  in  sym- 
pathy with  the  Confederate  cause. 


Life  of  Lincoln. —  Morse 

Abraham  Lincoln. —  Nicolay  and  Hay. 

Appropriate  Selections : 
My  Captain. —  Whitman,  p.  291. 


April  15,  1 8 14. —  John  Lathrop  Motley  born. 

Selections  from: 
The  Rise  and  Fall  of  the  Dutch  Republic. 

Merry  Mount. 

April  17,  1854. —  Schuyler  county  erected   from  territory  of  Chemung, 
Steuben,  and  Tompkins. 

April  18,  1838. —  Fulton  county  erected  from  territory  of  Montgomery. 

April  18,  1847. —  Battle  of  Cerro  Gordo. 

The  American  forces  under  General  Scott  made  a  daring  assault  on  the  enemy 
at  Cerro  Gordo  on  the  morning  of  April  18th,  and  before  noon  the  Mexicans 
were  defeated  with  a  loss  of  one  thousand  men  and  their  artillery. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Our   Country. —  Lossing. 

War  with  Mexico. —  R.  S.  Ripley. 

Story  of  the  Mexican  War. —  Mansfield. 

Appropriate  Selections  ■' 
The  Bivouac  of  the  Dead. — p.  28. 

April  19,  1775. —  Battle  of  Lexington. 

On  the  night  of  the  18th  of  April,  1775,  General  Gage  dispatched  eight  hundred 
troops  under  Colonel  Smith  and  Major  Pitcairn  to  destroy  some  military  sup- 
plies which  the  Americans  had  collected  at  Concord,  Massachusetts,  about  sixteen 
miles  from  Boston. 

The  patriots  of  Boston,  suspecting  such  a  movement,  were  on  the  alert. 
Signals  had  been  pre-arranged  by  them,  the  alarm  was  given,  and,  when  the 
British  reached  Lexington  early  in  the  morning  of  April  19th,  they  found  about 
seventy  of  the  militia  drawn  up  under  arms.  Then  was  shed  the  first  blood  of 
the  Revolution,  the  King's  troops  firing  upon  the  American  militia.  At  Con- 
cord some  of  the  supplies  were  destroyed,  but,  the  militia  assembling,  a  skirmish 
took  place  in  which  several  from  both  sides  were  killed.  On  their  way  back  to 
Boston,  the  British  were  reinforced  at  Lexington;  but  during  their  retreat,  as 
far  as  Charleston,  the  Americans  pursued,  keeping  up  a  constant  and  destructive 
fire.  The  loss  of  the  British  during  the  day  was  over  200;  that  of  the  patriots 
about  90.    The  battle  at  Lexington  was  a  signal  for  war. 



Siege  of  Boston. —  Frothingham. 

Battles  of  the  United  States.— Dawson. 

Ballad  History  of  the  Revolution  —  Part  I.—  Moore. 

One  Hundred  Years  Ago.—  E.  E.  Hale. 

Field-Book  of  the  Revolution.—  Lossing. 

American  Monthly  for  April  and  July,   1875.— Potter. 

History  of  American  War. —  Stedman. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Concord  Hymn.—  R.  W.  Emerson,  p.  170. 
Battle  of  Lexington. —  O.  W.  Holmes. 
Paul  Revere's  Ride. —  Longfellow. 
The  Rising  in  1776.— T.  B.  Read,  p.  116. 
The  Revolutionary  Alarm,  p.  170. 
George  William  Curtis,  pp.  171,  172. 

April  19,  1 861.— First  blood  shed  in  civil  war. 

The  news  of  the  capture  of  Fort  Sumter  produced  an  almost  uncontrollable 
excitement  throughout  the  country,  and  the  President's  proclamation  calling 
for  troops  was  responded  to  at  once  by  all  the  free  states.  A  Massachusetts 
regiment,  while  on  its  way  to  defend  the  nation's  capital,  was  attacked,  April 
19th,  in  Baltimore,  by  a  mob  of  southern  sympathizers.  Two  of  the  soldiers 
were  killed  and  a  number  wounded. 


Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.—  Dodge. 

Story  of  the  Civil  War.—  Ropes. 

United  States. —  Rhodes. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Apocalypse. —  Clarence  Butler. 
The  Massachusetts  Line. —  Robert  Lowell. 
Our  Country's  Call.— William  C.  Bryant. 

April  20,  1898.— Declaration  of  war  between  United  States  and  Spain. 

The  report  on  Cuban  affairs  having  finally  passed  both  Houses,  April  i8th, 
went  at  once  to  the  President,  who,  on  April  20th,  signed  the  resolutions 
adopted  — that  Spanish  rule  must  cease  in  Cuba.  In  fact,  if  not  in  terms,  it 
was  a  declaration  of  war. 


The  War     with  Spain.—  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 



Appropriate  Selections: 
Selection  I.,  p.  198. 
The  Stripes  and  the  Stars,  p.  308. 

April  21,  1649. —  Toleration  act  in  Maryland. 

The  Toleration  Act  provided  for  the  punishment  of  all  disbelievers  in  God  and 
for  the  punishment  of  those  in  any  way  interfering  with  any  one's  form  of  belief. 


Old  Virginia  and  Her  Neighbors. —  Fiske. 

A  Short  History  of  the  English  Colonies  in  America. —  Lodge. 

April  22,  1889. —  Oklahoma  opened  to  settlers. 

April  25,  1862. —  Capture  of  New  Orleans. 

In  Louisiana  the  Union  cause  met  with  success  of  great  importance.  This  was 
the  capture  of  New  Orleans  on  the  25th  of  April.  The  Union  fleet,  commanded 
by  Farragut  and  Porter,  ascended  the  Mississippi,  bombarding  and  running 
past  the  Confederate  forts.  The  city  was  reached,  and  General  Butler,  taking 
formal  possession,  placed  it  under  martial  law. 


New  Orleans.—  King. 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

New  Orleans  Won  Back. —  Robert  Lowell. 
The  Varuna. —  George  H.  Baker. 
Farragut  on  the  Mississippi. —  Joel  P.  Headley. 
Admiral  Farragut,  p.  92. 

April  26,  1777. —  The  Marquis  de   Lafayette,  a  wealthy  young  French- 
man of  character  and   ability,  sailed  from   Bordeaux  to  aid  the 
Americans  as  a  volunteer.     He  provided  a  ship  and  military  stores 
at  his  own  expense. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
American  History  told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Lafayette    Joins    the   Americans. —  Sprague.     Found    in   Anderson's     Popular 
History    of  the  United  States. 


April  26,  1846.—  First  blood  shed  in  the  Mexican  war. 

The  annexation  of  Texas  caused  war  between  Mexico  and  the  United  States, 
as  the  United  States  claimed  the  Rio  Grande  river  as  the  boundary  line,  while 
the  Mexicans  claimed  the  Nueces  river.  General  Taylor  was  sent  into  Mexico 
to  protect  our  interests;  this  the  Mexicans  regarded  as  an  invasion  of  their 
rights.  They  attacked  a  small  force  near  Matamoras  and  killed  sixteen  men, 
compelling  the  rest  to  surrender. 

Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

April  26,  1865. —  Surrender  of  Johnston's  army. 

After  some  time  spent  in  elaborate  negotiations  between  Sherman  at  his  head- 
quarters, and  Grant  and  President  Johnson  at  Washington,  terms  were  finally 
agreed  upon,  and  Johnston  surrendered  on  terms  substantially  the  same  as  those 
accorded  to  Lee. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Conquered  Banner. —  Abram  J.  Ryan. 

April  28,  1760.— Battle  of  Sellery.     (Virtual   close   of  the   French   and 
Indian  war  in  America.) 

De  Levis,  Montcalm's  successor,  made  extensive  preparations  for  the  recovery 
of  Quebec.  He  marched  to  Sellery,  three  miles  above  the  city,  and  there,  on  the 
20th  of  April,  1760,  was  fought  one  of  the  most  desperate  battles  of  the  war.  The 
French  were  obliged  to  retreat,  Montreal  capitulated,  and  the  whole  of  Canada 
was  surrendered  to  the  English. 

The  war  continued  till  1763,  when  a  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  in  Paris  by 
which  France  ceded  to  Great  Britain  (February  10th)  all  her  American  posses- 
sions east  of  the  Missouri  and  north  of  the  Iberville  river  in  Louisiana;  at  the 
same  time,  Spain  ceded  Florida  to  Great  Britain.  This  finally  determined  that 
the  dominant  civilization  of  North  Amtrica  was  to  be  English  instead  of  French. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 
History  of  the  United  States.—  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

State  of  the  Colonies  in  1765-—  Grahame. 



April  30,  1789. —  Inauguration  of  Washington  at  New  York. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 
Critical  Period  of  American  History. —  Fiske. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

"  Welcome,  Mighty  Chief,  once  more, 
Welcome  to  this  grateful  shore; 
Now  no  mercenary  foe 
Aims  again  the  fatal  blow  — 
Aims  at  thee,  the  fatal  blow. 

"  Virgins  fair,  and  matrons  grave, 
These  thy  conquering  arm  did  save; 
Build  for  thee  triumphal  bowers, 
Strew,  ye  fair,  his  way  with  flowers, 
Strew  your  hero's  way  with  flowers." 

April  30,  1803. —  Louisiana  purchased  from  France. 

Price,  $15,000,000. 


United  States  Reader. —  Anderson. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

April  30,  1812. —  Louisiana  admitted  to  the  Union. 

May  1,  1 541. —  De  Soto  discovered  the  Mississippi  river. 

In  1539,  Ferdinand  De  Soto,  with  a  large  force  of  men,  landed  on  the  coast  of 
Florida,  in  a  search  for  gold.  The  Spanish  cruelties  had  made  all  the  Indians 
hostile  to  them,  and  De  Soto  had  to  fight  his  way  westward  to  the  Mississippi 
river,  which  he  reached  May  1,  1541.  He  crossed  the  great  river  and  proceeded 
some  distance  up  the  west  bank,  always  disappointed  in  not  finding  gold.  The 
party  endured  great  hardships  and  De  Soto  himself  died  of  a  fever.  His 
followers  buried  him  in  the  Mississippi  river,  to  secure  his  body  from  the  savages, 
and  after  many  days  of  suffering  a  few  made  their  way  back  to  Mexico. 




Discovery  of  America. —  Fiske. 

History  of  the  United  States,  vol.  I. —  Bancroft. 

Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  the  United  States,  vol.  II. —  Winsor. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Expedition   of   De    Soto. —  Parkman. 

May  i,  1898. —  Battle  of  Manila  Bay. 

During  the  night  of  April  30th,  Admiral  Dewey  took  the  American  fleet  past 
the  dreaded  fort  at  the  entrance  to  Manila  Bay  and  then  up  the  twenty-six 
miles  through  the  narrow  channel  and  over  the  Spanish  mines  to  Manila,  where, 
the  next  day,  May  1st,  the  Americans  completely  destroyed  the  Spanish  fleet. 
By  the  3rd  of  May,  the  two  forts  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor  had  surrendered 
to  Dewey,  and  Manila  was  blockaded  by  the  Americans. 


The  War  with   Spain. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Dewey's  Victory,  p.  200. 
Second  Selection,  p.  199. 
Manila  Bay,  p.  238. 

May  3d  and  4th,  1863. —  Battle  of  Chancellorsville. 

General  Hooker,  toward  the  latter  part  of  April,  crossed  the  Rappahannock, 
and,  encountering  Lee  at  Chancellorsville,  was  disastrously  defeated,  losing  more 
than  11,000  men.  He  then  recrossed  the  river.  In  this  battle  the  Confederate 
army  lost  its  most  brilliant  general,  Thomas  J.  Jackson,  commonly  known  as 
"  Stonewall "  Jackson,  who,  towards  the  close  of  the  action,  was  mortally 
wounded,  it  is  said,  by  the  fire  of  his  own  men,  being,  with  his  staff  and  escort, 
mistaken  in  the  darkness  for  a  company  of  the  Union  cavalry. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Wood  of  Chancellorsville. —  Delia  R.   German  in  R.   G.  White's  Collec- 
tion, Poetry  of  the  War. 
Keenan's  Charge. —  G.  P.  Lathrop. 



May  4,  1796. —  William  Hickling  Prescott  born. 

Selections  from: 

History  of  the   Conquest  of  Mexico. 
History  of  the  Conquest  of  Peru. 

May  8,  1846.— Battle  of  Palo  Alto. 

While  returning  from  Point  Isabel,  General  Taylor  with  a  force  of  2,300  men 
was  attacked  at  Palo  Alto  by  a  Mexican  force  of  6,000  men.  The  Mexicans  lost 
more  than  500,  whUe  the  American  loss  was  50. 

References  : 

Popular   History  of  the  United   States. —  Bryant. 

Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 

Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the  Mexican  War. —  Mansfield. 

May  9,  1846. —  Battle  of  Resaca  de  la  Palma. 

At  the  battle  of  Resaca  de  la  Palma  the  Mexican  guns  were  holding  the 
Americans  well  in  check,  when  Captain  May,  at  the  head  of  his  dragoons,  charged 
with  great  fury  and  dispersed  the  gunners.  The  Mexicans  were  defeated  with 
a  severe  loss. 

References : 

War  with  Mexico. —  R.  S.  Ripley. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
History   of  the   Mexican   War. —  Mansfield. 

May  10,  1775. —  Capture  of  Fort  Ticonderoga. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  10th  of  May,  1775,  Ethan  Allen,  with  the  Green 
Mountains  Boys,  surprised  and  took  Ticonderoga — "in  the  name  of  the  Great 
Jehovah  and  the  Continental  Congress."  It  was  the  first  incident  of  the  war 
in  which  the  Americans  took  the  aggressive. 

References : 

Popular    History   of   the   United    States. —  Bryant. 

Capture  of  Ticonderoga,  in  Narrative  of  His  Own  Captivity. —  Allen.     Found 

in  Anderson's  United  States  Reader. 
Battles  of  the  United  States,  vol.  I. —  Dawson. 
Diary  of  the  American  Revolution. —  Moore. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

On  General   Ethan  Allen. —  General   Hopkins. 


May  10,  1775. —  Second  Continental  Congress. 

On  May  10,  1775,  delegates  from  each  of  the  thirteen  colonies  assembled  for 
the  second  continental  Congress.  They  adopted  decisive  measures  and  ap- 
pointed Washington  commander-in-chief  of  the  army. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

The  Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 
History  of  the  United  States  of  America. —  Patton. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

American   History  told  by  Contemporaries.—  Hart.     (The   Necessity  of  Self- 

May  10,  1865. —  Capture  of  Jefferson  Davis  at  Irwinville,  Ga. 

The  Last  Four  Weeks  of  the  War.—  Hatcher. 

May  10,  1876.— International  exhibition  opened  at  Philadelphia. 

See  p.  79. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Centennial  Address. —  W.  M.  Evarts. 
Centennial   Hymns. —  Whittier. 

May  12,  1776.— Surrender  of  Charleston  to  the  British. 

After  a  siege  of  forty  days,  General  Lincoln,  in  command  of  the  American 
troops,  was  forced  to  surrender  to  Clinton. 


The   American    Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular   History   of  the   United   States.—  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

May  13,  1607.— First  permanent  English  colony  in  America. 

In  1606,  King  James  I.  divided  the  territory  claimed  by  the  English  into  North 
and  South  Virginia,  granting  the  former  to  the  Plymouth  Company,  the  latter 
to  the  London  Company.  The  first  permanent  settlement  was  made  at  James- 
town, in  1607,  by  an  expedition  sent  out  by  the  London  Company,  commanded 
by  Captain  Christopher  Newport. 



History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
America,  vol.  III. —  Winsor. 
Explorers. —  Higginson. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Settlement  of  Jamestown. —  Grahame,  in  his   Colonial  History  of  the  United 

Pocahontas. —  Hemans.     From  the  poem  entitled  American  Forest  Girl. 

May  14,  1841. —  Wyoming  county  erected  from  territory  of  Genesee. 

May  19,  1643. —  New  England  Confederacy. 

May  19,  1643,  the  four  colonies  of  Masachusetts,  Plymouth,  New  Haven 
and  Connecticut  entered  into  a  league  of  confederacy  "  for  unity,  offence  and 
defence,  mutual  advice  and  assistance." 


Colonial  History  of  the  United  States. —  Grahame. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
New  England. —  Fiske. 
A  Short  History  of  the  English  Colonies. —  Lodge. 

May  23d  and  24th,  1865.  —  Grand  review. 

The  last  great  scene  of  the  Civil  war  was  a  grand  military  pageant  in  the  city 
of  Washington,  when  the  armies  of  the  United  States  passed  in  review  before 
the  chief  officers  of  the  Government,  the  Congress,  and  representatives  of  for- 
eign powers. 

The  Army  of  the  Potomac  was  reviewed  on  the  23d  of  May,  the  Army  of  the 
Mississippi  on  the  following  day.  Washington  had  a  two-days'  holiday  and 
everywhere  in  the  city  were  greetings  and  displays  suitable  for  the  victorious 
returning  soldiers. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Spring  at  the  Capital. —  E.  A.  Allen. 

Samuel  Francis  Smith. —  p.  47. 

Sonnet  on  Disbanding  the  Army. —  Col.  David  Humphreys. 



May  24,  1 8 19. —  First  ocean  steamer. 

About  May  24,  1819,  the  Savannah  crossed  the  Atlantic  from  Savannah,  Ga,, 
to   Liverpool.     Both  sails  and  steam  were  used. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

May  25,  1637. —  Pequod  settlement. 

Toward  the  close  of  1635,  difficulties  with  the  Indians  commenced.  The 
Pequods,  a  warlike  tribe  in  the  southeastern  part  of  Connecticut,  having  com- 
mitted many  acts  of  hostility,  Hartford,  Windsor,  and  Wethersfield  united  in 
declaring  war  against  them.  A  force  of  colonists  and  friendly  Indians  proceeded 
against  the  Pequods,  burned  their  forts  and  wigwams,  killed  more  than  600  of 
their  number,  and  completely  broke  them  up  as  a  tribe. 

References : 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 

May  25,  1803. —  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  born. 


Hymn  on  the  Dedication  of  the  Concord  Monument,  p.  144. 
From  the  Essay  on  History. 
From  the   Essay  on   Heroism. 

May  27,  1819, —  Julia  Ward  Howe  born. 

Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic,  p.  139. 

May  27,  1844. —  The  first  telegraph  message. 

The  first  telegraph  line  was  established  between  New  York  and  Baltimore  by 
Professor  Morse  and  was  successfully  operated  May  27,  1844. 

References : 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 

May  29,  1736. —  Patrick  Henry  born. 
An  Appeal  to  Arms  (Address  in  the  Convention  of  Virginia,  September  28, 


May  29,  181 3. —  Attack  on  Sackett's  Harbor. 

The  British,  learning  that  a  large  force  had  left  Sackett's  Harbor,  sent  a  thou- 
sand men  to  attack  the  place.  They  were  met  by  a  small  force,  under  General 
Brown,  and  repulsed. 


Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

May  29,  1848. —  Wisconsin  admitted  to  the  Union. 

May  31,  1854. —  Kansas-Nebraska  bill. 

In  1854  Kansas  and  Nebraska  came  into  the  Union  under  the  rule  of  popular 
sovereignty,  which  left  the  question  of  slavery  to  the  people  of  each  territory. 
After  a  struggle  of  some  months,  the  Kansas-Nebraska  bill  became  a  law.  The 
Missouri  Compromise  was  abrogated,  and  the  question  of  slavery  in  the  terri- 
tories was  adrift  again,  never  to  be  got  rid  of  except  through  the  abolition  of 
slavery  itself  by  war. 

References : 

American  History  Leaflets,  No.   17. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Rhodes. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Schouler. 

Constitutional  History  of  the  United  States. —  Van  Hoist. 

Life  of  Douglas. —  Sheahan. 

Life  of  Chase. —  Schucker. 

May  31,  1862. —  Battle  of  Fair  Oaks. 

The  few  Union  victories  were  counterbalanced  by  the  ill  success  of  McCle.llan, 
who  had  attempted  to  reach  Richmond  by  the  peninsula  between  the  York  and 
the  James  rivers.  Having  arrived  within  a  short  distance  of  the  city,  he  was  sud- 
denly attacked  at  Fair  Oaks,  by  the  Confederates,  when  a  bloody  but  indecisive 
conflict  took  place.  A  movement  of  McClellan's  to  change  his  base  of  opera- 
to  the  James  river  brought  on  a  series  of  destructive  battles,  .lasting 
through  seven  days  (June  25  to  July  1),  the  result  of  which  was  to  leave  the 
Union  army  in  a  weakened  condition. 


Battles  and  Leaders  ot  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 

Appropriate  Selection: 

American   Volunteers,    p.   222. 



May  31,  1889. —  Flood  at  Johnstown. 

A  broken  dam  in  the  Conemaugh  Valley,  Pennsylvania,  flooded  Johnstown, 
and  destroyed  2,295  lives. 

June  1,  1774. —  Boston  port  bill. 

England,  enraged  at  the  colonies'  action  in  regard  to  the  tea,  passed  the  Port 
bill,  closing  Boston  harbor  to  all  commerce,  and  transferring  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment to  Salem.  The  act  aroused  the  greatest  indignation  of  the  colonists;  they 
burned  copies  of  it  on  scaffolds,  and  observed  the  day  upon  which  it  went  into 
effect  with  fasting  and  prayer. 


Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

June  1,  1792. —  Kentucky  admitted  to  the  Union. 

June  1,  1796. —  Tennessee  admitted  to  the  Union. 

June  1,  1813. —  The  Chesapeake  and  the  Shannon. 

The  American  frigate  Chesapeake,  commanded  by  Captain  Lawrence,  was 
attacked  by  the  British  frigate  Shannon,  just  outside  Boston  harbor.  Soon 
some  of  the  Chesapeake's  rigging  was  cut  so  that  a  sail  became  loose  and  blew 
out,  bringing  the  vessel  into  the  wind.  Then  the  rigging  and  anchor  became 
so  entangled  that  the  ship  had  to  remain  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fire.  As  Law- 
rence, mortally  wounded,  was  carried  below,  he  cried,  "  Don't  give  up  the  ship." 
Finally  the  English  sprang  on  board  and  pulled  down  the  flag. 

References  : 

History  of  the  Navy. —  Maclay. 

History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States. —  Cooper. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 

June  3,  1898. —  The  Merrimac  sunk  in  Santiago  Harbor. 

Lieutenant  Richard  P.  Hobson,  with  seven  selected  volunteers,  took  the  collier 
Merrimac  into  the  channel  of  Santiago  harbor,  and  there  sunk  her  by  means 
of  torpedoes,  as  a  temporary  obstruction  to  the  escape  of  the  Spanish  fleet. 
The  deed  was  fraught  with  the  greatest  danger  and  required  the  most  con- 
spicuous bravery  and  daring. 



The  War  with  Spain. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 
With  Sampson  through  the  War. —  Goode. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Eight  Volunteers,  p.  233. 

June  9,  1792. —  John  Howard  Payne  born. 
Actor  and  playwright. 
Appropriate  Selections: 

Home,  Sweet  Home,  p.  39. 

June  10,  1861.— Battle  of  Bethel. 

It  can  hardly  be  said  that  the  national  government  made  any  offensive  move- 
ment before  the  24th  of  May.  Then  General  Scott,  commanding  the  Union 
army,  sent  troops  into  Virginia;  and  Arlington  Heights,  as  well  as  the  town  of 
Alexandria,  were  occupied.  Some  days  after,  June  10th,  a  force  was  sent  under 
General  Butler  to  capture  a  body  of  Confederate  troops  posted  at  Little  Bethel, 
a  village  on  the  north  side  of  the  James  river.  During  the  night,  two  of  the 
Union  regiments  fired  on  each  other  by  mistake;  and  the  Confederates,  thus 
made  aware  of  their  approach,  escaped.  The  Union  troops  then  pushed  on,  and 
were  severely  repulsed  in  an  attack  upon  the  Confederate  works  at  Big  Bethel. 

References : 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 
United  States. —  Rhodes. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Bethel.—  A.  J.  H.  Duganne. 
Army  Hymns. —  O.  W.  Holmes. 
The  Present  Crisis. —  J.  R.  LoweJl. 

June  12,  1812. —  Putnam  county  erected  from  territory  of  Dutchess. 
June  14,  1777. —  Birth  of  the  flag  of  the  United  States. 

Congress  resolved,  "  That  the  flag  of  the  thirteen  united  colonies  be  thirteen 
stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  and  the  union  be  thirteen  stars,  white  in  a  blue 
field,  representing  a  new  constellation." 



History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

Diary  of  the  American  Revolution. —  Moore. 

History    of    our    Flag  — Rev.    A.    P.    Putnam,    in    Anderson's    United    States 

A  Brief  History  of  the  Flag. —  See  p.  5. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
The  American  Flag. —  J.  R.  Drake,  p.  303. 
God  Save  the  Flag.—  O.  W.  Holmes. 
Our  National  Banner. —  W.  M.  Evarts. 

The  School  House  Stands  by  the  Flag.—  Hezekiah  Butterworth,  p.  45. 
Selections  1  and  3,  p.  15. 
Our  Flag,  p.  9. 

The  Red,  White  and  Blue,  p.  19. 
Selection,  No.  6,  p.  35. 

June  14,  1812.—  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe  born. 

Selections  from: 
Uncle  Tom's  Cabin. 

June  15,  1772. —  Benjamin   Franklin   drew  electricity  from    the    clouds 
and  proved  its  identity  with  lightning. 
References : 
Autobiography  of  Benjamin  Franklin. 

June  15,  1836.— Arkansas  admitted  to  the  Union. 

June  15,  1844. —  Charles  Goodyear  patented  the  process  of  vulcanizing 
India  rubber. 

June  17,  1775.—  Siege  of  Boston  began. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United   States.—  Bryant. 

June  17,  1775.— Battle  of  Bunker  Hill. 

On  the  evening  of  June  16th,  Colonel  Prescott  was  sent  with  a  detachment 
of  one  thousand  men  to  fortify  Bunker  Hill,  but  instead  he  fortified  Breed's 
Hill,  which  was  nearer  Boston.  The  next  morning  the  British  commenced  a 
cannonade  upon  the  redoubt.     This  attack  failed,  and,  later,  General  Howe,  with 



three  thousand  men,  was  sent  to  dislodge  the  patriots.  Twice  the  British  ap- 
proached within  a  few  rods,  each  time  to  be  repulsed  with  a  heavy  loss.  Upon 
Clinton's  arrival,  the  third  charge  was  more  successful,  as  the  Americans  had 
exhausted  their  ammunition,  and  were  forced  to  retreat.  The  Americans  lost 
General  Warren.  The  determined  and  for  a  time  successful  resistance  on  the 
part  of  the  Americans  was  so  encouraging  that  it  had  all  the  effects  of  a 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Siege  of  Boston. —  Frothingham. 

Harper's  Monthly.— July,  1875. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Warren's  Address.— John   Pierpont. 
Grandmother's  Story  of  Bunker  Hill.— Holmes. 

Laying  of  the  Corner-Stone  of  the  Bunker  Hill  Monument.— Webster. 
Edward  Everett,  pp.  234-5. 

June  18,  1778. —  Evacuation  of  Philadelphia. 

The  loss  of  Burgoyne's  army,  the  alliance  with  France,  and  the  arrival  of  a 
French  fleet  under  D'Estaing  so  alarmed  the  British  that  they  left  Philadelphia. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Battle  of  the  Kegs. — Francis  Hopkinson. 

June  19,  1812. —  Declaration  of  war  against  Great  Britain. 

The  losses  to  commerce  caused  by  the  closing  of  the  ports  of  England  and 
France  in  their  war,  the  right  of  search,  the  impressment  of  American  seamen, 
and  other  insults  to  which  England  was  subjecting  the  United  States,  led  to 
the  final  declaration  of  war  against  Great  Britain  by  the  United  States. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812.—  Lossing. 

June  19,  1863. —  West  Virginia  admitted  to  the  Union. 



June  19,  1864.— Alabama  and  Kearsarge. 

The  Confederates,  by  means  of  English-built  privateers  sailing  under  the 
Confederate  flag,  succeeded  in  destroying  a  large  number  of  American  mer- 
chantmen. Sumner,  in  the  Alabama,  pursued  his  career  of  destruction,  luring 
vessels  by  hoisting  the  British  flag;  but  the  Alabama  was  at  last  met  by  the 
Kearsarge,  Captain  Winslow,  and.  after  a  short  encounter,  was  sunk. 

The  Navy  during  the  Rebellion.—  Boynton. 
Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.— Dodge. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War.—  Ropes. 

June  24,  1497.— Discovery  of  North  America  by  John  and  Sebastian 

In  1497,  about  one  year  before  Columbus  discovered  the  continent,  and  two 
years  previous  to  Amerigo's  visit,  John  Cabot  and  his  son  Sebastian,  while 
sailing  under  a  commission  from  Henry  VII.  of  England,  discovered  the  coast 
of  Labrador,  and  thus  were  the  first  to  discover  the  mainland  of  America.  In  a 
second  voyage,  made  by  Sebastian  Cabot,  in  1498,  the  coast,  from  Labrador  to 
Chesapeake  Bay,  was  explored.  These  achievements  of  the  Cabots,  the  dis- 
covery and  explorations,  proved  of  momentous  importance,  especially  to  Eng- 
land, as,  by  reason  of  them,  that  country  based  her  claims  to  all  the  region  from 
Labrador  to  Florida. 


America,   vol.    III.— Winsor. 

Discovery  of  America,   vol.   II. —  Fiske. 

American  History  Leaflets. —  No.  9. 

Students'  History  of  the  United  States  —  Channing. 

June  24,  1675.— First  battle  of  King  Philip's  war. 

After  the  death  of  Massasoit,  the  Indians  became  alarmed  at  the  rapidly  grow- 
ing settlement  of  the  whites,  and  so  the  New  England  tribes  united  to  over- 
throw the  colonists.  The  first  attack  was  made  by  King  Philip  upon  the  people 
of  Swanzey,  as  they  were  returning  from  church. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

June  24,  1795.— Jay's  treaty  ratified. 

Difficulties  had  arisen  with  England  because  of  violations  of  the  treaty  of 
1783,  so  that  a  new  treaty  to  dispose  of  them  was  negotiated  by  John  Jay. 



Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
Our   Country. —  Lossing. 

June  24,  1871. —  Corner-stone  of  state  capitol  at  Albany  laid. 

The  ceremonies  were  under  the  direction  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons  of  the  State  of  New  York.  The  first  stone  in  the  foundation 
was  laid  July  7,   1869. 

June  28,  1776. —  Attack  on  Fort  Moultrie. 

The  people  of  Charleston,  expecting  an  attack,  had  constructed  a  palmetto 
fort  on  Sullivan's  Island,  which  was  garrisoned  by  eight  hundred  men  under 
Colonel  Moultrie.  On  June  28th, .  the  British  fleet  under  Parker  attacked  it, 
the  conflict  lasting  nine  hours.  Finally,  however,  Parker  was  forced  to  with- 
draw, with  much  shattered  vessels.  The  fort  was  later  named  Moultrie  in  honor 
of  the   commander. 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

June  28,  1778. —  Battle  of  Monmouth. 

The  British  army  under  Clinton,  retreating  from  Philadelphia,  was  overtaken 
by  Washington  at  Monmouth.  Lee,  leading  the  advance,  was  directed  to  make 
an  attack,  but  instead,  commanded  a  retreat.  Upon  Washington's  arrival  an 
advance  was  made.  At  nightfall  there  was  no  decisive  result,  and  in  the  morn- 
ing the  British  had  fled. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selections  from  Irving's  Life  of  Washington. 

June  28,  181 5. —  Decatur  in  the  bay  of  Algiers. 

During  the  War  of  1812,  the  Dey  of  Algiers,  believing  the  United  States  unable 
to  protect  her  commerce,  broke  the  treaty  and  again  resumed  the  practice  of 


piracy  against  our  ships.  When  peace  with  England  was  established,  a  fleet 
of  ten  ships,  under  Decatur,  was  sent  to  the  Mediterranean.  On  the  way  he 
captured  two  Algerian  vessels  and,  arriving  in  the  bay  of  Algiers,  June  28th, 
he  forced  the  Dey  to  relinquish  all  American  prisoners  and  all  claim  to  a  tribute 
from  the  United  States. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 
History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.—  Cooper. 
History  of  the   Navy. —  Maclay. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Selection  from  Cooper's  History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.     Death  of 
Commodore  Decatur. 

July  1st,  2d,  3d,  1863.— Battle  of  Gettysburg. 

On  the  9th  of  June,  Lee,  whose  army  numbered  nearly  four  hundred  thou- 
sand men,  began  a  northward  movement.  Hooker  followed  the  invaders 
into  Maryland,  where  (June  28th),  his  command  was  transferred  to  General 
Meade.  At  Gettysburg  one  of  the  most  important  conflicts  of  the  war  took 
place  during  the  first  three  days  of  July.  Lee  was  finally  defeated,  and,  his 
army  being  reduced  one-third,  made  a  rapid  retreat.  The  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg is  generally  regarded  as  the  greatest  of  the  war.  It  was  the  turning  point 
in  the  long  conflict  between  the  North  and  the  South. 

References : 

Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.—  Dodge. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 
School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Pickett's  Charge  at  Gettysburg.—  Comte  de  Paris,  in  Half-Hours  with  Ameri- 
can History. —  Morris. 
National  Cemetery  at  Gettysburg. 
Gettysburg.—  Captain  Dudley  H.  Chase,  U.  S.  A. 
Bugles  of  Gettysburg,  p.  219. 
George  William  Curtis,  p.  210. 
Susan  J.  Adams,  p.  210. 
Henry  C.  Potter,  p.  234 


July  2,  1775. —  Washington  took  command  of  the  army  at  Cambridge. 

The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Rise  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.—  Frothingham. 

Life  of  Washington.— Sparks. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
The    Inconveniences   of    Militia.— General    G.    Washington,    found    in    Ameri- 
can History  told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 
"  Every   exertion    of   my   worthy   colleagues   and   myself   will   be   equally   ex- 
tended to  the  restoration  of  peace  and  harmony,  as  to  the  fatal  but  necessary 
operations  of  war." 

July  2,  1881. —  Assassination  of  Garfield. 

Garfield  had  been  in  office  less  than  four  months  when  he  was  shot  by  an 
assassin  (Charles  J.  Guiteau),  at  the  railroad  station  in  Washington,  as  he  was 
about  to  leave  the  capital  for  a  summer  trip  to  the  east. 


Life  of  James  A.  Garfield.— J.  R.  Gilmore. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 

July  3,  1890. —  Idaho  admitted  to  the  Union. 

July  3,  1898.—  Battle  of  Santiago. 

On  Sunday  morning,  July  3d,  at  half-past  nine,  the  Spanish  fleet  started  out 
of  the  harbor  at  Santiago  with  a  rush,  but  the  American  fleet,  always  in  readi- 
ness, closed  in  upon  it  and  by  half-past  one  every  Spanish  ship  was  a  half- 
sunken  wreck  on  the  Cuban  coast. 


War  with  Spain. —  Henry  Cabot  Lodge. 
With  Sampson  through  the  War. —  Goode. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
The  Men  Behind  the  Guns,  p.  224. 

July  4,  1609. —  Discovery  of  Lake  Champlain. 

In  1608,  Champlain  planted  on  the  St.  Lawrence  the  post  of  Quebec.  The 
next  year,  joining  a  party  of  Hurons  and  Algonquins  in  a  war  expedition 
against  the  Five  Nations,  he  ascended  the  Sorel,  and,  first  of  white  men,  entered 
the  lake  which  still  bears  his  name.  A  series  of  explorations  presently  followed, 
whence  arose  the  French  claims  to  that  vast  tract  of  interior  America,  compre- 
hended, along  with  Canada  and  Acadia,  under  its  general  name  of  New  France. 



Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Discovery  of  America. —  Fiske. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Discovery  of  Lake  Champlain. —  Parkman. 

The  American  Indians,  in  History  of  the  United  States.—  Hildreth. 

July  4,  1776. —  Declaration  of  Independence, 

By  the  last  of  June  the  British  had  been  repulsed  from  Charleston,  and  in 
the  meantime,  Congress,  then  in  session  at  Philadelphia,  was  preparing  to  de- 
clare a  separation  of  the  political  relations  existing  between  Great  Britain  and 
the  colonies.  A  resolution  to  that  effect  offered  by  Richard  Henry  Lee  of 
Virginia,  on  the  7th  of  June,  was  passed  by  a  large  majority  on  the  2d  of 
July.  Two  days  after,  Thomas  Jefferson,  of  Virginia,  in  behalf  of  a  committee 
of  five  members,  presented  a  document  which  he  had  prepared;  and,  then,  July 
4,  1776,  this  document,  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  was  unanimously 
adopted  by  Congress. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Independence  Bell. —  Anonymous,  p.  in. 
Speech  of  John  Adams. —  Webster,  p.    175. 
The  Bell.—  B.  F.  Taylor,  p.    113. 

July  4th  and  5th,  1778. —  Massacre  in  the  Wyoming  valley. 

When  the  Wyoming  valley  was  almost  defenceless,  as  most  of  the  able-bodied 
men  had  joined  the  patriot  army,  a  band  of  Tories  and  Indians  ravaged  and  deso- 
lated every  settlement. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 

July  4,  1804. —  Nathaniel  Hawthorne  born. 

Selections  from: 

Mosses  from  an  Old  Manse. 
Snow  Image. 
Twice-Told  Tales. 


July  4,  1817  —  First  spadeful  of  earth  turned  for  the  Erie  canal. 

July  4,  1817,  the  first  spadeful  of  earth  was  turned  for  the  Erie  canal,  and 
the  canal,  three  hundred  and  sixty-three  miles  long,  was  completed  in  October, 
1825.  It  was  designed  by  De  Witt  Clinton,  and  cost  $7,602,000.  It  has  brought 
untold  wealth  to  the  state. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Students'  History  of  the  United  States.— Channing. 
The  United  States.—  Schouler. 

July  4,  1826. —  Death  of  Jefferson  and  Adams. 

On  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  American  independence,  Thomas  Jefferson  and 
John  Adams  died.  Both  were  members  of  the  committee  that  framed  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  both  signed  it,  both  were  foreign  ministers,  vice- 
presidents,  and  presidents  of  the  United  States. 


Historic  Americans. —  Theodore   Parker. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Oration  on  Adams  and  Jefferson. —  Wert. 

Selection  from  Life  and  Public  Services  of  John  Quincy  Adams.—  Seward. 

July  4,  1828. —  Driving  of  the  first  spike  on   the   Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Charles  Carroll,  the  last  survivor  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence,  drove  the  first  spike  for  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  railroad,  the  first 
in  America  to  carry  both  passengers  and  freight. 


Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

July  4,  1863. —  Capture  of  Vicksburg. 

General  Grant  having  gained  a  series  of  victories  over  the  Confederate  forces 
in  the  southwest,  succeeded  in  taking  Vicksburg,  July  4th,  after  a  daring  and 
perilous  siege  of  several  months.  Port  Hudson  having  soon  afterwards  sur- 
rendered to  General  Banks,  the  Mississippi  was  completely  opened. 


Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War. —  Davis. 
Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War. —  Dodge. 
Story  of  the  Civil  War. —  Ropes. 


Appropriate  Selections: 
General  Grant  and  the  Civil  War,  p.  187. 
Selecton  IV,  p.  222. 

Hymn,  for  July  4,  1863. —  George  H.  Baker. 
The  Fall  of  Vicksburg.—  William  Ross  Wallace. 

The  Siege  of  Vicksburg. —  Adam  Badeau,  in  Morris'  Half-Hours  with  Ameri- 
can History. 

July  5,  1814. —  Battle  of  Chippewa. 

General  Brown  met  the  British  under  General  Riall  at  Chippewa,  near  Niagara 
Falls,  where  he  won  a  brilliant  victory. 


Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 

July  7,  1898. —  Annexation  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands. 

During  the  progress  of  the  Spanish  war  the  annexation  of  the  Hawaiian 
Islands  was  finally  consumated.  A  joint  resolution  was  passed  by  Con- 
gress providing  for  the  acquisition  of  the  islands  and  for  their  temporary  gov- 
ernment. A  group  of  twelve  islands,  with  an  area  of  6,677  square  miles  and  a 
population  of  about  100,000  persons,  half  of  them  native  islanders,  was  thus  made 
American  territory. 

References : 

American  Congress. —  Moore. 

July  9,  1755.  —  Braddock's  defeat. 

General  Braddock,  who  had  been  sent  to  America  as  commander-in-chief  of 
the  royal  forces,  headed  the  expedition  against  Fort  Duquesne.  Disregarding 
the  suggestions  of  Washington,  his  aide-de-camp,  he  fell  into  an  ambush  oi 
French  and  Indians  when  within  a  few  miles  of  the  fort,  and  was  defeated  with 
great  loss,  he  himself  being  mortally  wounded. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

Defeat  of  Braddock. —  Sparks. 

July  10,  1890. —  Wyoming  admitted  to  the  Union. 



July  12,  1804. —  Duel  between  Alexander  Hamilton  and  Aaron  Burr. 

Alexander  Hamilton  and  Aaron  Burr  met  in  a  duel  to  settle  a  political  quarrel, 
and  Hamilton  was  killed. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Our  Country. —  Lossing. 

Students'  History  of  the  United  States.—  Channing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
Eulogy  on  Hamilton,  from  a  discourse  delivered  in  Albany  by  Dr.  Nott, —  found 
in   Anderson's   United    States    Reader. 

July  15,  1779. —  Storming  of  Stony  Point. 

The  American  forces,  under  General  Anthony  Wayne,  forced  their  way  into 
the  fort  from  opposite  directions,  and  meeting  in  the  center,  compelled  the  gar- 
rison to  surender.  This  stands  out  in  high  relief,  as  one  of  the  most  brilliant 
achievements  of  the  war.  The  Americans  had  effected  it  without  firing  a 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

1776. —  Lossing. 

American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 

July  17,  1898. —  The  Surrender  of  Santiago. 

After  several  demands  for  the  surrender  of  Santiago,  General  Shafter  bom- 
barded the  place  and  forced  the  Spanish  to  yield,  when  Santiago  passed  into 
American  hands. 


War  with  Spain. —  H.   C.   Lodge. 
In  Cuba  with  Shafter.— J.  D.  Miley. 

July  21,  1 861.—  Battle  of  Bull  Run. 

The  Confederate  army  of  about  100,000  men  occupied  a  line  through  Vir- 
ginia, from  Harper's  Ferry  to  Norfolk,  their  strongest  position  being  between 
Washington  and  Richmond,  at  Manassas  Junction.  About  the  middle  of  July, 
an  army  under  General  McDowell  marched  to  attack  the  Confederates.  On  the 
18th,  a  conflict  took  place  near  Centerville  and  on  the  21st,  occurred  the  battle 
of  Bull  Run,  a  desperate  conflict  from  which  the  Union  forces,  panic-stricken, 
fled  in  disorder  towards  Washington. 



Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil  War.—  Davis. 

Bird's  Eye  View  of  Our  Civil  War.— Dodge. 

Story  of  the  Civil  War.—  Ropes. 

United  States.—  Rhodes. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 

School  History  of  the  United  States.—  Lee. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

On  the  Hill  before  Centerville.—  George  K.  Baker. 

The  Run  from  Manassas  Junction.— In  R.  G.  White's  Poetry  of  the  War. 

July  23,  1885. —  Death  of  Ulysses  S.  Grant. 

America   lost   her   great   military   leader  when    General   U.    S.    Grant   died   at 
Mount  MacGregor,  near  Saratoga  Springs. 

July  24,  1819. —  J.  G.  Holland  born. 
Selections  from: 

Life  of  Abraham  Lincoln. 
Lessons  in   Life. 
Men  of  One  Idea. 

July  25,  1814. —  Battle  at  Lundy's  Lane. 

The  Americans  under  Brown  were  attacked  at  Lundy's  Lane  by  Drummond, 
commanding  a  British  force  one-third  larger  than  Brown's.  The  battle  lasted 
from  sunset  to  midnight,  and  was  more  death-dealing,  in  proportion  to  the 
numbers  engaged,  than  any  previously  fought  on  the  American  continent.  It 
ended  without  a  decisive  victory  for  either  party. 

References  : 

Half-Hours  with  American  History.—  Morris. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812 .—  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Anderson. 

July  27,  1898. —  Porto  Rico  taken. 

The  British  and  German  consuls,  and  several  men  representing  the  commer- 
cial interests  of  Ponce,  acting  under  the  authority  of  the  Spanish  commander, 
negotiated  with  the  Americans  for  the  surrender  of  that  city.  The  American 
troops  took  formal  possession,  and  the  army  held  the  city  as  a  base  from  which 
they  controlled  the  most  important  roads  on  the  island. 

The  War  with  Spain.— H.  C.  Lodge. 



July  30,  1619. —  First  Legislative  body  in  America. 

On  July  30,  1619,  a  legislative  body  met  in  a  little  wooden  church  at  James- 
town. Each  of  the  eleven  local  constituencies  had  two  representatives,  called 
burgesses,  giving  the  name,  the  House  of  Burgesses.  There  was  also  an  upper 
House  called  the  Council;  these  with  the  Governor  constituted  a  general  assem- 
bly, whose  functions  were  both  legislative  and  judicial. 


Old  Virginia  and  Her  Neighbors. —  Fiske. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

A  Short  History  of  the  English  Colonies  in  America. —  Lodge. 

American   History  told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 

August  1,  1876. —  Colorado  was  admitted  to  the  Union. 

August  2,  1684. —  Treaty  with  the  Five  Nations  at  Albany. 

The  Indians  of  the  Five  Nations  made  a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  English  at 
a  convention  in  Albany. 


Brief  History  of  the  Empire  State. —  Hendricks. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

August  2,  1832. —  Black  Hawk  defeated  at  Bad  Axe  river. 

By  a  treaty  of  July  15,  1830,  the  Sac  and  Fox  Indians  ceded  their  land  east 
of  the  Mississippi  to  the  Americans.  Black  Hawk,  a  chief,  refused  to  submit  to 
the  treaty,  and  began  to  massacre  the  whites.  He  was  finally  defeated  by  Gen- 
eral Atkinson  at  Bad  Axe  river. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 
School  History  of  the  United  States. —  Lee. 
Our   Country. —  Lossing. 

August  4,  1858. —  The  first  telegraphic  message  passed  from  America 
to  Europe. 

The  Atlantic  telegraph  was  invented  by  Cyrus  W.  Field. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 


August  6,  1777.—  Battle  of  Oriskany  and  sortie  from  Fort  Stanwix. 

General  Herkimer,  on  his  way  to  relieve  Fort  Stanwix,  fell  into  an  ambuscade 
at  Oriskany,  was  defeated,  and  mortally  wounded.  As  Fort  Stanwix  was  so 
hard  pressed,  Arnold  was  sent  to  its  aid.  Resorting  to  stratagem,  he  caused  the 
desertion  of  the  Indian  allies,  which  left  the  British  general.  St.  Leger,  in  such 
straits  that  he  was  obliged  to  decamp  hurriedly,  leaving  much  ammunition  be- 
hind him.  The  retreat  of  St.  Leger  was  of  vital  importance  in  deciding  the  fate 
of  Burgoyne's  army. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States  — Anderson. 
The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
See  Selection  2,  p.  21. 

August  7,  1795.— Joseph  Rodman  Drake  born. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  American  Flag,  p.  303. 

August  7,  1807.— Trial  trip  of  Fulton's  steamboat,  the  Clermont. 

Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

August  9,  1812.—  The  Constitution  and  the  Guerriere. 

An  encounter  between  the  American  frigate  Constitution,  called  "  Old  Iron- 
sides," and  the  British  frigate  Guerriere,  took  place  near  the  Gulf  of  St.  Law- 
rence. The  Guerriere  opened  fire,  continuing  nearly  an  hour  before  the  Con- 
stitution answered  with  more  than  an  occasional  gun.  Then  drawing  nearer, 
the  Constitution  poured  in  volleys  with  amazing  rapidity  and  power.  The  Guer- 
riere fought  desperately,  but  at  last  was  forced  to  strike  her  flag.  Too  injured  to 
keep  afloat,  the  ship  was  burned. 


History  of  the  Navy.—  Maclay. 
History  of  the  Navy  of  the  United  States.—  Cooper. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.— Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

"  The  first  English  frigate  that  ever  struck  its  flag  to  an  American  ship-of- 
war  had  gone  down  to  the  bottom  of  the  ocean.  The  sea  never  rolled  over  a 
vessel  whose  fate  so  startled  the  world.     It  disappeared  forever,  but  it  left  its 



outline  on  the  deep,  never  to  be  effaced  until  England  and  America  shall  be  no 
"  Old  Ironsides."—  O.  W.  Holmes. 

August  io,  1 82 1. —  Missouri  admitted  to  the  Union. 

August  11,  1609.— Discovery  of  the  Hudson  river. 

Almost  contemporaneously  with  the  first  French  exploration  of  Lake  Cham- 
plain,  another  celebrated  discoverer  was  penetrating  from  an  opposite  direction 
towards  the  same  point.  In  1609,  Hendrick  Hudson,  in  the  employ  of  the 
Dutch  East  India  Company,  while  searching  for  a  north  or  northwest  passage 
to  India,  discovered  the  river  which  bears  his  name. 

References : 

Discovery  of  America. —  Fiske. 

History  of  the  United  States. —  Hildreth. 

Appropriate   Selections: 

Voyage  of  the  Half  Moon. —  Broadhead,  in  his  History  of  New  York. 

August  12,  1898. —  Signing  of  protocol  with  Spain. 

Spanish  defeats  were  confessed  and  a  cessation  of  hostilities  desired  by  the 
Spanish  Government.  Secretary  of  State  Hay  acceded  to  the  request  on  certain 
essential  conditions.  The  protocol  was  signed  August  12,  1898,  and  hostilities 

References : 

The  War  with  Spain. —  H.  C.   Lodge. 

August  13,  1898. —  City  of  Manila  taken. 

General  Merritt  and  Admiral  Dewey,  having  demanded  the  surrender  of 
Manila,  ordered  an  attack  on  August  13.  The  combination  of  the  land  and  sea 
forces  was  irresistible  and  the  Spanish  hoisted  the  white  flag.  A  conference  was 
held,  the  capitulation  was  signed,  and  the  city  surrendered.  "  And  the  empire 
which  Magellan  had  found  for  Spain  had  passed  away  forever." 


War  with   Spain. —  H.   C.    Lodge. 

August  16,  1777. —  Battle  of  Bennington. 

Burgoyne,  in  need  of  supplies,  sent  Colonel  Baum  with  a  force  of  Hessians  to 
Bennington  to  capture  those  of  the  Americans.  General  Stark,  however, 
defeated  the  expedition. 




Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
History  of  the  United  States. —  Bancroft. 
American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 

August  16,  1780. —  Battle  of  Camden. 

Gates,  in  command  of  the  American  forces,  and  Cornwallis,  in  command  of  the 
British,  unexpectedly  met  at  Sander's  Creek.  Overpowered  by  numbers,  the 
American  militia  fled.  The  regulars,  however,  under  the  command  of  Baron  de 
Kalb,  offered  the  bravest  resistance  until  de  Kalb  was  mortally  wounded. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United   States. —  Bryant. 
The    American    Revolution. —  Fiske. 
1776. —  Lossing. 

Appropriate  Selections: 

The  Old  Continentals. —  Guy  Humphrey  McMaster,  p.  262. 

August  16,  1812. —  Surrender  of  Detroit. 

Towards  the  beginning  of  the  war,  General  Hull  took  his  post  at  Detroit. 
He  was  soon  followed  by  General  Brock,  commanding  thirteen  hundred  British 
and  Indians.  The  Americans  were  confident  of  winning  the  battle,  about  to 
take  place,  but  instead  of  fighting,  Hull  surrendered  at  once,  and  by  so  doing 
lost  Detroit  and  the  whole  territory  of  Michigan  as  well. 


Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Battles  of  the  United   States. —  Dawson. 

August  20,  1794. —  Battle  of  Maumee. 

The  Indians  north  of  the  Ohio  continued  to  show  their  dissatisfaction  by 
many  hostile  acts,  and  were  not  subdued  until  General  Wayne  defeated  them  in 
a  desperate  battle  on  the  Maumee  River. 


Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 

Our   Country. —  Lossing. 

Battles  of  the  United  States. —  Dawson. 



August  24,  1 8 14. —  The  city  of  Washington  captured  and  partly  burned. 
Five  thousand  men  under  General  Ross  disembarked  from  a  British  squadron 
in  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  captured  Washington,  and  set  fire  to  the  city.  Until 
the  last  moment,  the  Americans  could  not  determine  whether  Washington  or 
Baltimore  was  to  be  attacked,  consequently  the  force  was  divided,  and  the 
British  met  with  little  opposition. 


Popular  History  of  the   United   States. —  Bryant. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Anderson. 
Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812. —  Lossing. 

August  25,  1839. —  Francis  Bret  Harte  born. 

John  Burns  at  Gettysburg. 

Selection  from  East  and  West  Poems. 

August  27,  1664. —  New  Amsterdam  called  New  York. 

An  English  expedition,  under  Nichols,  suddenly  appeared  in  the  harbor  of 
New  Amsterdam  and  forced  the  Dutch  to  surrender.  The  articles  of  capitula- 
tion were  signed  on  the  twenty-seventh  of  August,  and  the  name  was  changed 
to  New  York,  in  honor  of  the  Duke  of  York. 


History  of  the   Empire  State. —  Hendricks. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America. —  Winsor. 
History  of  New  York. —  Roberts. 
American  History  told  by  Contemporaries. —  Hart. 

August  27,  1776. —  Battle  of  Long  Island. 

The  British  forces,  under  Howe,  attacked  the  Americans  at  Long  Island  in 
three  divisions,  two  in  front,  the  third  in  the  rear.  Despite  the  brave  fight  of 
the  patriots,  they  were  forced  to  yield.  The  effects  of  the  disaster  were  far- 
reaching;  it  decided  the  wavering  to  join  the  enemy;  it  gave  form  and  direc- 
tion to  subsequent  events;  and  it  gave  New  York  into  the  possession  of  the 


Half-Hours  with  American  History. —  Morris. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States. —  Bryant. 
1776. —  Lossing. 


The  American  Revolution. —  Fiske. 
Battles  of  the  United  States.—  Dawson. 
Diary  of  the  American  Revolution.—  Moore. 

Appropriate  Selections: 
See  p.  29,  selection  4. 

August  28,  1619. —  First  negro  slaves  in  the  colonies. 

About  August  28,  1610,  a  Dutch  merchantman  brought  a  shipload  of  twenty 
negroes  to  Virginia  to  be  sold  as  slaves.  A  little  over  a  year  later  the  pilgrims 
landed  in  New  England,  and  two  antagonistic  and  opposing  elements  were  then 
planted  in  America,  that  were  destined  to  be  in  almost  constant  conflict  until 
the  question  of  slavery  in  the  United  States  was  settled  forever  by  the  great 
Civil  war. 
References : 

Old  Virginia  and  Her  Neighbors.—  Fiske. 

August  29,  1779.— Battle  of  Chemung. 

General  Sullivan  entered  the  region  near  the  headwaters  of  the  Susquehanna 
and  Genesee  rivers  to  punish  the  Indians  for  massacres.  At  Newtown,  now 
Elmira,  he  gained  a  decisive  victory  in  the  battle  of  Chemung. 

American   Revolution.—  Fiske. 
Battles  of  the  United  States.— Dawson. 
Popular  History  of  the  United  States.—  Bryant. 
General  Sullivan's  Indian  Expedition,  1779- 

August  29,  1809.— Oliver  Wendell  Holmes  born. 
Appropriate  Selections: 
Old  Ironsides. 
The  Season's  Masterpiece. 


Admiral  Dewey  and  the   Spanish-American 

War,  197. 
American  Eagle,  The,  130. 
American  Flag,  The,  310. 
Arsenal  at  Springfield,  The,  127. 


Banner  of  the  Stars,  The,  15,  321. 

Battle  of  Yorktown,  The,  179. 

Bell,  The.   113. 

Birthday  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  The,  269. 

Birthday  of  Washington,  The,  243. 

Birthday  Programs : 

Longfellow,  152. 

Whittier,   152. 

Holmes,    153. 

Lowell,  153. 
Bivouac  of  the  Dead,  The,  28. 
Black  Regiment,  The,  105. 
Blue  and  the  Gray,  The,  146,  220. 
Boy,   Columbus,  The,   161. 
Brave  at  Home,   The,   343. 
Bugles  of  Gettysburg,  219. 


Camp,  The,  61. 

Capitol,  The,  51. 

Carmen  Belliccsum,  262. 

Centennial  Hymn,  345. 

Citizenship,   366. 

Civic  Creed  for  the  Boys  and  Girls  of  the 

Great  Republic,  35. 
Columbia,  the  Gem  of  the  Ocean,  313. 
Columbus  Day,  157. 
Commemoration  Ode,  From  the,  340. 
Common   School,    The,   48. 
Concord  Hymn,   170,  222. 
Constitution  of  the  United  States,  The,  353. 
Consulate,  The,  85. 
Contents,  xv. 


Declaration  of  Independence,  The,  351. 
Dewey  and  the  Spanish-American  War,  Ad- 
miral, 197. 

Dewey's  Victory,  May  1,   1898,   200. 
Dirge  for  a   Soldier,  28. 
Dove,  The,  125. 


Eagle,  The,  129,   133. 
Eight  Volunteers,  233. 
E  Pluribus  Unum,  138. 
Exposition  Buildings,  75. 

Farragut,  Admiral,  92. 

Flag,  A  Brief  History  of  the,  5. 

Flag  Day,  301. 

Flag  of  Freedom,  The,  65. 

Flag  of  the  Constellation,  The,  18. 

Flag  that  has  Never  Known  Defeat,  The, 

Flag,  The,  313. 
Fourth  of  July,  The,  175. 
Freedom,  101. 
Free   Schools   Inspire  Loyalty  to   Country 



General  Grant  and  the  Civil  War,  187. 
Grant,  Ulysses  Simpson,  189,   193. 
Gray  Forest  Eagle,  The,  133. 


Half-Masted  Flag,   The,   25. 

Hats  Off,  323. 

His  First  and  Last  Surrender,  188. 

Home,  41. 

Home,  The,  41. 

Home,  The  Nation's  Safeguard,  The,  42. 

Hospital,  The,  69. 

How  Sleep  the  Brave,  25,  231. 


Incident,  An,  71. 

Incident  of  the  French  Camp,  An,  61. 
Independence  Bell,  July  4,  1776,  111. 
In  the  Time  of  Strife,  230. 
Introduction,  v. 





Labor  is  Worship,  386. 

Land,  The,  87. 

Landing  of  the  Pilgrims,  The,  163,  167. 

Lexington   and   Concord,    169. 

Liberty,  355. 

Liberty  Bell,  The,  111. 

Liberty  Cap,  The,  101. 

Liberty's  Latest  Daughter,  178. 

Lincoln.  290. 

Lincoln,  The  Birthday  of,  269. 

Love  of  Country,  88. 

Maine,  The,  198. 
Manila  Bay,  23S. 

Meditations   of   Columbia,    1876,   The,    164. 
Memorial  Day,  205. 
Men  Behind  the  Guns,  The,  224. 
Monterey,  324. 
My  Country,  43. 
My  Country,  'Tis  of  Thee,  341. 

New  Memorial  Day,  The,  225. 
New  York  Day  at  the  World's  Fair,  76. 
Nobility  of  Labor,  The,  383. 

Observations  on   the    Character   of   Colum- 
bus, 158. 

0  Captain,  My  Captain,  291. 

Old  Flag  Forever,  10,  321. 

Our  Country,  375. 

Our  Country  and  Flag,  309. 

Our  Flag,  9. 

Our  Flag  is  There,  310. 

Our  Standing  Army,  22G. 

Our  State,  107. 


Palmetto  and  the  Pine,  The,  56. 

Patriotic  Pledges,  35. 

Patriotic  Poets,  Birthday  Programs: 
Longfellow,    152. 
Whittier,  152. 
Holmes,   153. 
Lowell,  153. 

Patriotism,  331. 

Patriot's  Elysium,  The,  340. 

Phantom  Army,  The,  27. 

Progress,  81. 


Red,  White  and  Blue,  The,  19. 
Restored  Union,  The,  55. 
Reveille,  66. 

Revolutionary  Alarm,  The,  170. 
Right  of  the  Line,  The,  20. 
Rising  in  1776,  The,  116. 


Sailing  of  the  Fleet,  200. 

Salute  the  Flag,  321. 

Saluting  the  Flag,  31. 

Santa  Filomena,  70. 

School,  The,  47. 

School,  Liberty's  Safeguard,  The,  47. 

Sea,  The.  91. 

Shield,   The,   135. 

Ship  of  State,  The,  91,  348. 

Soldier  Boy,  The,  223. 

Song  for  Independence,  358. 

Song  of  the  Camp,  The,  64. 

Song  of  the  Flag,  A,  30. 

Songs  of  Labor,  Selections  from,   384. 

Speech  at  Transfer  of  Flags,  36. 

Stars  in  My  Country's  Sky  —  Are  ye  All 

There?,  137. 
Stars,  The,  11. 

Star-Spangled  Banner,  The.  320. 
Stripes  and  the  Stars,  The,  308. 
Suggestions  to  Teachers,  xi. 
Sword,  The,  115. 



The  Minute  Man,  143. 

Departure  and  Return  of  the  States,  146. 

The  March  of  the  Flags.  150. 

The  Army  and  Navy,  150. 

Homage  to  Columbia,  151. 
True  Fame,  234. 
True  Patriot,  The,  135. 
Two  Flags,  The,  325. 


Uncover  to  the  Flag,  32. 
Unfurl   Our   Standards  High,  94. 
Union,  The,  359. 
Union  and  Liberty,  365. 
Universal  Education,  48. 




Vanquished,   194. 

Vision  of  Liberty,  The,   104. 

Vision  of  the  Stars,  A,  16. 


Washington,  George,  248. 
Washington,  The  Birthday  of,  243. 

William  Tell's  Address  to  His  Native  Hills, 

Why  They  Called  Him  Leader,  195. 
Women  of  the  War,  71. 
Work-shop  and  the  Camp,  The,  387. 


Yorktown  Lesson,  The,  180. 



America,   3. 

American   Flag,  The,   303. 

Angel  of  Peace,  121. 


Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic,  139. 
Breaking  Waves  Dashed  High,  The,  165. 


Camp  Flag,  The,  67. 
Centennial  Hymn,  79. 
Columbus,   159. 


Dewey  at  Manila  Bay,  203. 


Flag  of  the  Free,  317. 


God   Speed   the  Right,  265. 
Good  Comrade,  The,  73. 


Heroes'  Greeting,  The,  217. 
Home,  Sweet  Home,  39. 

Independence  Day,   174. 
In  Memoriam,  227. 

Land  of  Washington,  The,  181. 
Laus   Deo,   297. 
Liberty  Bell,  The,   109. 
Liberty  Cap,  The,  97. 

Man  for  Me,  The,  289. 
Many  Flags  in  Many  Lands,  83. 
Memorial  Day,  Song  for,  207. 
My  Country,  'Tis  of  Thee,  327. 


Ocean-Guarded  Flag,   The.   90. 

Ode  for  Washington's  Birthday,  255. 

O   Starry  Flag  of  Union,   Hail,  57. 

Our  Flag,  311. 

Our  Own  Dear  Land,  89. 


Red,  White  and  Blue,  The,  23. 
Remembered,   239. 

Schoolhouse  and  the  Flag,  The,  45. 
See,  the  Conquering  Hero  Comes,  191. 
Song   for   Memorial   Day,    207. 
Star  of  Freedom,  The,   53. 
Star-Spangled   Banner,   The,    13. 
Sword  of  Bunker  Hill,  The,   119. 


Three  Cheers  for  the  Olden  Time,  173. 


Waving  Flag,  The,   33. 
Where  the  Eagle  Is  King,  131. 



Adams,   John,   246,   248. 
Adams,    Samuel,    378. 
Adams,   Susan   J.,   210. 
American  Naval  Officer,  1812,  310. 
Ames,    Fisher,    334. 
Andrew,  Gov.,  212,  270. 
Arthur,   Chester   A.,    183. 
Atlantic  Monthly,  209. 


"Bailey,  Lansing  C,   233. 
Ballard,  II.  O,   270. 
Bancroft,    George,    170. 
Beck,   Henry   T.,    302. 
Beecher,  Henry  Ward,    189,  215,   305, 
Benjamin,  Charles  L.,  10. 
Bennett,  H.  H.,  323. 
Black,  Frank  S.,  282. 
Blaine,   James   G.,   177. 
Boardman,  Henry  A.,  375. 
Boker,  George  Henry,  28,  105. 
Bradshaw,   Wellesley,   219. 
Bright,  John,  272. 
Brooks,  Elbridge  S.,   379. 
Brooks,  James  G.,  244. 
Brooks,  Phillips,  273,  276. 
Brown,    John   Mason,   209. 
Browne,   Francis   F.,   194. 
Browning,    Robert,    61. 
Bryce,  James,  244. 
Bunner,    H.    C,    321. 
Burns,  Robert,   388. 
Butterworth,  Hezekiah,  260,  375. 


Caldwell,  W.  W.,  380. 
Calhoun,  John  C,  222,  354,  376. 
Carroll,  Archbishop  John,  244. 
Cary,   Phoebe,    302,    375. 
Castelar,  Emilio,  272,  274. 
Channing,  William  E.,  250. 
Chapin,  E.  A.,  211. 


Cheverton,   E.   C,   32. 
Choate,  Rufus,  247,  260. 
Clay,    Henry,    210,    377. 
Cleveland,  Grover,  247. 
Coles,  Abraham,  246. 
Collins,  William,  26,  231. 
Conkling,    Roscoe,    378. 
Cooper,   Peter,    271. 
Corliss,    C.   P.,   270. 
Cowper,  William,  135. 
Cranch,   Christopher  P.,  244. 
Crawford,  F.  Marion,  315,  381. 
Curtis,  George  William,  71,   145,   171,  210, 
214,  229,  230,  261,  334,  337,  347,  349,  363. 
Cutler,  George  Washington,  138. 


Dale,  H.  W.,  270. 

Dana,   Charles  A,  273,  278,  279,  280,  353. 

Dawes,  Henry  L.,  270. 

Deems,  Charles  F.,  261. 

De   Kay,   C,    194. 

Dekker,  Thomas,  383. 

Dennison,   Frederic,   302. 

Depew,    Chauncey    M.,    48,    162,    231,    274, 

285,  347. 
Devens,  Charles,  212. 
Dewey,  Orville,  336,  388. 
Dickinson,  Daniel  S.,  306,  375,  376. 
Douglass,  Frederick,   271. 
Dowd,  Emma   C,   246. 
Drake,  J.  Rodman,   316. 
Draper,  Andrew  S.,  277,  345. 
Dwight,   John   Sullivan,   342. 
Dwyer,   J.   Henry,   210. 
Dyer,  Arthur,  379. 
Dyer,  Sidney,  272. 


Edwards,  Richard,  347. 

Emerson,  Ralph  Waldo,  144,  170,  222,  274. 

Everett,   Edward,    167,   211,   234,   244,   240, 

251,  305,  335,  368. 
Everett,  Homer,  209. 



Field,  David  Dudley,  343. 
Fields,  James  T.,  378. 
Finch,   Francis  Miles,    146,   220. 
Fiske,  John,  257. 
Flower,  Roswell  P.,  81. 
Foote,  Kate,   319. 
Ford,  Paul  Leicester,  261. 
Foster,  Charles,  271. 
Franklin,    Benjamin,   244. 
Frelinghuysen,    Theodore,   271. 
Frye,  William  P.,  136. 
Fuller,    Melville,    247. 
Furness,  William  E.,  215. 


Gallagher,  W.  D.,   378. 

Garfield,  James  A.,  271,  362,  369,  378. 

G.  A.  K.  Report,  331,  332. 

Gilder,  Richard  Watson,  211. 

Gilmore,   P.   S.,    377. 

Gladstone,  William  Ewart,  244,  378. 

Godwin,  Parke,  380. 

Gordan,  Cornelia  M.,  209. 

Gordon,  John  B.,  211,  362. 

Gould,  Hannah,  246. 

Gould,  Jennie,  302. 

Grady,  Henry  W.,  42,  52,  148,  234,  275,  348. 

Grant,  Ulysses  S.,  212,  213,  214,  222,  270, 

286,  380. 
Gratton,  Sir  Henry,  244. 
Gray,  Asa,  270. 
Gray,  Thomas,  383. 
Greeley,  Adolphus,  15. 
Green,  John  Richard,  244,  259. 
Griffis,    William    E.,   346. 
Grimke,   Thomas  S.,   333. 
Grow,  Galusha  A.,  326. 
Guenther,  Richard,  371. 
Guizot,  Francois,  P.  G.,  244. 


Hale,  Edward  Everett,  246,  339. 
Hale,  Sarah  J.,  377. 
Halpine,  Charles  G.,  296. 
Hamilton,  Alexander,  245,  376. 
Harper's  Magazine,  211. 
Harrison,  Benjamin,  15,  307,  335,  371. 
Harte,  Bret,  27. 
Herbert,  Hilary  A.,  376. 
Hesperian,  43. 

H.  E.  W.,  Jr.,  238. 

Higginson,  Thomas  Wentworth,  209. 

Hoar,   George  F.,  246,  370,  375. 

Hoffman,  Charles  F.,  324. 

Holmes,  Oliver  Wendell,  271,  302,  315,  357, 

Howard,  O.  O.,  270. 
Howells,  William  Dean,  272. 
Hunt,  Helen,  215. 


Ingersoll,  Robert  G.,  26,  102,  213,  287,  288, 

352,   355,  356,   367. 
Ireland,  Rt.  Rev.  John,  77. 
Irving,  Washington,  158,  246. 


Jackson,  Andrew,  377,  378. 
Janvier,  Francis  De  Hass,  245. 
Jay,    John,    246. 
Jefferson,  Thomas,  248,  250,  381. 
Johnson,  Reverdy,  375. 

Kasson,  John  Adams,  380. 

Kent,  D.  H.,  212. 

Key,  Francis  Scott,  320,  377. 

King,  Thomas  Starr,  247,  340,  380. 

Kiser,  S.  E.,  223. 

Knowlss,  J.  Sheridan,  102. 

Lafayette,  Marquis  de,  378. 

Lamartine,  A.  M.  L.  de,  245. 

Lanier,  Sidney,  164,  382. 

Larcom,  Lucy,  313. 

Lasker,  Raphael,  343. 

Lecky,  William  E.  H.,  259. 

Lee,  Henry,  245. 

Legare,  Hugh  S.,   346,  355. 

Leggett,  William,  244,  375. 

Lewis,  Alonzo,  65. 

Lieber,  Francis,  377. 

Lincoln,  Abraham,  233,  244,  252,  307,  309, 

333,  337,  341,  351,  357,  361,  364,  372. 
Lodge,  Henry  Cabot,  198,  245,  251,  260,  335, 

338,  372. 
Longfellow,  Henry  Wadsworth,  70,  91,  127, 

Lowe,   Charles,  270. 
Lowell,  James  Russell,  247,  276,  292,  340, 





Madison,   James,   370. 

Marion,   Francis,   50. 

Martin,   G.,   271. 

Matthews,    Stanley,   271. 

McClellan,  George  B.,  222. 

McDowell,  J.,  344. 

McDuffie,  George,  378. 

McElrov,  Win.  H.,  21,  81. 

McKinley,  William,  56,   198,  199,  224,  283. 

284,  285,  286,  344,  364. 
McMaster,  Guy  Humphrey,  262. 
Meagher,  Thomas  Francis,  118,  346. 
Merrill,  Samuel  P.,  234. 
Miles,  Nelson  A.,  379. 
Mitchell,  George  S.,  209. 
Montgomery,  James,  340. 
Morgan,  Thomas  J.,  355. 
Morton,  Oliver  P.,  362. 
Morris,  Gouverneur,  245. 
Moulton,  Louise  Chandler,  176. 
Murphy,  John  A.,  211. 

Naylor,  Charles,  385,  386. 
New,  John  C,  270. 
Newman,  John  P.,  282. 
New  York  Tribune,  200. 
Nicholas,  Czar  of  Russia,  375. 

O'Connor,  Joseph,  76. 
O'Connor,   Michael,   66. 
O'Gorman,  Richard,   177. 
O'Hara,  Theodore,   28,   216. 
O'Reilly,  John  Boyle,  167,  376. 
Orleans,  Louis  Philippe,  Due  d',  272. 
Osgood,  Frances   S.,   386. 
Outlook,  The,   235. 


Paine,  Albert  Bigelow,  225. 

Paine,  Thomas,  244. 

Palgrave,  Francis  T.,  247. 

Parker,  I.  C,  379. 

Parker,  Theodore,  252,   381. 

Parkhurst,   Charles  H.,   339. 

Pease,  T.  C,  271. 

Percival,  James  Gates,  129. 

Peterson,   Henry,  271. 

Phillips,  Charles,  253. 

Phillips,  Wendell,  272,  367,  377. 

Pike,  Manley  1L,  56. 

Potter,  Henry  C,  234,  261,  294,  369. 

Porter,  Horace,   188,  248,  296. 

Porter,  M.  S.,  134. 

Power,  Thomas  F.,  210. 

Pray,  I.  C,  Jr.,  316. 

Proctor,  Edna  Dean,  308. 

Putnam,  George,  210. 


Ray,  George  W.,  281. 

Raymond,  R.  W.,    15,  321. 

Read,  T.  Buchanan,  18,  116,  315,  343. 

Ripley,  Mary  A.,  272. 

Robbins,  Asher,  249. 

Robinson,  Oscar  D.,  229.  347. 

Robinson,  William  E.,  309. 

Rochambeau,   Marquis  de,    183. 

Roche,  James  J.,  245. 

Rooney,  John  J.,  224. 

Roosevelt,  Theodore,  92,  115,  224,  231,  276, 

368,  370,  371,  376. 
Rosenburg,  C.  G.,  245. 
Ross,  Lawrence  Sullivan,  219. 


Sangster,  Margaret  E.,  9. 

Sargent,  Epes,  381. 

Saxton,   Charles  T.,   338. 

Schurz,  Carl,  247,  351. 

Scott,  Sir  Walter,  88,  342,  383. 

Scott,  W.  H.,  36. 

Seward,  William  H.,  245. 

Sewell,  Jonathan  M.,   376. 

Shakespeare,   William,   302,   375,   383. 

Shaw,  Albert  D.,  322. 

Shaw,  David  T.,  313. 

Shelley,  Percy  Bysshe,  245. 

Sheridan,  George  A.,  211. 

Sheridan,  Philip,   195. 

Sherman,  James  S.,  282. 

Sherman,  John,   379. 

Sherman,  William  Tecumseh,  195,  210,  270, 

271,  377. 
Sherwood,  Kate  D.,  379. 
Sherwood,  Kate  M.  B.,  272. 
Shoemaker,   William   L.,    376. 
Sigourney,  Lydia  Huntley,  137. 
Simpson,  Matthew,  271. 
Skinner,  Charles  R.,  viii,  48,  49,  349. 
Smith,  Dexter,   314. 



Smith,  Samuel  Francis,  47,  341. 

Southey,  Robert,  244. 

Sparks,   Jared,   252. 

Spofford,  Harriet  Prescott,  319. 

Stanton,   Frank  L.,   10,  230,   321. 

Stephens,  Alexander  H.,  273,  293. 

Stockton,  Commodore,  236. 

Stoddard,  Richard  Henry,  291. 

Street,   Alfred   B.,    133,    358. 

Strong,  Josiah,  377. 

Stryker,  M.  Woolsey,   30. 

Sumner,  Charles,  126,  247,  250,   270,   306. 

Sutton,  George  D.,  10. 

Swain,   Charles,   41. 

Swift,  John  L.,  235. 

Swing,  David,  272,  293. 

Taylor,  Bayard,  64,  178,  211. 

Taylor,  B.  F.,  113. 

Tennyson,  Alfred,  101,  133,  246,  357. 

Thackeray,  William  Makepeace,  245. 

Thompson,  C.  W.,  130. 

Thompson,  Hugh  S.,  381. 

Thompson,  Maurice  F.,  209,  292,  295,  380. 

Thurston,   John   H.,   214. 

Thurston,  John  M.,  62,  280,  382. 

Towle,  Henry  M.,  259. 

Trowbridge,  John  T.,  272. 

Twitchell,  Joseph  IL,  209. 

Vandegrift,  Margaret,  226. 
Van  Dusen,  I.  D.,  379. 

Vaughan,  Virginia,  202. 
Voorhees,  Daniel   W.,   232. 

Waite,  Morrison  R.,  270. 
Ware,  Henry,  Jr.,  104. 
Warner,  Charles  Dudley,  75,  270. 
Warren,  Owen  Grenliffe,  94. 
Washington,    George,    334,    359,    360,    366, 

370,  377. 
Washington,  Mary,  245. 
Washington  Star,  294. 
Waterbury,  S.  L.,   15,  315. 
Watterson,  Henry,  55,  361. 
Webster,    Daniel,    52,    175,    177,    246,    249, 

336,    352.    353,   354,    359,    360,    363,    375, 

Whitman,   Walt,   291. 
Whittier,    John    Greenleaf     107,    126,    273, 

345,  376,  378,   384. 
Willard,  Frances  E.,  325. 
Williams,  Thomas,  302. 
Wilson,  John  D.,  200. 
Wilson,  William  L.,  377. 
Winship,   Albert   E.,   380. 
Winter,  William,   232. 
Winthrop,    Robert    Charles,    149,    180,   257, 

262,  305,  379,  380,  381. 
Wise,  George  D.,  287. 
Wirt,  William,  249. 
W.  K.  W.,  xi,   16. 
Wolf,  Edmund  J.,  379. 
Wood,    Anson    S.,    236. 
Woodford,  Stewart  L.,  333,  369.